# The Theory of Birefringence

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Birefringence spectroscopy is the optical technique of measuring orientation in an optically anisotropic sample by measuring the retardation of polarized light passing through the sample. Birefringence makes use of the refractive index, n, of a material, as defined below. c n = = v speed of light in vacuo speed of light in sample The refractive index varies linearly with the polarizability of the bonds in the sample. The refractive index of a material can be broken down into 3 orthogonal refractive indices. For polymers, two of the indices are usually relevant. An example is shown in Figure 1. For the polystyrene example shown here, the refractive index parallel to the main chain encounters primarily C-C bonds, which do not have significant polarizability. Consequently, the refractive index n 1 is closer to 1. Light traveling perpendicular to the main chain will encounter the double bonds in the phenyl group, which will retard the light more, leading to a larger refractive index n 2. Figure 1: Polystyrene repeat unit, showing two principle refractive indices. The refractive index parallel to the molecules backbone, n 1, is smaller than the refractive index perpendicular to the backbone, n 2. Birefringence 1 2 n' is defined as the difference between the refractive indices in two planes, or n' = n n (1) When molecules are lying in with no specific orientation, the backbone of the molecules will be pointing in all directions, and no net refractive index can be observed, as shown in Figure 2. In order for a sample to exhibit birefringence, three criteria must be met: 1. There must be a non-zero difference in two of the refractive indices of the sample (equation 1) 2. There must be a net orientation in the sample to yield a primary refractive index in the sample. 3. The optics used to view the sample must be oriented correctly (see below).

2 Figure 2: Two samples with different degrees of orientation. A: random orientation, exhibiting no birefringence. B: orientation, exhibiting birefringence. In order to view the birefringence in an aligned sample, polarized light must be used. A typical optical setup is shown in Figure 3. It is important that the polarizer is oriented so that it is neither parallel nor perpendicular to the principle axis of the sample, as will be discussed further. Figure 3: Randomly oriented light passes through a polarizer, which yields plane-polarized light with a principle axis shown with the blue arrow. The polarized light passes through the oriented sample, which partially rotates the light. The light then enters the analyzer, which is oriented 90º to the polarizer. Only the portion of the light that is parallel to the analyzer axis emerges on the other side of the analyzer. To understand how the light is rotated by the sample in the schematic diagram in Figure 3, it is necessary to decouple the light beam into orthogonal vectors based on the axis of the refractive index of the sample. An example of this decoupling is shown in Figure 4. The amplitude of the emerging Ax is measured as a light intensity with an optical detector. The results for a specific sample are usually reported in terms of the retardation δ. A graphical representation of the retardation is shown in Figure 5. Retardation is usually reported in degree ranging from 0-360º. As shown in Figure 5, the amount of retardation is dependent on the thickness of the sample, as well as the birefringence of the sample and the wavelength of the light, λ. The retardation is defined in terms of these parameters as: 2 π n ' δ = (2) λ The measured light intensity I for a birefringence measurement is computed from the following equation: I = I θ δ (3) sin (2 )sin ( / 2) where I 0 is the intensity of light emerging from the polarizer. As equation 3 indicates, the measured intensity is zero for θ = nπ (n=0, 1, 2 ) and for δ = 2nπ (n=0, 1, 2 ).

3 Figure 4: Rotation path of light interacting with sample. The principle axes are aligned with the refractive indices of the sample (n 1 and n 2 ). The initial polarizer is oriented at an angle θ relative to the principle axes (A), so that the light (blue arrow) enters the sample at an angle θ (Β). The light beam can be decoupled into two orthogonal vectors E1 and E2 based on the principle axes of the sample. The vector E1 is retarded by the refractive index n 1, and vector E2 is retarded by the refractive index n 2. In this example, the light is retarded more in n 1 than in n 2, so resulting in the new vectors E1 and E2, and the new light angle α. The rotated polarized light beam now meets the analyzer, which is rotated 90º to the polarizer, and again is decoupled into two orthogonal vectors Ax and Ay on the analyzer axes. Only the light vector Ax will pass through the analyzer; Ay is blocked. The amplitude of Ax is a function of the angle θ and the birefringence in the sample.

