Child Safety Good Practice Guide: Good investments in unintentional child injury prevention and safety promotion Canadian Edition

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Child Safety Good Practice Guide: Good investments in unintentional child injury prevention and safety promotion Canadian Edition"

Transcription

1 Child Safety Good Practice Guide: Good investments in unintentional child injury prevention and safety promotion Canadian Edition

2 Safe Kids Canada 180 Dundas Street West, Suite 2105 Toronto ON M5G 1Z8 Office phone number: Information line: SAFE-TIP ( ) Safe Kids Canada s mission is to lead and inspire a culture of safety across the country in order to reduce unintentional injuries, the leading cause of death among children and youth in Canada. As a national leader, Safe Kids Canada uses a collaborative and innovative approach to develop partnerships, conduct research, raise awareness and advocate in order to prevent serious injuries among children, youth and their families. Our vision is Fewer Injuries. Healthier Children. A Safer Canada. Safe Kids Canada is the national injury prevention program of The Hospital for Sick Children. Production of these materials have been made possible through a financial contribution from the Public Health Agency of Canada. The views expressed herein do not necessarily represent the views of the Public Health Agency of Canada Text or parts of the text may be copied, provided that reference is made to the authors, title of the publication and publisher. Suggested citation: MacKay M, Vincenten J, Brussoni M, Towner E, Fuselli, P. Child Safety Good Practice Guide: Good investments in unintentional child injury prevention and safety promotion - Canadian Edition. Toronto: The Hospital for Sick Children, ISBN April 2011

3 TABLE of CONTENTS Introduction...2 Contents of the Guide...3 Section 1: What do we know about good practice approaches to preventing unintentional injuries in children?...4 Why should we focus on evidence-based good practice?...6 Why do we not implement good practice?...6 Section 2: Good practice at-a-glance...8 Good practice for child passenger safety...9 Good practice for child pedestrian safety...10 Good practice for child cyclist safety...11 Good practice for child water safety...12 Good practice for fall prevention in children...14 Good practice for burn & scald prevention in children...15 Good practice for poisoning prevention in children...17 Good practice for choking /strangulation prevention in children...18 Good practice for general child home safety...19 Good practice for general community-based child injury prevention...20 Good practice for system leadership, infrastructure and capacity to support child injury prevention...21 Section 3: When and how should we use good practice in planning injury prevention strategies?...22 What issues should be considered when selecting strategies?...24 What else can be done to support a culture of good practice in child injury prevention and safety promotion?...27 Section 4: Methodology for case studies...32 Section 5: Good Practice Case Studies from Canada...34 Child Passenger Safety Promotion in Aboriginal Communities (Manitoba)...36 Pace Car Program (Nova Scotia)...38 Operation Headway (Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island)...40 Personal Floatation Device Program (Manitoba)...42 Pool Fencing Bylaw (Ontario)...44 Swim to Survive (Ontario)...46 Safer Play Equipment on Playgrounds (Ontario)...48 A Million Messages (Alberta)...50 Safety Kit Program (Quebec)...52 TD ThinkFirst for Kids Curriculum (National)...54 Acquired Brain Injury Strategy (Saskatchewan)...56 Atlantic Collaborative on Injury Prevention (New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island)...58 Canadian Hospital Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (National)...60 Canadian Surveillance System for Water Related Fatalities (National)...62 Economic Burden of Injury in Canada reports (National)...64 Provincial Injury Prevention Strategy (Nova Scotia)...66 Safe Kids Week 2001: Prevention of Scald and Burn Injuries in Young Children (National)...68 Acknowledgements...70 References

4 INTRODUCTION The need for knowledge of what works is growing every day among those working to reduce the burden of unintentional injuries amongst Canada s children. Injury is the number one cause of death for children in Canada, accounting for 30% of all deaths and the largest environmental burden of disease, with an average of 300 deaths for children less than 14 years of age, every year.(1,2) That is to say 25 children die from injury every month, the equivalent of one classroom of children per month. Injury prevention efforts in Europe that were supported by the European Union resulted in the publication of the original Child Safety Good Practice Guide: Good investments in unintentional child injury prevention and safety promotion (the European Guide). The European Guide was launched by the European Child Safety Alliance (the Alliance) to provide guidance on proven, effective injury prevention strategies. The need for Member States to develop national action plans to prevent injury increased the demand to deliver effective interventions at the national and local levels.(3-5) Good use of evidence is central to achieving this and knowing what works is at the heart of developing good policy and programs. Safe Kids Canada has formally partnered with the Alliance to bring a Child Safety Good Practice Guide to Canada. Safe Kids Canada is the national injury prevention program of The Hospital for Sick Children. Safe Kids Canada s mission is to lead and inspire a culture of safety across Canada in order to reduce unintentional injuries. Injuries to children could be significantly reduced if proven safety strategies were adopted and implemented across all provinces and territories in Canada. The Canadian Edition of the Child Safety Good Practice Guide provides the first seminal comprehensive document in the country from which decision-makers, practitioners and legislators can base their work and recommendations. It will enable Canadian injury prevention practitioners to examine Canadian strategy options for unintentional child injury, move away from what has always been done and move toward good investments - strategies that are known to work or have the greatest probability of success. Through the use of this Canadian Edition, efforts can be focused on those interventions that are most effective and can result in the reduction of injuries leading to hospitalization or death. The value of good practice is realized when the best available research evidence is combined with the practical expertise of professionals in the real world. This approach requires that professionals are aware of both best evidence and practical aspects of transferring policies and programs from one setting to another. With so much to do to address the safety of Canadian children and so little time and limited resources, there is a need to focus on good investments, those strategies that are most likely to reduce childhood unintentional injuries. For the purpose of this document good practice is defined as: A prevention strategy that has been evaluated and found to be effective (either through a systematic review or at least one rigorous evaluation) OR A prevention strategy where rigorous evaluation is difficult but expert opinion supports the practice and data suggest it is an effective strategy (e.g., use of personal floatation devices (PFD) to prevent drowning) OR A prevention strategy where rigorous evaluation is difficult but expert opinion supports the practice and there is a clear link between the strategy and reduced risk but a less clear link between the strategy and reduced injuries (e.g., secure storage of poisonings) AND The strategy in question has been implemented in a real world setting so that the practicality of the intervention has also been examined. This Canadian Edition builds on previous work by child safety researchers from around the globe and is a further step in supporting Canada in moving toward evidence-based good practice. It is acknowledged that knowing what worked in one setting is not enough and the transfer and implementation points and Canadian case studies included in this Canadian Edition are included as information to guide decision-making and illustrations of good practice in action. It is hoped that this information will begin to provide initial thoughts on why a strategy worked and provide some guidance for transfer to new settings. However, more work is needed to understand all the factors that influence the success of a strategy that is transferred from one setting to another. Finally, the synthesis of existing knowledge compiled in the development of this resource also allows the identification of situations where there is a need to evaluate existing interventions and where good practice strategies do not exist. 2

5 CONTENTS of the GUIDE This guide is divided into four sections to help injury stakeholders promote good practice in planning and implementing strategies to address child injury. Note that the terms child injury prevention and child safety are used interchangeably. SECTION 1 Introduces the concept of good practice and discusses general approaches for policy and programs in the areas of child injury prevention and safety promotion. SECTION 2 Provides a series of at-a-glance tables that identify effective strategies (current good practice) in the following areas of child injury prevention and safety promotion: passenger safety pedestrian safety cyclist safety water safety fall prevention burn and scald prevention poisoning prevention choking/strangulation prevention general home safety (strategies not already covered in topics above) general community-based injury prevention (strategies not already covered in topics above) activities in the area of system leadership, infrastructure and capacity. For each area, a table provides: 1] a series of evidence statements describing current good practice; 2] an indication of whether a case study for that particular strategy has been identified and included and 3] suggestions for transferring and implementing the strategy. Each example of good practice is also colour coded to provide an indication of which of the 3 E s of injury prevention is the focus; > ENGINEERING (modification of a product/environment), > ENFORCEMENT (policy/legislation and measures to ensure compliance), or > EDUCATION (education/behaviour change strategies). The traditional approach to the three E s of injury prevention has often been described in somewhat simplistic and limiting terms.(6) We encourage you to consider the E s of prevention in their broadest context, recognizing that they are tools for helping us establish large scale changes in healthy public policy and the creation of environments, both social and physical, which allow the safe behaviour to be the easy behaviour. SECTION 3 Provides information about where in the planning cycle information on good practice can be applied and about selecting and transferring good practice from one setting to another. The importance of advocating for, building and maintaining, a culture of good practice is described and stressed. SECTION 4 Describes in detail the methods used for developing case studies. SECTION 5 Provides a series of case studies illustrating implementation of select at-a-glance strategies in the field of child injury prevention and safety promotion and lessons learned from application of strategies in Canada. 3

6 SECTION1 What do we know about good practice approaches to preventing unintentional injuries in children? Prior to examining the actual good practice approaches to preventing unintentional injuries in children, it is important to note that preventing injury in this age group is unique for a number of reasons. To plan and implement truly effective strategies, it is essential to take these factors into account when selecting and transferring good practice. The uniqueness stems from: Children as the focus of the work: When talking about child injury prevention and safety promotion, children and their parents/caregivers are the primary target groups of interventions. Although a specific intervention might involve advocating for policy change with decision-makers, the main focus for child injury prevention and safety promotion is the children themselves and the adults who are their main caregivers.(5,7-12) The importance of children s developmental stage: The types of injuries that children experience are closely linked with their age and stage of development which involves physical, psychological and behavioural characteristics.(13) This needs to be taken into account when examining potential strategies and transferring them to new settings. The fact that injuries disproportionately affect the most vulnerable children in society: The likelihood of a child being killed or injured is associated with a variety of factors including single parenthood, low education among mothers, very young mothers, poor housing and parental drug or alcohol abuse.(14) Further economic and social factors that can influence health and injury include income, employment, food security, age, gender and social inclusion, often referred to as the social determinants of health. In early 2009, the WHO released a policy briefing, Addressing the Socioeconomic Safety Divide.(15) The briefing concluded that people with low socioeconomic status and those who live in poor neighbourhoods are more likely to die as a result of injury and violence than people who live in wealthy neighbourhoods. This applies to many of the leading causes of injury globally, including motor vehicle crashes, poisoning and burns. The WHO briefing was based on a systematic review of the literature on injury, and points to the importance of understanding and acting on the broad socioeconomic conditions in which injury occurs. This uniqueness of children mandates the importance of knowing your target audience well and involving your target group early on in the project.(16, 17) Failing to involve your target group is likely to reduce the success of an intervention. Particularly when transferring a good practice from one setting to another, it is important to know your target group as rigorous evaluations, such as those used to support best evidence recommendations, typically have limited generalizability because of the specificity of their participants. 4

7 When broad approaches to child injury prevention and safety promotion are examined, there are seven that offer proven or promising strategies.(9) These seven approaches are described below but it is important to note that although they have been proposed as offering proven or promising strategies, actual strategies based on these approaches have not been evaluated in all areas of child injury prevention. Nonetheless, they provide a useful framework to consider for any type of childhood injury. 1) Environmental modification children are particularly vulnerable to injury because they live in a world over which they have little control and which is built around the needs of adults.(15) Modification of the environment to make that world more child- or parent- friendly is an accepted approach to reducing risk and can impact positively on everyone. These strategies are most effective when used in combination with legislation and educational activities.(9) Examples of this type of strategy in the at-a-glance section include playground equipment design and installation and area-wide measures to reduce pedestrian and cyclist risk (e.g., traffic calming). 2) Product modification similar to the issues in environmental modification, many products pose an added risk to children because they are designed around the needs of adults. Product modification is a more passive means than active adult supervision of reducing the risk around certain products.(18) These strategies also become more effective when used in conjunction with legislation and educational activities. Examples of this type of strategy in the at-a-glance section include factory set temperatures on water heaters and child resistant lighters. 3) Legislation, regulation and enforcement legislation has proven to be the most powerful tool in the prevention of injury.(9) Legislation is most effective when enforced and when used in combination with product or environmental modification and educational activities. Examples of this type of strategy in the at-a-glance section include legislation around the use of child passenger restraints, bicycle helmets and child resistant packaging. 4) Promoting the use of safety devices safety devices are promoted to reduce the risk of injury occurrence or minimize the impact in the event of an injury event.(9) Examples of this type of strategy in the at-a-glance section include smoke detectors, bicycle helmets and child passenger restraints. 5) Supportive home visits to families of young children although more evaluation is required of supportive home visits, early studies have found generally positive results for this approach. Supportive home visits are particularly effective if the information provided is age appropriate and visits are combined with provision of free safety equipment and broader promotional campaigns.(19) 6) Community-based interventions these interventions, which focus on changing community values and behaviours and altering the physical environment of communities to reduce the risk of injury, may have particular relevance for children as interventions often target the safety awareness, attitudes, and behaviours of children and parents.(20) Community-based interventions employ a broad array of strategies that include education/behaviour change, product and environmental modification and legislation/enforcement, with the key difference that the strategy focuses on the community, not the individual. Examples of this type of strategy in the at-a-glance section include community-based bicycle helmet and child passenger restraint promotional campaigns. 7) Education and skills development the effectiveness of educational and skill development programs on their own is controversial and evidence is often lacking. However if they are well designed and take into account the target population, or if they are used in combination with other strategies, such as legislation or environmental or product modification, educational and skills development programs can be effective.(9) An example of this type of strategy in the at-aglance section includes pedestrian skills training. These approaches include both active and passive interventions. Active interventions require action at the individual level for the intervention to be effective.(21) For example, a cyclist has to put on a helmet each time they ride a bike and a child has to be belted in a car seat each time they ride in a car. At the other end of the continuum, passive interventions provide automatic protection without requiring action from an individual (e.g., regulatory standards for playground equipment and legislation requiring child resistant packaging for pharmaceuticals).(21) Passive strategies are preferred over active strategies because they are automatic, protect everyone and require no action or cooperation from the individual. However, sometimes passive strategies cannot be used because there are insufficient resources, the proposed strategy is socially unacceptable and/or there is no passive strategy available. In practice, interventions developed are often a mix of passive and active. For example, comprehensive prevention of playground injuries requires passive interventions (installation of playground equipment that meets regulatory standards) and active interventions (maintenance of equipment/landing surfaces and adequate supervision by parents/caregivers). 5

8 SECTION 1 Why should we focus on evidence-based good practice? Transfer of knowledge can happen with both effective and ineffective practices and numerous ineffective strategies continue to be practiced across Canada despite evidence that they are not the best use of resources. For example, bicycle skills fairs or rodeos as an educational strategy to address bicycle-related injuries have not been shown to be effective and as a solitary strategy are not considered good practice.(18) When combined with helmet giveaways or the offer of subsidized helmets, this intervention has shown more positive outcomes (22) but despite this evidence, the activity continues to be offered as a stand-alone intervention. In the current environment of scarce resources and competing issues the injury prevention community needs to ensure that existing efforts and resources are focused on effective evidencebased good practice. It also needs to ensure that it systematically studies and understands why strategies work in one setting/context and not in others and it needs to learn to effectively transfer the good practice to other settings/contexts. If the injury prevention community does not make adopting evidence-based good practice a priority, policy makers will continue to invest resources in strategies that do not lead to reducing the burden of injury in children. Why do we not implement good practice? There are several reasons why, as a field, the injury prevention community fails to select and implement good practice: Resistance to change Resistance can come from government in the form of resistance to legislative or regulatory efforts, from the injury prevention community in terms of comfort with the way things are, personal investment in an existing unproven program or lack of awareness of a need to change. It can also come from the program developers and managers because producing an educational pamphlet as the sole intervention is easier, faster and more quantitative than advocating for legislation or environmental modifications or because funders may only be willing to provide funds for this purpose. The public itself can also play a role. If an activity is perceived by the public to be of value, even if it is actually not effective, then politicians and decision-makers often hesitate to stop investing. Understanding where resistance is likely to come from and planning accordingly to address it is part of good practice in transferring strategies from one setting to another. Competing priorities While the importance of keeping children alive and contributing to society seems inherently simple and essential, it also takes ongoing commitment. This usually requires more time, money or potential inconvenience for adults and as a result the ongoing commitment is not made. For example, sometimes what is safe for children is not perceived to be good for others (e.g., adults, industry, etc.). A product modification that is viewed as important to ensuring a reduced risk for child injury may be seen as being in conflict with what is best for industry. This is because industry tends to see the desired changes resulting in increased production costs, job losses, etc. This in turn can impact elected officials who attempt to balance perceived needs and may side with industry for fear of not being reelected and loss of corporate support. Selecting and following through with good practice requires real commitment for the long term and beyond a single election cycle. Because in injury prevention a given strategy can affect multiple sectors, ministries, industry and partners it is important to understand the many viewpoints and to build the strongest case for the child-benefiting change. It is therefore important that the injury prevention field continues to build the evidence of effective strategies, including costeffectiveness of strategies, so that data are available to support arguments for children s lives as the priority over other issues. Failure to plan solutions effectively If too little time is spent on up front planning then the steps of looking for good practice from other settings may be missed. Furthermore, once good practice is identified, failure to assess adequately the potential for successful transfer and to plan concrete steps to increase its likelihood can result in unsuccessful transfer and implementation. And unsuccessful transfer and implementation can have a negative impact on the field as a whole if it is interpreted as a failure of the strategy rather than a failure of the transfer and implementation. The amount of time, work and practical research required to obtain the necessary information and do a good job on these planning steps can be daunting. As the injury prevention field learns more about what works and why, resources such as this guide can help by identifying good practice and providing guidance for the decision to attempt transfer and steps to increase likelihood of success. 6