4 Figure 5: Decoupled light waves entering sample. The wave component parallel to n 2 is slowed down, or retarded, more than the wave component parallel to n 1 by the amount δ, which is the retardation. The greater the thickness of the sample d, the greater the retardation. Growing Crystallites Crystalline material is usually highly birefringent due the large degree of ordering, and hence anisotropy, in their structure. Birefringence measurements can be used to assess if crystallinity is present in a material, and to monitor the growth of crystals from either a melt or a solution. All that is necessary to perform such an experiment is a set of polarizers, an optical microscope, and a crystallizing material. For melts work, a hot stage is also needed. A common undergraduate birefringence experiment is measuring the kinetics of crystallization in polypropylene, which is a semi-crystalline polymer. Polypropylene crystals form by chain folding, as shown in Figure 6. The folded chains grow in radially from a nucleation point, creating a 3 dimensional spherulite. When observed under crossed polarizers (i.e. oriented 90º to each other), a classic Maltese Cross pattern emerges, as shown in Figure 7. The dark regions correspond to where either the axis of the polarizer or analyzer is oriented parallel to the principle axis of a chain fold. Figure 6: Schematic diagram of a spherulite of polypropylene, showing the large scale structure (left), the chain folding (middle), and the molecular level polymer structure in the folds (right).

5 Figure 7: Maltese cross pattern formed in polypropylene crystallized from the melt.

### How can I tell what the polarization axis is for a linear polarizer?

How can I tell what the polarization axis is for a linear polarizer? The axis of a linear polarizer determines the plane of polarization that the polarizer passes. There are two ways of finding the axis

### X-Ray Diffraction. wavelength Electric field of light

Light is composed of electromagnetic radiation with an electric component that modulates versus time perpendicular to the direction it is travelling (the magnetic component is also perpendicular to the

### Crystal Optics of Visible Light

Crystal Optics of Visible Light This can be a very helpful aspect of minerals in understanding the petrographic history of a rock. The manner by which light is transferred through a mineral is a means

### POLARIZED LIGHT MICROSCOPE EXAMINATIONS OF ORIENTED POLYMER FILMS

POLARIZED LIGHT MICROSCOPE EXAMINATIONS OF ORIENTED POLYMER FILMS Jenny M. Smith, Criminalist, Missouri State Highway Patrol Crime Lab, Jefferson City, MO Introduction: Much can be gained in the examination

### THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY

Chapter 11 THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY 111 Overview 1111 Direction cosines of a line are the cosines of the angles made by the line with positive directions of the co-ordinate axes 111 If l, m, n are the

### Polarization of Light

Polarization of Light References Halliday/Resnick/Walker Fundamentals of Physics, Chapter 33, 7 th ed. Wiley 005 PASCO EX997A and EX999 guide sheets (written by Ann Hanks) weight Exercises and weights

### DETERMINING THE POLARIZATION STATE OF THE RADIATION CROSSING THROUGH AN ANISOTROPIC POLY (VINYL ALCOHOL) FILM

DETERMINING THE POLARIZATION STATE OF THE RADIATION CROSSING THROUGH AN ANISOTROPIC POLY (VINYL ALCOHOL) FILM ECATERINA AURICA ANGHELUTA Faculty of Physics,,,Al.I. Cuza University, 11 Carol I Bd., RO-700506,

### MODELING AND MEASURING THE POLARIZATION OF LIGHT:

MODELING AND MEASURING THE POLARIZATION OF LIGHT: FROM JONES MATRICES TO ELLIPSOMETRY OVERALL GOALS The Polarization of Light lab strongly emphasizes connecting mathematical formalism with measurable results.

### Stress and Deformation Analysis. Representing Stresses on a Stress Element. Representing Stresses on a Stress Element con t

Stress and Deformation Analysis Material in this lecture was taken from chapter 3 of Representing Stresses on a Stress Element One main goals of stress analysis is to determine the point within a load-carrying

### Refraction of Light at a Plane Surface. Object: To study the refraction of light from water into air, at a plane surface.