9 Lack of capacity or expertise In some cases the individuals making the decisions do not have the information necessary to make the correct decision and choose good practice. There is therefore a role for injury prevention practitioners to educate decision-makers and to advocate for commitment and resources for strategies that will work. There is a role for lead organizations in the injury prevention and safety promotion field to support the efforts of injury prevention practitioners to advocate for good practice and also to address capacity building as a priority issue in the field. In Canada in 2011, few people are employed with a mandate related only to injury prevention. We encourage you to consider yourself an injury prevention practitioner if you work or conduct research in the fields of health promotion, public health and safety, injury prevention, or if you facilitate activities that promote safety on a volunteer basis in your community. Moreover, we recognize that good practice requires us to integrate our efforts among those working to create healthier and safer communities. If you work in the field of healthy living, substance abuse prevention, mental health, policing or social services to name a few, you do already make a meaningful contribution to the prevention of injuries. You are indeed, an injury prevention practitioner. Lack of time or resources Often practices that are not evidence-based can be appealing because they are quick and easy and give the impression that something is being done (e.g., distributing a pamphlet). To truly address child safety it will be necessary to select evidence-based good practice strategies that may cost more and/or take longer to achieve but in the end will achieve greater results. In an environment of scarce resources and limited time-frames for funding this will likely require collaboration between organizations and working smarter with government and industry to ensure they take up what works. In summary, to implement good practice today the injury prevention community needs to take into account both the specific aspects of children as a target group and the seven broad approaches to child injury prevention and safety promotion that offer proven or promising strategies. It needs to keep in mind that these seven approaches are most effective when they work in combination, and to invest scarce resources into what is known to work. This will also require an understanding of the importance of using good practice and the reasons why it is not implemented more often. The next section provides more detail on the strategies based on the seven broad approaches that are considered current best investments. This guide is intended for all of you. 7

10 SECTION 2 Good practice at-a-glance Injuries are predictable and preventable. Research has shown that there are practices that reduce injury death and disability, most often through a comprehensive approach of education, engineering and enforcement measures. Action needs to be taken to adopt and implement what has been proven to work - the evidence-based good practices while recognizing the interaction between individuals, communities, policies and the physical environment. Evidence regarding cost-effectiveness also exists for a number of these proven good practice strategies thus they provide a significant opportunity to save lives and money. For example; $1 spent on smoke alarms saves $15; $1 spent on bicycle helmets saves $30; $1 spent on child safety seats saves $31; $1 spent on road safety improvements saves $102; and $1 spent on prevention education by paediatricians saves $10.(23) Potential good practice strategies for inclusion in the following ata-glance tables were identified through a review of existing systematic reviews, journal articles and policy documents, and in consultation with child injury prevention and safety promotion experts. Strategies focused on children between 0-14 years of age were then examined against the definition of good practice and resulting criteria developed for the purposes of this project. Evidence statements for strategies that met the criteria were developed and incorporated into the issue-specific good practice at-a-glance tables. Transfer and implementation points were obtained from the same sources in addition to general textbooks dealing with injury prevention and safety promotion. The methodology for selection and write up of case studies is provided in Section 4. Additional information on the most current injury prevention legislation in Canada can be found at 8

11 Good practice for child passenger safety EVIDENCE STATEMENT TRANSFER AND IMPLEMENTATION POINTS ENGINEERING Child passenger restraints lead to decreases in death and injury.(24-27) Rear seating position is the safest place location for child passengers regardless of whether or not there is a passengerside air bag present.(31, 38-40) > When used properly child passenger restraints have been shown to reduce injury by 90-95% for rear-facing systems and 60% with forward facing systems.(28) Research from the USA estimates that when children are correctly installed in appropriate car seas the risk of death or serious injury is reduced by approximately 70%.(27) > Keeping children rear-facing longer has been shown to increase protection by 3-5 times.(29, 30) > Research has demonstrated that in children four to seven years of age, booster seats are estimated to reduce the risk of sustaining a clinically significant injury during a crash by 59%.(31-35) > Parental knowledge and availability, accessibility, cost and ease of use of child passenger restraints will impact their uptake.(36, 37) > Children in the rear row(s) of the vehicle are one half to two thirds times less likely to sustain injury than those in the front.(40) > Uptake of rear seating position for children can be increased through community-based educational campaigns.(41, 42) > Research suggests efforts to encourage rear seating position for child passengers should address parents experiences of pressure to relax seating rules and risk perception as well as provide strategies that support sound parental safety decisions.(43, 44) ENFORCEMENT Legislation of safe child passenger restraints leads to increases in observed use.(37, 45) Case example: Child Passenger Safety Promotion in Aboriginal Communities, Manitoba, Page 36. > Level of enforcement will impact effectiveness by increasing usage.(46) > Legislation is most effective when supported by educational activities.(46) ENFORCEMENT ENGINEERING EDUCATION Community-based intervention combining information dissemination on child passenger restraint safety with enhanced enforcement campaigns leads to increased use. (36, 37, 45) Community-based intervention combining child passenger restraint distribution, loaner programs or incentives with education programs leads to increased use.(36, 37, 45) Case example: Child Passenger Safety Promotion in Aboriginal Communities, Manitoba, Page 36. Seat belts lead to decreases in death and injury. (24, 47-52) Legislation requiring seat belt use in older children leads to increased use.(36, 45, 53) > Important elements of community-based approaches are long-term strategy, effective focused leadership, multi-agency collaboration, involvement of the local community, appropriate targeting and time to develop a range of local networks and programs.(20) > Enforcement campaigns supported by school-based promotional activities have shown large increases in observed seat belt use.(36) > Important elements of community-based approaches are long-term strategy, effective focused leadership, multi-agency collaboration, involvement of the local community, appropriate targeting and time to develop a range of local networks and programs.(20) > More intensive programs involving multiple elements and communication mechanisms are associated with more positive results.(20) > A reliable, well-informed organization is required to run a loaner program given the technical and maintenance checks on car seats.(36) > When used properly seat belts can reduce deaths by 40-50% and serious injury by 45-55%.(51) > Parental knowledge and seat belt availability and ease of use will impact their uptake.(36) > Level of enforcement will impact effectiveness.(54) > Legislation is most effective when supported by educational activities.(46) 9

12 SECTION 2 Good practice for child pedestrian safety EVIDENCE STATEMENT TRANSFER AND IMPLEMENTATION POINTS ENGINEERING Area-wide engineering solutions to reduce pedestrian risk (including pedestrian facilities and/or traffic calming infrastructure) lead to reduction in injuries and are cost effective.(18, 45) Vehicular modifications appear to reduce the risk of pedestrian fatalities.(18, 28) > Traffic calming has shown accident savings of 60% in 30 km/hour (18.6 mph) zones.(55) > Area-wide urban traffic calming schemes reduced the number of injury accidents by 15% (25% on residential streets and 10 % on main roads).(55) > Engineering modifications can be more effective when supported by educational and enforcement activities.(46) > Modifications to car front design that take children into account result in a reduced number of child pedestrian fatalities.(28) > It is estimated that up to 2,100 deaths and 18,000 serious pedestrian and cyclist casualties of all ages could be prevented annually in the European Union with these modifications.(28) ENFORCEMENT Legislation/policy reducing vehicle speeds in residential areas leads to reduced injuries and changes in driver behaviour.(45) Enforcement of legislation/policy reducing vehicle speeds in residential areas leads to reduction in injuries and changes in driver behaviour.(57-59) > In the United Kingdom, introduction of 20 mph (32 km/hour) speed limit zones resulted in 70% reduction in fatal child pedestrian accidents.(56) > Level of enforcement will impact effectiveness.(54, 57, 58) > Legislation is most effective when supported by educational activities.(46) > Level of enforcement will impact effectiveness.(54, 57, 58) > Legislation is most effective when supported by educational activities.(46) ENFORCEMENT EDUCATION Community-based education/advocacy programs to prevent pedestrian injuries in children 0-14 years result in a reduction in injuries.(60) Case example: Pace Car Program, Nova Scotia, Page 38. Pedestrian skills training leads to improved child pedestrian crossing skills.(18) The countries with the best road safety record have national implementation plans which comprise a wide range of measures: low speed limits, speed reduction measures, promotion of secondary safety and publicity aimed at both children and their parents, and drivers.(55, 61) > Effective programs have shown reductions ranging from 12%-54%.(60) > Programs offering a comprehensive package that includes educational, social and environmental strategies are more likely to be successful.(60) > Greater amounts of resources and community commitment afforded to programs allow more complex and comprehensive strategies to be used, which in turn lead to greater success.(60) > Multi-faceted programs and those that involve parents are more likely to be successful.(18) > Practical roadside experience is an essential ingredient of pedestrian skills training.(18) > Building on past policies or international agreements can lead to progress.(55) > Political commitment at the highest level is necessary to make road safety a priority for all in government and society.(55) > Media coverage is an important aspect of national safety campaigns.(54, 55) > A combination of engineering, enforcement and education is most effective.(54) 10

13 Good practice for child cyclist safety EVIDENCE STATEMENT TRANSFER AND IMPLEMENTATION POINTS ENGINEERING Use of bicycle helmets leads to reduction in injuries.(45, 62, 63) Area-wide engineering solutions and traffic calming measures (e.g., speed reduction zones) lead to reduction in child cyclist injuries and are cost effective.(45) Area-wide engineering solutions to reduce cyclist risk (including cycling lanes and pathways) may lead to injury reductions.(18) > Correctly fitted bicycle helmets reduce the risk of head and brain injury by as much as 85%.(45, 62, 63) > Parental knowledge and helmet availability, accessibility, cost and ease of use will impact both helmet use and proper use.(64) > Reducing costs of helmet through give-away programs and discounts facilitates uptake and use.(65) > Engineering modifications can be more effective when supported by educational and enforcement activities.(46) > Engineering modifications can be more effective when supported by educational and enforcement activities.(46) ENFORCEMENT EDUCATION Legislation of bicycle helmets leads to increased use.(18, 64) Case example: Operation Headway, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island, Page 40. Community-based education/advocacy programs around child helmet wearing lead to increased helmet wearing.(18, 20, 65, 68) Case example: Operation Headway, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island, Page 40. Cycling skills training has shown promise in increasing knowledge and improving observed riding skills in the children who received training.(18) At this time there is no study directly linking skills training and reduction in injury. > Evaluation of mandatory bicycle helmet laws in Canada show a 45% reduction in the rates of bicycle-related head injury in provinces with legislation and in New Zealand there was a 19% reduction in head injuries among cyclists during the first three years of legislation.(55) > In several countries where legislation has been enacted it has not been done until high levels of helmet-wearing have been attained in the population.(65) > Legislation takes time to produce the desired effect following implementation (64) and legislation is most effective when supported by educational activities.(46) > The effect of legislation appears smaller in areas with a higher baseline proportion of helmet use and areas with high socioeconomic status.(64) > The effect of legislation is smaller when helmet law is not inclusive of all ages.(66) > Level of enforcement will impact effectiveness.(54) > Implementers of helmet legislation may wish to address concerns regarding decreased ridership following introduction of legislation as those not in favour of legislation have stated this as an argument against this strategy.(67) However, research from Canada suggests helmet legislation is not associated with a reduction in cycling.(66) > Important elements of community-based approaches are long-term strategy, effective focused leadership, multi-agency collaboration, involvement of the local community, appropriate targeting and time to develop a range of local networks and programs.(20) > Programs are more likely to be effective when they include provision of free helmets, are broad in scope as it relates to target audience and setting, involve parental participation and helmet wearing by riding partners (adults or other children).(65) > Younger children and girls show the greatest effect from campaigns.(45) > Successful interventions have included targeted and mass media education or children and parents, promotion and mandating of helmet-wearing, seizure of bicycles of cyclists not wearing helmets and discounting the price of helmets, however it is not possible to isolate the effectiveness of each intervention.(68) > For children to ride safely in traffic requires that they are knowledgeable about traffic rules, can read and interpret signs, and have the necessary cognitive and motor skills.(69) > The most comprehensive programs have all incorporated helmet education, traffic rules, safety guidelines, and on-bike training into their curricula.(18) > Interventions that repeat the message in different forms and contexts are also more likely to succeed. Therefore, community based education programs that allow for repetition of bicycle safety messages, several opportunities for practice, and parental involvement, may represent a more effective approach to improving bicycle safety in children.(70) > It is possible that young children (under 10 years) may not be able to master the basic cognitive and motor skills necessary for the complex task of riding a bicycle on the road.(70) 11

14 SECTION 2 Good practice for child water safety EVIDENCE STATEMENT TRANSFER AND IMPLEMENTATION POINTS ENGINEERING Expert opinion states that the use of a personal floatation device (PFD) for boating and other water recreational activities is a recommended preventive strategy in the prevention of drowning.(71) Case example: Personal Floatation Device Program, Manitoba, Page 42. Expert opinion states that signs regarding safe behaviours displayed in clear and simple signage are an important preventive strategy in the prevention of drowning.(73) > It is estimated that 85% of annual boating-related drowning incidents could be prevented if the victim had been wearing a PFD.(72) > Level of enforcement will impact effectiveness.(54) > Legislation is most effective when supported by educational activities.(46) > Signage is most effective when supported by educational activities.(73) > International standardization of symbols used on signs should help reduce tourist drowning incidents.(73) ENFORCEMENT Legislation requiring isolation fencing with secure, selflatching gates for all pools (public, semi-public and private, including both newly constructed and existing pools) leads to a reduction in drowning when enforcement provisions are included.(18, 74) Case example: Pool Fencing Bylaw, Ontario, Page 44. > Private pools that are fenced provide 95% more protection against a drowning event.(18) > Level of enforcement will impact effectiveness.(54, 75) > Legislation is most effective when supported by educational activities.(46) > It is highly recommended that parents be strongly encouraged to continue close supervision of their children around pools; no protection system can replace parent supervision.(76) Safety standards for swimming pools may lead to a reduction in drowning.(73) Lifeguards, when adequately staffed, qualified, trained and equipped, seem to be an effective strategy to prevent drowning.(71) > Level of enforcement will impact effectiveness.(54) > Safety standards will be more effective when supported by educational activities.(46) > The presence of lifeguards may deter behaviours that could put swimmers at risk for drowning, such as horseplay or venturing into rough or deep water.(71) > Lifeguards should have appropriate training and hold a suitable current qualification. Re-qualification should be undertaken at regular intervals, and practical rescue and resuscitation skills should be practiced frequently.(71) It has been noted that initial introduction of lifeguard certification may impact availability of qualified lifeguards.(77) > Lifeguard observation points must have a clear and unobstructed view of the area of supervision including both the water and surrounding area.(71) > Lifeguards on duty should be easily identifiable at a distance and in a manner that sets them apart from others at the beach or water recreational facility.(71) > Lifeguard organizations should develop written standard operating procedures that include supervision requirements.(71) 12

15 Good practice for child water safety, continued EVIDENCE STATEMENT TRANSFER AND IMPLEMENTATION POINTS EDUCATION Community-based education/advocacy around PFD use leads to increased use.(18) Water safety skills training (including swimming lessons) improve swimming performance.(18) Case example: Swim to Survive, Ontario, Page 46. > It is estimated that 85% of annual boating-related drownings could be prevented if the victim had been wearing a PFD.(72) > Important elements of community-based approaches are long-term strategy, effective focused leadership, multi-agency collaboration, involvement of the local community, appropriate targeting and time to develop a range of local networks and programs.(20) > Swimming skills are just one potential prevention strategy that must be considered in the context of a multifaceted approach that includes effective barriers, appropriate adult supervision, and training in CPR.(78) In particular it is highly recommended that parents be strongly encouraged to continue close supervision of their children around water; ability to swim does not replace the need for close parent supervision.(76, 79) > Children are highly sensitive to training, are able to retain most skills if lessons are continued, and can use acquired skills in mastering more advanced swimming skills (e.g., diving).(18, 80) > The earliest age at which swimming lessons show improvement in swimming ability is 24 months, but their learning period is much longer than that of older children.(18, 21) > In the past it has been held that children are generally not developmentally ready for formal swimming lessons until after their fourth birthday.(21, 81) While recent evidence is insufficient to support a recommendation that all one to four year-old children receive swimming lessons, there is adequate evidence demonstrating that swimming lessons do not increase the risk of drowning in this age group.(78) > Aquatic programs for infants and toddlers should not be promoted as a way to decrease the risk of drowning.(21, 81) 13

16 SECTION 2 Good practice for falls prevention in children EVIDENCE STATEMENT TRANSFER AND IMPLEMENTATION POINTS ENGINEERING ENFORCEMENT Window safety mechanisms to prevent children from opening windows, such as bars and position locking devices, are an effective strategy to prevent falls.(18, 82) Stair gates have shown to assist in the reduction of falls down stairs to young children when used at the top of stairs in households.(45) Surfacing materials such as sand or wood chips to a depth of cm (9-12 inches) can be recommended as effective injury prevention strategies in preventing playground equipmentrelated injuries. Optimal equipment height to reduce risk of head injury is 1.5 m (5 feet).(18) Case example: Safer Play Equipment on Playgrounds, Ontario, Page 48. Legislation banning baby walkers removes a larger portion of existing risk than parental supervision.(18, 93) Enforcement of standards requiring safe depth of specified types of surfacing materials and regular maintenance of those materials is more effective than standards alone in reducing playground equipment-related injuries.(18, 88) > Window bars have been shown to reduce deaths from window falls by 35%.(18, 82) > Regulations requiring window safety mechanisms on rental housing appears to be most effective approach when working in areas of social deprivation.(18) > Parental knowledge and availability, accessibility, cost and ease of use of window safety mechanisms will impact their uptake.(83, 84) > Parental knowledge and stair gate availability, accessibility, cost and ease of use will impact their uptake.(45, 83, 84) > Pressure gates should not be used at the top of stairs.(85) > Inequalities in rates of uptake and use may be reduced if stair gates are both supplied and installed.(86, 87) However overcoming cost and installation barriers only partially addresses economic disparities, thus further research is required to identify and deal with additional barriers.(86) > Level of enforcement will impact effectiveness.(54, 88) > Regular maintenance of surfacing materials is necessary to retain protective effect.(18, 89) > Standards are most effective when supported by educational activities.(46, 90, 91) > Surfacing depths in the Canadian Playground Standard require cm (6-12 inches).(88, 92) > Level of enforcement will impact effectiveness.(54, 94) > Legislation is most effective when supported by educational activities.(46) > Level of enforcement impacts effectiveness.(54, 88) > Standards are most effective when supported by educational activities.(46, 90, 91) > Surfacing standards address risk of head injury, not injuries to arms and legs.(18, 95) EDUCATION Educational programs encouraging use of fall prevention safety devices such as window safety mechanisms to prevent children from opening windows and down stairs increase use of equipment.(18, 82, 84) > Parental knowledge and availability, accessibility, cost, durability and ease of use of safety measures will impact their uptake.(83, 84, 96) > Provision and instalment of free equipment is more likely to increase use, particularly in lower income settings.(83, 84) > Effective provision of safety equipment involves ongoing support with installation and maintenance.(97) > Timing of education and developing materials and advice (style, language and examples) that suit target communities (e.g., low income, ethnic minority populations) are key to success.(97) > Existence of supporting legislation and adequate enforcement can increase availability of funding for equipment schemes and uptake of safety measures in the home.(97) > Uptake and success of interventions depends on adjusting interventions according to practical limitations and parents cultural expectations. A particular barrier is parents inability to modify rented or shared accommodation.(97) 14