Refraction of Light at a Plane Surface Object: To study the refraction of light from water into air, at a plane surface. Apparatus: Refraction tank, 6.3 V power supply. Theory: The travel of light waves

### Electron density is complex!

Electron density is complex! Göttingen, November 13 th 2008 George M. Sheldrick, Göttingen University http://shelx.uni-ac.gwdg.de/shelx/ Friedel s Law F h,k,l = F h, k, l and φ h,k,l = φ h, k, l Friedel

### Automatic and Objective Measurement of Residual Stress and Cord in Glass

Automatic and Objective Measurement of Residual Stress and Cord in Glass GlassTrend - ICG TC15/21 Seminar SENSORS AND PROCESS CONTROL 13-14 October 2015, Eindhoven Henning Katte, ilis gmbh copyright ilis

### The excitation in Raman spectroscopy is usually. Practical Group Theory and Raman Spectroscopy, Part II: Application of Polarization

Electronically reprinted from March 214 Molecular Spectroscopy Workbench Practical Group Theory and Raman Spectroscopy, Part II: Application of Polarization In this second installment of a two-part series

### Polarization Optics Tutorial: Polarizers, Waveplates, Rotators, and Lyot Filters 2005 Ray Williamson Ray Williamson Consulting

Polarization Optics Tutorial: Polarizers, Waveplates, Rotators, and Lyot Filters 2005 Ray Williamson Ray Williamson Consulting www.ray-optics.com Introduction We will discuss polarized light; some of the

### BCM 6200 - Protein crystallography - I. Crystal symmetry X-ray diffraction Protein crystallization X-ray sources SAXS

BCM 6200 - Protein crystallography - I Crystal symmetry X-ray diffraction Protein crystallization X-ray sources SAXS Elastic X-ray Scattering From classical electrodynamics, the electric field of the electromagnetic

### Algebra II: Strand 7. Conic Sections; Topic 1. Intersection of a Plane and a Cone; Task 7.1.2

1 TASK 7.1.2: THE CONE AND THE INTERSECTING PLANE Solutions 1. What is the equation of a cone in the 3-dimensional coordinate system? x 2 + y 2 = z 2 2. Describe the different ways that a plane could intersect

### Interference. Physics 102 Workshop #3. General Instructions

Interference Physics 102 Workshop #3 Name: Lab Partner(s): Instructor: Time of Workshop: General Instructions Workshop exercises are to be carried out in groups of three. One report per group is due by

### Structure Factors 59-553 78

78 Structure Factors Until now, we have only typically considered reflections arising from planes in a hypothetical lattice containing one atom in the asymmetric unit. In practice we will generally deal

### Bending of Beams with Unsymmetrical Sections

Bending of Beams with Unsmmetrical Sections Assume that CZ is a neutral ais. C = centroid of section Hence, if > 0, da has negative stress. From the diagram below, we have: δ = α and s = αρ and δ ε = =

### Acousto-Optic Modulation

AN0510 Acousto-Optic Modulation Acousto-optic devices are primarily used for controlling laser beams. This includes Modulators, Deflectors, Tuneable Filters, Frequency Shifters and Q-switches. The basic

### Understanding astigmatism Spring 2003

MAS450/854 Understanding astigmatism Spring 2003 March 9th 2003 Introduction Spherical lens with no astigmatism Crossed cylindrical lenses with astigmatism Horizontal focus Vertical focus Plane of sharpest

### Lecture 14: Section 3.3

Lecture 14: Section 3.3 Shuanglin Shao October 23, 2013 Definition. Two nonzero vectors u and v in R n are said to be orthogonal (or perpendicular) if u v = 0. We will also agree that the zero vector in

### 5. Reflection, refraction and polarization

5. Reflection, refraction and polarization Figure 5.1 illustrates what happens when electromagnetic radiation encounters a smooth interface between dielectric media. We see two phenomena: reflection and

### An Overview of Optical Components

An Overview of Optical Components For over 40 years, Boston Piezo-Optics specialists have been selecting appropriate quality and cuts of crystal quartz and sapphire for a wide variety of applications.