17 Good practice for burn & scald prevention in children EVIDENCE STATEMENT TRANSFER AND IMPLEMENTATION POINTS ENGINEERING Product modification, specifically child resistant cigarette lighters, hearth gates and self-extinguishing cigarettes, are primary prevention strategies where the technologies have been developed, tested and found to be effective and which would prevent many fires from starting if adopted.(18, 19, ) > In the U.S.A., fire deaths associated with cigarette lighters dropped 43% with the adoption of child resistant designs.(18) > Regulations requiring product modifications and their enforcement will increase availability of safe products.(19) > Parental knowledge and modified product availability, accessibility, cost and ease of use will impact their uptake.(83, 84) ENFORCEMENT Legislation regulating the temperature of hot water from household taps is effective in reducing scald injuries.(21) Legislation requiring a safe pre-set temperature (49 o C) for all water heaters has proved a more effective method of reducing scalds than education to encourage parents to turn down water heaters.(18) Legislation requiring installation of smoke detectors in new and existing housing when combined with multi-factorial community campaigns and reduced price coupons is an effective way to increase smoke detector use.(18, 105) Legislation regulating flammability of sleepwear is effective in reducing burn injuries when enforced.(18, 106) Legislation banning the manufacture and sale of fireworks combined with enforcement is the most effective way to restrict the supply.(18, 107) At this time there is no study directly linking restricted supply to injury reduction. > Safe temperatures for hot water from household taps can be achieved by reducing temperature at the water heater or through the use of thermostatic mixing valves (TMVs).(86, 102) > Level of enforcement will impact effectiveness.(54) > Legislation is most effective when supported by educational activities.(21, 46) > Level of enforcement will impact effectiveness.(54, 102) > Legislation is most effective when supported by educational activities.(46, 103) > Cost-effectiveness estimates from Canada suggest that legislation to lower thermostat settings on domestic water heaters along with annual educational notices to utility customers would generate cost savings while reducing the morbidity from tap water scalds in children.(104) > Level of enforcement will impact effectiveness. (54) > Legislation is most effective when supported by educational activities.(46) > Legislation passed in the U.S.A. in 1972 resulted in a 75% reduction in burn unit admissions due to sleepwear related burns.(18, 106) > Level of enforcement will impact effectiveness.(54) > Legislation is most effective when supported by educational activities.(46) > Level of enforcement will impact effectiveness.(54) > Legislation is most effective when supported by educational activities.(46) > Supporting legislation is best targeted at primary and secondary school students and parents.(107) EDUCATION Smoke detector giveaway programs have proven successful when high-risk neighbourhoods are targeted and multi-faceted community campaigns have the specific objective of installation of working smoke detectors.(45) > Important elements of community-based approaches are long-term strategy showing commitment to the issue, effective focused leadership, multi-agency collaboration, involvement of the local community, appropriate targeting and time to develop a range of local networks and programs.(20) > The distribution of smoke alarms alone is insufficient for improving installation rates; programs containing an education component showed more success.(87) > Existence of supporting legislation and adequate enforcement can increase availability of funding for equipment schemes and uptake of safety measures in the home.(97) > Addressing cost and installation only partially addresses economic disparities, more research is required to identify additional barriers.(86) > Timing of education and developing materials and advice (style, language and examples) that suit target communities (e.g., low income, ethnic minority populations) are key to success.(97) > Uptake and success of interventions depends on adjusting interventions according to practical limitations and parents cultural expectations. A particular barrier is parents inability to modify rented or shared accommodation.(97) > Interventions integrated into wider health programs, where trusting relationships with householders are cultivated and/or where specific safety issues identified by a community are responded to show greater success in increasing smoke alarm installation rates.(87) 15

18 SECTION 2 Good practice for burn & scald prevention in children, continued EVIDENCE STATEMENT TRANSFER AND IMPLEMENTATION POINTS EDUCATION Education/advocacy campaigns around fireworks are useful as supplemental efforts and can be used to build support for legislation.(18) Fire safety skills training increases knowledge and behaviour of both children and parents.(18, 108) At this time there is no study directly linking training to injury reduction. > Important elements of community-based approaches are long-term strategy showing commitment to the issue, effective focused leadership, multi-agency collaboration, involvement of the local community, appropriate targeting and time to develop a range of local networks and programs.(20) > Programs using active participation by children in learning fire responses are more effective than those using passive methods.(108) > When evaluating programs, actual demonstration of skills is likely a more reliable marker of children s real response in fire situations than providing correct answers on a written test. (108) > The addition of fear reduction techniques and teaching the rationale supporting the use of correct fire response behaviours may significantly improve skill retention.(108) > Periodic repetition of material is required for maintenance of knowledge and skills.(108) > The use of figures of authority in fire safety skills training (e.g., fire fighters) may increase knowledge gain.(108) 16

19 Good practice for poisoning prevention in children EVIDENCE STATEMENT TRANSFER AND IMPLEMENTATION POINTS ENGINEERING Secure storage for poisons removes a larger portion of poisoning risk than parental supervision and may be an effective means of preventing poisoning injury.(109, 110) > Studies of how children access poisons suggest that the most vulnerable time is when the poisons are in use and that safe packaging alone cannot compensate for unsafe storage or use. This speaks to the need for improved safety of home storage of medications and improved home dispensing practice.(111, 112) > Changes to the fixed environment need to be supported by regulation and education for industry and the community, with clear labelling (and clear administration instructions) on the package, parental education and improved supervision, ongoing paediatric counselling, and increased accessibility and affordability.( ) ENFORCEMENT Legislation of child resistant packaging reduces the incidence of poisonings.(18, 45, 114) > In the USA the use of child resistant packaging was associated with a 34% reduction in the aspirin related child mortality rate.(114) > Level of enforcement will impact effectiveness.(54) > Legislation is most effective when supported by educational activities.(46) EDUCATION Poison control centres result in considerable medical savings if the public is well informed regarding the use of their local poison control centre.(18) > Parental knowledge and availability, accessibility and ease of use of poison control centres will impact their use. Educational activities may assist in increasing parental knowledge.(18) 17

20 SECTION 2 Good practice for choking/strangulation prevention in children EVIDENCE STATEMENT TRANSFER AND IMPLEMENTATION POINTS ENFORCEMENT Product modification through legislation permanently removes a larger portion of existing choking/strangulation risk than parental supervision and is recommended for safe crib/cot design and other entrapment hazards.(18) Product banning/regulation through legislation permanently removes a larger portion of existing choking/strangulation risk than parental supervision.(18, 115) Legislation that requires product warning labels to include an explanation of the specific hazard is more effective than non-specific labels.(18) > Level of enforcement will impact effectiveness.(54) > Legislation is most effective when supported by educational activities.(46) > Product banning/regulation through legislation is recommended for latex balloons, inedible material in food products, pull cords on window coverings (e.g., horizontal blinds) and drawstrings on children s clothing.(18) > Level of enforcement will impact effectiveness.(54) > Legislation is most effective when supported by educational activities.(46) > A label merely stating, For children ages three and up, doesn t adequately explain the risk to the parent.(18) > Level of enforcement will impact effectiveness.(54) > Legislation is most effective when supported by educational activities.(46) 18

Child Safety Good Practice Guide: Good investments in unintentional child injury prevention and safety promotion.

Child Safety Good Practice Guide: Good investments in unintentional child injury prevention and safety promotion. Child Safety Good Practice Guide: Good investments in unintentional child injury prevention and safety promotion Executive Summary Background The need for knowledge of what works is growing every day among

More information

Child Safety Good Practice Guide: Good investments in unintentional child injury prevention and safety promotion

Child Safety Good Practice Guide: Good investments in unintentional child injury prevention and safety promotion Child Safety Good Practice Guide: Good investments in unintentional child injury prevention and safety promotion Text or parts of the text may be copied, provided that reference is made to the authors,

More information

CHILD SAFETY COUNTRY PROFILE 2012. Hungary

CHILD SAFETY COUNTRY PROFILE 2012. Hungary CHILD SAFETY COUNTRY PROFILE 2012 Hungary The Child Safety Country Profile 2012 for Hungary highlights the burden of child and adolescent injury and examines socio-demographic determinants to provide a

More information

Ontario s Injury Prevention Strategy

Ontario s Injury Prevention Strategy Ontario s Injury Prevention Strategy Working Together for a Safer, Healthier Ontario www.healthyontario.com ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Ministry of Health Promotion is a champion of healthy public policy in Ontario.

More information

Community Motor Vehicle Collision Priority Setting Toolkit Part One

Community Motor Vehicle Collision Priority Setting Toolkit Part One Community Motor Vehicle Collision Priority Setting Toolkit Part One Table of Contents Introduction! 3 How to use this resource! 3 The Issue of Injury! 4 General information! 4 Motor Vehicle Collisions!