### WAVELENGTH OF LIGHT - DIFFRACTION GRATING

PURPOSE In this experiment we will use the diffraction grating and the spectrometer to measure wavelengths in the mercury spectrum. THEORY A diffraction grating is essentially a series of parallel equidistant

### Group Theory and Chemistry

Group Theory and Chemistry Outline: Raman and infra-red spectroscopy Symmetry operations Point Groups and Schoenflies symbols Function space and matrix representation Reducible and irreducible representation

### Spectroscopic Ellipsometry:

Spectroscopic : What it is, what it will do, and what it won t do by Harland G. Tompkins Introduction Fundamentals Anatomy of an ellipsometric spectrum Analysis of an ellipsometric spectrum What you can

### Figure 1.1 Vector A and Vector F

CHAPTER I VECTOR QUANTITIES Quantities are anything which can be measured, and stated with number. Quantities in physics are divided into two types; scalar and vector quantities. Scalar quantities have

### CHARGE TO MASS RATIO OF THE ELECTRON

CHARGE TO MASS RATIO OF THE ELECTRON In solving many physics problems, it is necessary to use the value of one or more physical constants. Examples are the velocity of light, c, and mass of the electron,

### Class XI Chapter 5 Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations Maths. Exercise 5.1. Page 1 of 34

Question 1: Exercise 5.1 Express the given complex number in the form a + ib: Question 2: Express the given complex number in the form a + ib: i 9 + i 19 Question 3: Express the given complex number in

### Math 215 HW #6 Solutions

Math 5 HW #6 Solutions Problem 34 Show that x y is orthogonal to x + y if and only if x = y Proof First, suppose x y is orthogonal to x + y Then since x, y = y, x In other words, = x y, x + y = (x y) T

### Physics 10. Lecture 29A. "There are two ways of spreading light: to be the candle or the mirror that reflects it." --Edith Wharton

Physics 10 Lecture 29A "There are two ways of spreading light: to be the candle or the mirror that reflects it." --Edith Wharton Converging Lenses What if we wanted to use refraction to converge parallel

### Thomson and Rayleigh Scattering

Thomson and Rayleigh Scattering Initial questions: What produces the shapes of emission and absorption lines? What information can we get from them regarding the environment or other conditions? In this

### Announcements. Dry Friction

Announcements Dry Friction Today s Objectives Understand the characteristics of dry friction Draw a FBD including friction Solve problems involving friction Class Activities Applications Characteristics

### Physics 9e/Cutnell. correlated to the. College Board AP Physics 1 Course Objectives

Physics 9e/Cutnell correlated to the College Board AP Physics 1 Course Objectives Big Idea 1: Objects and systems have properties such as mass and charge. Systems may have internal structure. Enduring

### ELEMENTS OF VECTOR ALGEBRA

ELEMENTS OF VECTOR ALGEBRA A.1. VECTORS AND SCALAR QUANTITIES We have now proposed sets of basic dimensions and secondary dimensions to describe certain aspects of nature, but more than just dimensions

### Meadowlark Optics LCPM-3000 Liquid Crystal Polarimeter Application Note: Determination of Retardance by Polarimetry Tommy Drouillard

Meadowlark Optics LCPM- Liquid Crystal Polarieter Application Note: Deterination of Retardance by Polarietry Toy Drouillard 5 Meadowlark Optics, Inc.. Introduction: The iediate purpose of a polarieter

### 5.3 The Cross Product in R 3

53 The Cross Product in R 3 Definition 531 Let u = [u 1, u 2, u 3 ] and v = [v 1, v 2, v 3 ] Then the vector given by [u 2 v 3 u 3 v 2, u 3 v 1 u 1 v 3, u 1 v 2 u 2 v 1 ] is called the cross product (or

### Exam 1 Sample Question SOLUTIONS. y = 2x

Exam Sample Question SOLUTIONS. Eliminate the parameter to find a Cartesian equation for the curve: x e t, y e t. SOLUTION: You might look at the coordinates and notice that If you don t see it, we can

### Measuring the Refractive Index of Infrared Materials by Dual-Wavelength Fabry-Perot Interferometry. A Senior Project. presented to

Measuring the Refractive Index of Infrared Materials by Dual-Wavelength Fabry-Perot Interferometry A Senior Project presented to the Faculty of the Physics Department California Polytechnic State University,

### OPTICAL MINERALOGY. Mickey E. Gunter Department of Geology and Geological Engineering University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho

1 OPTICAL MINERALOGY Mickey E. Gunter Department of Geology and Geological Engineering University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho I. Light II. Polarizing light microscope and geological samples III. Refractive

### Introduction to polarization of light

Chapter 2 Introduction to polarization of light This Chapter treats the polarization of electromagnetic waves. In Section 2.1 the concept of light polarization is discussed and its Jones formalism is presented.

### Geometry of Vectors. 1 Cartesian Coordinates. Carlo Tomasi

Geometry of Vectors Carlo Tomasi This note explores the geometric meaning of norm, inner product, orthogonality, and projection for vectors. For vectors in three-dimensional space, we also examine the

### MAT 1341: REVIEW II SANGHOON BAEK

MAT 1341: REVIEW II SANGHOON BAEK 1. Projections and Cross Product 1.1. Projections. Definition 1.1. Given a vector u, the rectangular (or perpendicular or orthogonal) components are two vectors u 1 and

### HW 10. = 3.3 GPa (483,000 psi)

HW 10 Problem 15.1 Elastic modulus and tensile strength of poly(methyl methacrylate) at room temperature [20 C (68 F)]. Compare these with the corresponding values in Table 15.1. Figure 15.3 is accurate;

### Optical Storage Technology. Optical Disc Storage

Optical Storage Technology Optical Disc Storage Introduction Since the early 1940s, magnetic recording has been the mainstay of electronic information storage worldwide. Magnetic tape has been used extensively

### The Stern-Gerlach Experiment

Chapter The Stern-Gerlach Experiment Let us now talk about a particular property of an atom, called its magnetic dipole moment. It is simplest to first recall what an electric dipole moment is. Consider

### Near-field scanning optical microscopy (SNOM)

Adviser: dr. Maja Remškar Institut Jožef Stefan January 2010 1 2 3 4 5 6 Fluorescence Raman and surface enhanced Raman 7 Conventional optical microscopy-limited resolution Two broad classes of techniques

### MATH 304 Linear Algebra Lecture 24: Scalar product.

MATH 304 Linear Algebra Lecture 24: Scalar product. Vectors: geometric approach B A B A A vector is represented by a directed segment. Directed segment is drawn as an arrow. Different arrows represent

### An introduction to circular dichroism spectroscopy

An introduction to circular dichroism spectroscopy Circular dichroism (CD) is the difference in the absorption of left handed circularly polarised light (L CPL) and right handed circularly polarised light

### Frequency Doubling and Second Order Nonlinear Optics

Frequency Doubling and Second Order Nonlinear Optics Paul M. Petersen DTU Fotonik, Risø campus Technical University of Denmark, Denmark (email: paul.michael.petersen@risoe.dk) Outline of the talk The first

### 0.1 Dielectric Slab Waveguide

0.1 Dielectric Slab Waveguide At high frequencies (especially optical frequencies) the loss associated with the induced current in the metal walls is too high. A transmission line filled with dielectric

### X-ray Crystallography Lectures

X-ray Crystallography Lectures 1. Biological imaging by X-ray diffraction. An overview. 2. Crystals. Growth, physical properties and diffraction. 3. Working in reciprocal space. X-ray intensity data collection

### Unified Lecture # 4 Vectors

Fall 2005 Unified Lecture # 4 Vectors These notes were written by J. Peraire as a review of vectors for Dynamics 16.07. They have been adapted for Unified Engineering by R. Radovitzky. References [1] Feynmann,