More information

Section 4: Methodology for case studies

Section 4: Methodology for case studies Appendix I: Section 4: Methodology for case studies 38 The case study examples that are included in this document are considered a first round. We set out to provides case studies to illustrate implementation

More information

CHILD SAFETY REPORT CARD 2012 FINLAND

CHILD SAFETY REPORT CARD 2012 FINLAND CHILD SAFETY REPORT CARD 2012 FINLAND INJURY is a leading cause of death in children and adolescents aged 0-19 years in Finland. In 2009, 126 children and adolescents in this age group died as a result

More information

1. The consultation seeks views on the vision, targets and measures for improving road safety in Great Britain for the period beyond 2010.

1. The consultation seeks views on the vision, targets and measures for improving road safety in Great Britain for the period beyond 2010. Executive Summary 1. The consultation seeks views on the vision, targets and measures for improving road safety in Great Britain for the period beyond 2010. 2. We have made good progress in reducing road

More information

CHILD SAFETY REPORT CARD 2012 HUNGARY

CHILD SAFETY REPORT CARD 2012 HUNGARY CHILD SAFETY REPORT CARD 2012 HUNGARY INJURY is a leading cause of death in children and adolescents aged 0-19 years in Hungary. In 2009, 185 children and adolescents in this age group died as a result

More information

Keeping our children injury-free: household safety evidence from Growing Up in New Zealand

Keeping our children injury-free: household safety evidence from Growing Up in New Zealand Growing Up in New Zealand Policy Brief 2 Keeping our children injury-free: household safety evidence from Growing Up in New Zealand Unintentional injury is a leading cause of death for New Zealand children,

More information

CHILD SAFETY REPORT CARD 2012 SPAIN

CHILD SAFETY REPORT CARD 2012 SPAIN CHILD SAFETY REPORT CARD 2012 SPAIN INJURY is a leading cause of death in children and adolescents aged 0-19 years in Spain. In 2008, 668 children and adolescents in this age group died as a result of

More information

East Ayrshire Council Road Safety Plan

East Ayrshire Council Road Safety Plan East Ayrshire Council Road Safety Plan Foreword Road crashes are not inevitable - the deaths and injuries which occur each year need not happen. However, in order to reduce these incidents a major effort

More information

BICYCLE-RELATED INJURIES

BICYCLE-RELATED INJURIES BICYCLE-RELATED INJURIES Injury Prevention Plan of Alabama 3 BICYCLE-RELATED INJURIES THE PROBLEM: An estimated 140,000 children are treated each year in emergency departments for head injuries sustained

More information

Children and road safety: a guide for parents

Children and road safety: a guide for parents Child Safety Week Report Children and road safety: a guide for parents What are the facts? The number of children aged up to 19 years who are killed or seriously injured each year on Britain's roads has

More information

Alcohol: A conversation. A comprehensive approach for schools. Social Studies Lesson 3 The intersection between personal and public decision-making

Alcohol: A conversation. A comprehensive approach for schools. Social Studies Lesson 3 The intersection between personal and public decision-making Social Studies Lesson 3 The intersection between personal and public decision-making Description This lesson seeks to guide students to think critically about an issue that may concern them in the near

More information

Child Cycling Injury Prevention

Child Cycling Injury Prevention Child Cycling Injury Prevention Simone Randle Injury Prevention Advisor SimoneR@adhb.govt.nz Cycling fatalities, 2003-07 All child cyclist deaths: 12 deaths: 11 boys, 1 girl 7 deaths amongst boys 10-14

More information

Atlantic Provinces 71 COMMUNITIES

Atlantic Provinces 71 COMMUNITIES NATIONAL STUDY OF AUTOMOBILE INSURANCE RATES Third Release Atlantic Provinces 71 COMMUNITIES vs. British Columbia, Alberta Saskatchewan, Manitoba & Ontario 3,985,162 Auto Insurance Rates Compared October

More information

Only call 911 for emergency situations. - An emergency is anytime you feel your life or someone else s life is in immediate danger or in harms way.

Only call 911 for emergency situations. - An emergency is anytime you feel your life or someone else s life is in immediate danger or in harms way. Only call 911 for emergency situations. - An emergency is anytime you feel your life or someone else s life is in immediate danger or in harms way. Examples of a 911 emergency: Having trouble breathing

More information

BACKGROUND. National. Cell Phone Use and Text Messaging

BACKGROUND. National. Cell Phone Use and Text Messaging BACKGROUND National Developing public policies and legislation is an important component of injury and violence prevention. Implementing and enforcing regulations and laws can help reduce injuries, reduce

More information

A review of evidence for prevention

A review of evidence for prevention from the UK focal point for violence and injury prevention S. Wood, M.A. Bellis, E. Towner, A. Higgins 1 1 About the UK focal point for violence and injury prevention The 49th World Health Assembly (1996)

More information

From a public health perspective, we attempt to analyze each risk factor in order to understand and predict patterns of disease and injury.

From a public health perspective, we attempt to analyze each risk factor in order to understand and predict patterns of disease and injury. The 5 Public Health Principles Injuries are not accidents--they do not happen by chance. Like disease, they follow a pattern. By identifying the risks for injury, it is possible to predict and prevent

More information

How safety conscious are European Countries towards children?

How safety conscious are European Countries towards children? CHILD SAFETY REPORT CARD 01 How safety conscious are European Countries towards children? Europe Summary for 1 countries A Message by John Dalli, European Commissioner for Health and Consumer Policy Injuries

More information

The facts about road accidents and children

The facts about road accidents and children A The AA Motoring Trust The facts about road accidents and children Around 5, children under the age of 16 die or are seriously injured on Britain s roads each year Nearly two in three road accidents happen

More information

There were 160 hospitalisations of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children for

There were 160 hospitalisations of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children for Australia s children 2002 There were 216 hospitalisations of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children for burns and scalds. Indigenous children had a hospitalisation rate for injuries from burns

More information

The Importance of Understanding External Cause of Injury Codes

The Importance of Understanding External Cause of Injury Codes The Importance of Understanding External Cause of Injury Codes This presentation is designed to: Define external cause of injury codes Inform and Educate health care providers, policymakers, and the public

More information

PROMOTING BICYCLE SAFETY FOR CHILDREN: Strategies and Tools for Community Programs

PROMOTING BICYCLE SAFETY FOR CHILDREN: Strategies and Tools for Community Programs PROMOTING BICYCLE SAFETY FOR CHILDREN: Strategies and Tools for Community Programs This issue brief provides strategies and resources for community organizations to use in developing and implementing bike

More information

Child & Youth Unintentional Injury

Child & Youth Unintentional Injury Child & Youth Unintentional Injury Atlantic Canada 1 Years in Review Contents 2/3 About this report 4/5 Executive summary; Atlantic Canada profile 6/7 Preventing future injuries The burden of injury in

More information

Welsh Fire and Rescue Services Road Safety Strategy 2015-2020

Welsh Fire and Rescue Services Road Safety Strategy 2015-2020 All Wales Call Challenge Welsh Fire and Rescue Services Road Safety Strategy 2015-2020 GWASANAETH TÂN AC ACHUB Canolbarth a Gorllewin Cymru Mid and West Wales FIRE AND RESCUE SERVICE 2 Contents Executive

More information

Home Home Safety Safety Community Action Kit: A Guide for Health Professionals CONTENTS

Home Home Safety Safety Community Action Kit: A Guide for Health Professionals CONTENTS Home Home Safety Safety Community Action Kit: A Guide for Health Professionals MAJOR TYPES BACKGROUND OF CHILD ON INJURIES KIDSAFE IN WA THE HOME CONTENTS Kidsafe WA (Kidsafe Western Australia Inc.) is

More information

Water Safety. Overview. Prevention

Water Safety. Overview. Prevention Water Safety Overview Drowning is the leading cause of unintentional injury-related death for children ages 1 to 4. It takes only seconds to drown, and often occurs silently when an unsupervised child

More information

Talking Points. About Roadway Users

Talking Points. About Roadway Users General facts regarding the driver: Talking Points About Roadway Users Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death in the U.S. for people ages 6-33. They annually account for more than 1 million

More information

Presented to the. Board of Commissioners of Public Utilities MELOCHE MONNEX COMMENTS ON

Presented to the. Board of Commissioners of Public Utilities MELOCHE MONNEX COMMENTS ON MELOCHE MONNEX COMMENTS ON THE REVIEW OF AUTOMOBILE INSURANCE IN NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR Presented to the Board of Commissioners of Public Utilities February 2005 TABLE OF CONTENT PREAMBLE... 3 INTRODUCTION...

More information

US and Canada Child Safety Seat Law Guide

US and Canada Child Safety Seat Law Guide US and Canada Child Safety Seat Law Guide For informational purposes only. Please consult local authorities for further interpretation and current status. As of March 2015. Extended Rear-Facing is the

More information

Traffic Safety Facts. Children. 2003 Data. Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for children from 2 to 14 years old.