### Piezo Technologies - Technical Resource Paper

in Piezoceramic Materials One can think of a piezoceramic as a rock which generates electrical current if squeezed and which moves if driven by an electrical current. For these wonderful properties to

### Fall 12 PHY 122 Homework Solutions #8

Fall 12 PHY 122 Homework Solutions #8 Chapter 27 Problem 22 An electron moves with velocity v= (7.0i - 6.0j)10 4 m/s in a magnetic field B= (-0.80i + 0.60j)T. Determine the magnitude and direction of the

### 2 Session Two - Complex Numbers and Vectors

PH2011 Physics 2A Maths Revision - Session 2: Complex Numbers and Vectors 1 2 Session Two - Complex Numbers and Vectors 2.1 What is a Complex Number? The material on complex numbers should be familiar

### Mechanics lecture 7 Moment of a force, torque, equilibrium of a body

G.1 EE1.el3 (EEE1023): Electronics III Mechanics lecture 7 Moment of a force, torque, equilibrium of a body Dr Philip Jackson http://www.ee.surrey.ac.uk/teaching/courses/ee1.el3/ G.2 Moments, torque and

### Has profound implications for the efficiency with which non-linear light is generated!

Non-Linear Optics Lecture 3: Achieving Phase Matching Learning goals By the end of this lecture you should: Show that we can use refractive index ellipsoids to define particular directions for phase matching.

### Solving Equations Involving Parallel and Perpendicular Lines Examples

Solving Equations Involving Parallel and Perpendicular Lines Examples. The graphs of y = x, y = x, and y = x + are lines that have the same slope. They are parallel lines. Definition of Parallel Lines

### Lecture L3 - Vectors, Matrices and Coordinate Transformations

S. Widnall 16.07 Dynamics Fall 2009 Lecture notes based on J. Peraire Version 2.0 Lecture L3 - Vectors, Matrices and Coordinate Transformations By using vectors and defining appropriate operations between

### Section 1.4. Lines, Planes, and Hyperplanes. The Calculus of Functions of Several Variables

The Calculus of Functions of Several Variables Section 1.4 Lines, Planes, Hyperplanes In this section we will add to our basic geometric understing of R n by studying lines planes. If we do this carefully,

### Chapter 17. Orthogonal Matrices and Symmetries of Space

Chapter 17. Orthogonal Matrices and Symmetries of Space Take a random matrix, say 1 3 A = 4 5 6, 7 8 9 and compare the lengths of e 1 and Ae 1. The vector e 1 has length 1, while Ae 1 = (1, 4, 7) has length

### Chapter 11 Work. Chapter Goal: To develop a deeper understanding of energy and its conservation Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 11 Work Chapter Goal: To develop a deeper understanding of energy and its conservation. Motivation * * There are also ways to gain or lose energy that are thermal, but we will not study these in

### Time out states and transitions

Time out states and transitions Spectroscopy transitions between energy states of a molecule excited by absorption or emission of a photon hν = E = E i -E f Energy levels due to interactions between parts

### M n = (DP)m = (25,000)(104.14 g/mol) = 2.60! 10 6 g/mol

14.4 (a) Compute the repeat unit molecular weight of polystyrene. (b) Compute the number-average molecular weight for a polystyrene for which the degree of polymerization is 25,000. (a) The repeat unit

### AP Physics B Ch. 23 and Ch. 24 Geometric Optics and Wave Nature of Light

AP Physics B Ch. 23 and Ch. 24 Geometric Optics and Wave Nature of Light Name: Period: Date: MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Reflection,

### Polymers: Introduction

Chapter Outline: Polymer Structures Hydrocarbon and Polymer Molecules Chemistry of Polymer Molecules Molecular Weight and Shape Molecular Structure and Configurations Copolymers Polymer Crystals Optional

### Lecture L6 - Intrinsic Coordinates

S. Widnall, J. Peraire 16.07 Dynamics Fall 2009 Version 2.0 Lecture L6 - Intrinsic Coordinates In lecture L4, we introduced the position, velocity and acceleration vectors and referred them to a fixed

### Section 9.5: Equations of Lines and Planes

Lines in 3D Space Section 9.5: Equations of Lines and Planes Practice HW from Stewart Textbook (not to hand in) p. 673 # 3-5 odd, 2-37 odd, 4, 47 Consider the line L through the point P = ( x, y, ) that

### Solving Simultaneous Equations and Matrices

Solving Simultaneous Equations and Matrices The following represents a systematic investigation for the steps used to solve two simultaneous linear equations in two unknowns. The motivation for considering

### Equations Involving Lines and Planes Standard equations for lines in space

Equations Involving Lines and Planes In this section we will collect various important formulas regarding equations of lines and planes in three dimensional space Reminder regarding notation: any quantity

### 9 Multiplication of Vectors: The Scalar or Dot Product

Arkansas Tech University MATH 934: Calculus III Dr. Marcel B Finan 9 Multiplication of Vectors: The Scalar or Dot Product Up to this point we have defined what vectors are and discussed basic notation

### Chapter 4. Forces and Newton s Laws of Motion. continued

Chapter 4 Forces and Newton s Laws of Motion continued 4.9 Static and Kinetic Frictional Forces When an object is in contact with a surface forces can act on the objects. The component of this force acting

### VSEPR Model. The Valence-Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Model. Predicting Molecular Geometry

VSEPR Model The structure around a given atom is determined principally by minimizing electron pair repulsions. The Valence-Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Model The valence-shell electron pair repulsion

### AMPLITUDE AND FORCE PROFILING: STUDIES IN ULTRASONIC WELDING OF THERMOPLASTICS

AMPLITUDE AND FORCE PROFILING: STUDIES IN ULTRASONIC WELDING OF THERMOPLASTICS David A. Grewell Branson Ultrasonics Corporation ABSTRACT This paper reviews effects of amplitude and force control during

### Ajit Kumar Patra (Autor) Crystal structure, anisotropy and spin reorientation transition of highly coercive, epitaxial Pr-Co films

Ajit Kumar Patra (Autor) Crystal structure, anisotropy and spin reorientation transition of highly coercive, epitaxial Pr-Co films https://cuvillier.de/de/shop/publications/1306 Copyright: Cuvillier Verlag,

### Problem set on Cross Product

1 Calculate the vector product of a and b given that a= 2i + j + k and b = i j k (Ans 3 j - 3 k ) 2 Calculate the vector product of i - j and i + j (Ans ) 3 Find the unit vectors that are perpendicular

### PCV Project: Excitons in Molecular Spectroscopy

PCV Project: Excitons in Molecular Spectroscopy Introduction The concept of excitons was first introduced by Frenkel (1) in 1931 as a general excitation delocalization mechanism to account for the ability

### X-Ray Diffraction HOW IT WORKS WHAT IT CAN AND WHAT IT CANNOT TELL US. Hanno zur Loye

X-Ray Diffraction HOW IT WORKS WHAT IT CAN AND WHAT IT CANNOT TELL US Hanno zur Loye X-rays are electromagnetic radiation of wavelength about 1 Å (10-10 m), which is about the same size as an atom. The

### PHYSICAL PROPERTIES: GLASS. Forensic Science CC 30.07 Spring 2007 Prof. Nehru

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES: GLASS Physical vs. Chemical Properties The forensic scientist must constantly determine those properties that impart distinguishing characteristics to matter, giving it a unique identity.

### 10Spec TM 10 Degree Specular Reflectance Accessory

Installation and User Guide 10Spec TM 10 Degree Specular Reflectance Accessory The information in this publication is provided for reference only. All information contained in this publication is believed

### 12. CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY. Confocal microscopy can render depth-resolved slices through a 3D object by

12. CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY Confocal microscopy can render depth-resolved slices through a 3D object by rejecting much of the out of focus light via a pinhole. The image is reconstructed serially, i.e. point

### ENGINEERING METROLOGY

ENGINEERING METROLOGY ACADEMIC YEAR 92-93, SEMESTER ONE COORDINATE MEASURING MACHINES OPTICAL MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS; DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING ISFAHAN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Coordinate Measuring