Traffic Safety Facts. Children. 2003 Data. Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for children from 2 to 14 years old. Traffic Safety Facts 2003 Data DOT HS 809 762 Children Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for children from 2 to 14 years old. In 2003, there were more than 60 million children under

More information

CHILD SAFETY REPORT CARD 2012 SWEDEN

CHILD SAFETY REPORT CARD 2012 SWEDEN CHILD SAFETY REPORT CARD 2012 SWEDEN INJURY is a leading cause of death in children and adolescents aged 0-19 years in Sweden. In 2010, 123 children and adolescents in this age group died as a result of

More information

New Zealand all-age mandatory bicycle helmet law

New Zealand all-age mandatory bicycle helmet law New Zealand all-age mandatory bicycle helmet law A public health and safety disaster New Zealand is one of only three countries in the world with national all-age mandatory bicycle helmet laws, the others

More information

Oxfordshire Local Transport Plan 2011-2030 Revised April 2012. Objective 3 Reduce casualties and the dangers associated with travel

Oxfordshire Local Transport Plan 2011-2030 Revised April 2012. Objective 3 Reduce casualties and the dangers associated with travel 6. Road Safety Objective 3 Reduce casualties and the dangers associated with travel Road safety continues to be a core priority both nationally and locally reflecting the very high human and other costs

More information

US and Canada Child Safety Seat Law Guide

US and Canada Child Safety Seat Law Guide US and Canada Child Safety Seat Law Guide For informational purposes only. Please consult local authorities for further interpretation and current status. As of April 2016. Extended Rear-Facing is the

More information

TRANSPORTATION POLICY

TRANSPORTATION POLICY TRANSPORTATION POLICY Contents 1 NQS... 2 2 National Regulations... 2 3 Aim... 2 4 Related Policies... 2 5 Implementation... 2 6 General Transport Guidelines... 4 7 Guidelines for Seatbelts and Restraints...

More information

Safe Kids Canada Position Statement on bicycle helmet legislation

Safe Kids Canada Position Statement on bicycle helmet legislation Safe Kids Canada Position Statement on bicycle helmet legislation Safe Kids Canada supports bicycle helmet legislation as a proven strategy, in conjunction with sustained education and enforcement programs,

More information

CANADIAN ROAD SAFETY YOUTH CONFERENCE ENFORCEMENT. Police Constable Mike Taylor # 8855 Toronto Police Service

CANADIAN ROAD SAFETY YOUTH CONFERENCE ENFORCEMENT. Police Constable Mike Taylor # 8855 Toronto Police Service CANADIAN ROAD SAFETY YOUTH CONFERENCE ENFORCEMENT Police Constable Mike Taylor # 8855 Toronto Police Service Traffic Services Mission Statement To deliver effective and efficient traffic policing services

More information

Child & Youth Unintentional Injury: 1994-2003 10 Years in Review

Child & Youth Unintentional Injury: 1994-2003 10 Years in Review Child & Youth Unintentional Injury: 1994-2003 10 s in Review Contents 2/3 About this report 4/5 Key findings 8/9 10 years of Safe Kids Week 10/11 Child passenger safety 12/13 Preventing drowning 14/15

More information

Best Practices in Truck Safety Executive Summary

Best Practices in Truck Safety Executive Summary Best Practices in Truck Safety Executive Summary The primary purpose of this study was to identify the principal causes of casualty collisions involving heavy trucks in British Columbia (B.C.) and to use

More information

Model Core Program Paper: Prevention of Unintentional Injury

Model Core Program Paper: Prevention of Unintentional Injury Model Core Program Paper: Prevention of Unintentional Injury BC Health Authorities Population Health and Wellness BC Ministry of Health February 2008 This Model Core Program Paper was prepared by a working

More information

Pool Safety. Information provided by Insurance Information Institute

Pool Safety. Information provided by Insurance Information Institute Pool Safety Information provided by Insurance Information Institute Whether you have a luxury in-ground pool, or plan to blow up an inflatable kiddie pool, it is important to consider the safety implications.

More information

INCREASING MOTORCYCLE HELMET USE

INCREASING MOTORCYCLE HELMET USE INCREASING MOTORCYCLE HELMET USE Head injuries among motorcyclists are a growing concern Rapid growth in the use of motorized twowheeled vehicles in many countries has been accompanied by increases in

More information

The outcome of two injury prevention projects conducted by trauma specialists at the Montreal Children s Hospital, MUHC

The outcome of two injury prevention projects conducted by trauma specialists at the Montreal Children s Hospital, MUHC The outcome of two injury prevention projects conducted by trauma specialists at the Montreal Children s Hospital, MUHC Lisa Grilli MSc pht Liane Fransblow BSc pht MPH Debbie Friedman BSc pht M Mgmt Isabelle

More information

Improving road safety for pedestrians and cyclists in Great Britain

Improving road safety for pedestrians and cyclists in Great Britain Department for Transport Improving road safety for pedestrians and cyclists in Great Britain LONDON: The Stationery Office 14.35 Ordered by the House of Commons to be printed on 6 May 2009 REPORT BY THE

More information

Facts About Car Seat Safety in BC

Facts About Car Seat Safety in BC Facts About Car Seat Safety in BC Issue In Canada, on average, each year 3,500 children are injured while another 61 are killed Motor vehicle injuries are the leading cause of injury-related death for

More information

Chapter 1: Background

Chapter 1: Background Chapter 1: Background 1.1 Trends in Bicycle Ridership and Collisions in Toronto Toronto has relatively high levels of bicycle traffic on its downtown streets. On a typical weekday, bicycles make up roughly

More information

Road crash and road crash injury data for setting and monitoring targets

Road crash and road crash injury data for setting and monitoring targets Road crash and road crash injury data for setting and monitoring targets UNECE Seminar on Improving Global Road Safety Bishkek 1-3 December, Gayle Di Pietro, Global Road Safety Partnership GRSP Mission

More information

CHAPTER 1 Land Transport

CHAPTER 1 Land Transport Section 1 Road Transport - PART I - Summary of the Present Situation 1 Road Traffic Accident Trends 1-1 Long-term trends fell to below 6,000 for the first time in 54 years since 1953 Number of road traffic

More information

Children s Health and Nursing:

Children s Health and Nursing: Children s Health and Nursing: A Summary of the Issues What s the issue? The foundation for healthy growth and development in later years is established to a large degree in the first six years of life.

More information

Street Smart: Demographics and Trends in Motor Vehicle Accident Mortality In British Columbia, 1988 to 2000

Street Smart: Demographics and Trends in Motor Vehicle Accident Mortality In British Columbia, 1988 to 2000 Street Smart: Demographics and Trends in Motor Vehicle Accident Mortality In British Columbia, 1988 to 2000 by David Baxter 3-Year Moving Average Age Specific Motor Vehicle Accident Death Rates British

More information

Instructor s Manual Chapter 1 Overview of Pediatric Nursing. statements below related to these children and families is true?

Instructor s Manual Chapter 1 Overview of Pediatric Nursing. statements below related to these children and families is true? 1 Instructor s Manual Chapter 1 Overview of Pediatric Nursing Answers to Study Questions 1. Parents and children from immigrant families face several challenges. Which of the statements below related to

More information

Executive Summary ABI.ORG.UK. Association of British Insurers 51 Gresham Street London EC2V 7HQ Telephone 020 7600 3333

Executive Summary ABI.ORG.UK. Association of British Insurers 51 Gresham Street London EC2V 7HQ Telephone 020 7600 3333 Association of British Insurers response to the Northern Ireland Assembly Environment Committee s Consultation on The Road Traffic (Amendment Bill) About the ABI 1.1 The Association of British Insurers

More information

Safe & Caring Schools Policy Revised 2013

Safe & Caring Schools Policy Revised 2013 Safe & Caring Schools Policy Revised 2013 1. Background and Purpose Increased public awareness and concern regarding the societal issues of bullying and violent behaviour among youth prompted the Department

More information

The National Health Plan for Young Australians An action plan to protect and promote the health of children and young people

The National Health Plan for Young Australians An action plan to protect and promote the health of children and young people The National Health Plan for Young Australians An action plan to protect and promote the health of children and young people Copyright 1997 ISBN 0 642 27200 X This work is copyright. It may be reproduced

More information

The Injury Alberta Report, 2011

The Injury Alberta Report, 2011 The Injury Alberta Report, 2011 By 2015 480 Lives Saved 30% Fewer Injury Hospital Admissions $700 Million in Healthcare Costs Saved Injury Alberta is an initiative led by graduate students with the School

More information

Section 15. transportation of children in vehicles. Regulation 51. of Children in Vehicles. 15. Transportation

Section 15. transportation of children in vehicles. Regulation 51. of Children in Vehicles. 15. Transportation 15. Transportation of Children in Vehicles Section 15 Regulation 51 transportation of children in vehicles Section 15 Regulation 51 TRANSPORTATION OF CHILDREN IN VEHICLES This regulation explains the policy

More information

SAFETY PROCESS. Martin Small

SAFETY PROCESS. Martin Small SAFETY PROCESS Martin Small With a broad transport policy background including extensive work in the maritime sector, Martin Small has been working in road safety for five years, in a variety of roles

More information

Young Drivers The High-Risk Years

Young Drivers The High-Risk Years Chubb Personal Insurance (CPI) is the personal lines property and casualty strategic business unit of Chubb & Son, a division of Federal Insurance Company, as manager and/or agent for the insurers of the

More information

The number of fatalities fell even further last year to below 6,000 for the first time in 54 years since 1953.