### Geometric Camera Parameters

Geometric Camera Parameters What assumptions have we made so far? -All equations we have derived for far are written in the camera reference frames. -These equations are valid only when: () all distances

### Chapter 5 Polar Coordinates; Vectors 5.1 Polar coordinates 1. Pole and polar axis

Chapter 5 Polar Coordinates; Vectors 5.1 Polar coordinates 1. Pole and polar axis 2. Polar coordinates A point P in a polar coordinate system is represented by an ordered pair of numbers (r, θ). If r >

### Rotation: Moment of Inertia and Torque

Rotation: Moment of Inertia and Torque Every time we push a door open or tighten a bolt using a wrench, we apply a force that results in a rotational motion about a fixed axis. Through experience we learn

### Review Jeopardy. Blue vs. Orange. Review Jeopardy

Review Jeopardy Blue vs. Orange Review Jeopardy Jeopardy Round Lectures 0-3 Jeopardy Round \$200 How could I measure how far apart (i.e. how different) two observations, y 1 and y 2, are from each other?

### 10.5. Click here for answers. Click here for solutions. EQUATIONS OF LINES AND PLANES. 3x 4y 6z 9 4, 2, 5. x y z. z 2. x 2. y 1.

SECTION EQUATIONS OF LINES AND PLANES 1 EQUATIONS OF LINES AND PLANES A Click here for answers. S Click here for solutions. 1 Find a vector equation and parametric equations for the line passing through

### 13.4 THE CROSS PRODUCT

710 Chapter Thirteen A FUNDAMENTAL TOOL: VECTORS 62. Use the following steps and the results of Problems 59 60 to show (without trigonometry) that the geometric and algebraic definitions of the dot product

### Math 241, Exam 1 Information.

Math 241, Exam 1 Information. 9/24/12, LC 310, 11:15-12:05. Exam 1 will be based on: Sections 12.1-12.5, 14.1-14.3. The corresponding assigned homework problems (see http://www.math.sc.edu/ boylan/sccourses/241fa12/241.html)

### 2. Spin Chemistry and the Vector Model

2. Spin Chemistry and the Vector Model The story of magnetic resonance spectroscopy and intersystem crossing is essentially a choreography of the twisting motion which causes reorientation or rephasing

### 1. Units of a magnetic field might be: A. C m/s B. C s/m C. C/kg D. kg/c s E. N/C m ans: D

Chapter 28: MAGNETIC FIELDS 1 Units of a magnetic field might be: A C m/s B C s/m C C/kg D kg/c s E N/C m 2 In the formula F = q v B: A F must be perpendicular to v but not necessarily to B B F must be

### Chapter 10 - Liquids and Solids

Chapter 10 - Liquids and Solids 10.1 Intermolecular Forces A. Dipole-Dipole Forces 1. Attraction between molecules with dipole moments a. Maximizes (+) ----- ( - ) interactions b. Minimizes (+) ----- (

### A Guide to Acousto-Optic Modulators

A Guide to Acousto-Optic Modulators D. J. McCarron December 7, 2007 1 Introduction Acousto-optic modulators (AOMs) are useful devices which allow the frequency, intensity and direction of a laser beam

### * Biot Savart s Law- Statement, Proof Applications of Biot Savart s Law * Magnetic Field Intensity H * Divergence of B * Curl of B. PPT No.

* Biot Savart s Law- Statement, Proof Applications of Biot Savart s Law * Magnetic Field Intensity H * Divergence of B * Curl of B PPT No. 17 Biot Savart s Law A straight infinitely long wire is carrying

### Section V.4: Cross Product

Section V.4: Cross Product Definition The cross product of vectors A and B is written as A B. The result of the cross product A B is a third vector which is perpendicular to both A and B. (Because the

### EXPERIMENT O-6. Michelson Interferometer. Abstract. References. Pre-Lab

EXPERIMENT O-6 Michelson Interferometer Abstract A Michelson interferometer, constructed by the student, is used to measure the wavelength of He-Ne laser light and the index of refraction of a flat transparent