The number of fatalities fell even further last year to below 6,000 for the first time in 54 years since 1953. 1 Long-term trends The number of fatalities fell even further last year to below 6,000 for the first time in 54 years since 1953. Number of road traffic accidents, fatalities, and injuries Notes: 1. Source:

More information

Strategic targets board as a management tool for Spanish road safety

Strategic targets board as a management tool for Spanish road safety Road safety data: collection and analysis for target setting and monitoring performances and progress Strategic targets board as a management tool for Spanish road safety Pilar Zori Bertolin Spain Spanish

More information

Underage Drinking. Underage Drinking Statistics

Underage Drinking. Underage Drinking Statistics Underage Drinking Underage drinking is a serious public health problem in the United States. Alcohol is the most widely used substance of abuse among America s youth, and drinking by young people poses

More information

AMERICAN COLLEGE OF SURGEONS Committee on Trauma. Injury Prevention. Presented by the Subcommittee on Injury Prevention and Control

AMERICAN COLLEGE OF SURGEONS Committee on Trauma. Injury Prevention. Presented by the Subcommittee on Injury Prevention and Control AMERICAN COLLEGE OF SURGEONS Committee on Trauma Injury Prevention Presented by the Subcommittee on Injury Prevention and Control AMERICAN COLLEGE OF SURGEONS Committee on Trauma Injury Prevention Presented

More information

A Parent s Guide. Talking with your child about alcohol and other drugs. Helping our Communities to be Healthier

A Parent s Guide. Talking with your child about alcohol and other drugs. Helping our Communities to be Healthier A Parent s Guide Talking with your child about alcohol and other drugs Helping our Communities to be Healthier ISBN # 978-1-55471-238-0 CNB - 6569 1. Introduction Most of our children do not end up abusing

More information

CREATING CONDITIONS IN ARKANSAS WHERE INJURY IS LESS LIKELY TO HAPPEN.

CREATING CONDITIONS IN ARKANSAS WHERE INJURY IS LESS LIKELY TO HAPPEN. CREATING CONDITIONS IN ARKANSAS WHERE INJURY IS LESS LIKELY TO HAPPEN. First Edition: September, 2012 Current Edition: June, 2014 Arkansas Department of Health Injury and Violence Prevention Five Year

More information

FAQs. September 2005 Page 1 of 6

FAQs. September 2005 Page 1 of 6 FAQs What are the B.C. Road Safety Plan and Canada s Road Safety Vision 2010? The goal of the B.C. Road Safety Plan and Canada s Road Safety Vision 2010 is for B.C. and Canada to have the safest roads

More information

ROAD TRAFFIC INJURIES AMONG PATIENTS WHO ATTENDED THE ACCIDENT AND EMERGENCY UNIT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MALAYA MEDICAL CENTRE, KUALA LUMPUR

ROAD TRAFFIC INJURIES AMONG PATIENTS WHO ATTENDED THE ACCIDENT AND EMERGENCY UNIT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MALAYA MEDICAL CENTRE, KUALA LUMPUR ORIGINAL ARTICLE JUMMEC 2008:11(1) ROAD TRAFFIC INJURIES AMONG PATIENTS WHO ATTENDED THE ACCIDENT AND EMERGENCY UNIT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MALAYA MEDICAL CENTRE, KUALA LUMPUR Moe H Department of Social

More information

Searching the SafetyLit Database For Articles On Key Injury Prevention Topics

Searching the SafetyLit Database For Articles On Key Injury Prevention Topics Searching the SafetyLit Database For On Key Injury Prevention Topics Documents in SafetyLit are not yet indexed with subject terms. Thus, a query of the archive database requires the use of textwords (the

More information

Survey on Tobacco Control in Canada s Public Health Units and Health Regions

Survey on Tobacco Control in Canada s Public Health Units and Health Regions Survey on Tobacco Control in Canada s Public Health Units and Health Regions Survey Results Report Alexey Babayan Ahila Srikandarajah Ashley Duncan Robert Schwartz July, 2010 Acknowledgments We sincerely

More information

Policy Document Road safety

Policy Document Road safety Policy Document Road safety Type hier de hoofdstuk as one titel Road safety: working together The number of road deaths in the Netherlands has been steadily decreasing since the 1970s. This number rose

More information

Car occupants intoxication and non-use of safety belts

Car occupants intoxication and non-use of safety belts TØI report 499/2000 Authors: Fridulv Sagberg, Terje Assum Oslo 2000, 63 pages Norwegian language Summary: In-depth road accident investigations Aggregated results from 96 fatal accidents in Mälardalen,

More information

INSURANCE IN THE UK: THE BENEFITS OF PRICING RISK. January 2008

INSURANCE IN THE UK: THE BENEFITS OF PRICING RISK. January 2008 INSURANCE IN THE UK: THE BENEFITS OF PRICING RISK January 2008 1 INSURANCE IN THE UK: THE BENEFITS OF PRICING RISK How insurance deals with risk Insurance protects people and businesses against the risks

More information

INJURIES IN CHILDREN. Introduction

INJURIES IN CHILDREN. Introduction INJURIES IN CHILDREN Introduction Unintentional injury remains the leading cause of death in New Zealand children aged 1 14 years [183]. In national data for 2004 2008, the most common causes of injury

More information

Global Plan. Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011 2020

Global Plan. Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011 2020 Global Plan for the Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011 2020 1 I call on Member States, international agencies, civil society organizations, businesses and community leaders to ensure that the Decade

More information

TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT STRATEGY YORK REGIONAL POLICE. Road Safety It s In Your Hands

TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT STRATEGY YORK REGIONAL POLICE. Road Safety It s In Your Hands TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT STRATEGY YORK REGIONAL POLICE Road Safety It s In Your Hands CONTENTS 2 5 6 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 28 19 20 21 22 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT STRATEGY TARGETS TO 2017

More information

Regulatory Impact Statement

Regulatory Impact Statement Regulatory Impact Statement EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Several problems have been identified that contribute to the high crash risk of motorcyclists. With motorcycling increasing in popularity the following package

More information

Road Traffic Injuries in Kenya: A Survey of Motorcycle Drivers (V. 1.0, 13 June 2014)

Road Traffic Injuries in Kenya: A Survey of Motorcycle Drivers (V. 1.0, 13 June 2014) Fact Sheet Road Traffic Injuries in Kenya: A Survey of Motorcycle Drivers (V. 1.0, 13 June 2014) Summary & Background The World Health Organization estimates that over 1.2 million people die from road

More information

How to reduce road injuries through best-practice speed management : Learnings from Australia s experience

How to reduce road injuries through best-practice speed management : Learnings from Australia s experience How to reduce road injuries through best-practice speed management : Learnings from Australia s experience Associate Professor Jennie Oxley Monash University Accident Research Centre WRI Sao Paulo, 15

More information

Safe Community Whangarei

Safe Community Whangarei Safe Communities Foundation New Zealand Certifying Centre for Safe Community Programs On behalf of the WHO Collaborating Centre on Community Safety Promotion, Department of Public Health Sciences Division

More information

Progress in Reducing Road-Related Deaths and Injuries in Irish Children J Donnelly 1, Y Bimpeh 2, F Trace 3, A Waters 1, AJ Nicholson 1

Progress in Reducing Road-Related Deaths and Injuries in Irish Children J Donnelly 1, Y Bimpeh 2, F Trace 3, A Waters 1, AJ Nicholson 1 Progress in Reducing Road-Related Deaths and Injuries in Irish Children J Donnelly 1, Y Bimpeh 2, F Trace 3, A Waters 1, AJ Nicholson 1 1 RCSI Department, Children s University Hospital, Temple St, Dublin

More information

Legislative Council Panel on Transport. Cycling Safety and Use of Safety Equipment for Cyclists

Legislative Council Panel on Transport. Cycling Safety and Use of Safety Equipment for Cyclists LC Paper No. CB(1)1130/10-11(05) For Discussion 28 January 2011 Legislative Council Panel on Transport Cycling Safety and Use of Safety Equipment for Cyclists Purpose This paper briefs members on Government

More information

2008 Bateman Case Study Competition. Project Brief

2008 Bateman Case Study Competition. Project Brief 2008 Bateman Case Study Competition Project Brief WHO IS THE CLIENT? Chevrolet, a division of General Motors, is this year s client for the 2008 Bateman Case Study Campaign. The specific project will be

More information

NOVA SCOTIA HOUSING DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION. Business Plan 2012-2013

NOVA SCOTIA HOUSING DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION. Business Plan 2012-2013 NOVA SCOTIA HOUSING DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION Business Plan 2012-2013 Table of Contents Message from Nova Scotia Housing Development Corporation..2 1.0 Mission / Mandate... 3 2.0 Strategic Goal... 3 3.0

More information

Introduction of a national health insurance scheme

Introduction of a national health insurance scheme International Social Security Association Meeting of Directors of Social Security Organizations in the English-speaking Caribbean Tortola, British Virgin Islands, 4-6 July 2005 Introduction of a national

More information

Road fatalities in 2012. Road fatality: person killed in a traffic crash or deceased because of an injury within 30 days after the crash.

Road fatalities in 2012. Road fatality: person killed in a traffic crash or deceased because of an injury within 30 days after the crash. Norway Source: IRTAD, Public Roads Administration Inhabitants Vehicles/1 000 inhabitants Road fatalities in 2012 Fatalities /100 000 inhabitants in 2012 5.0 million 703 145 2.9 1. Road safety data collection

More information

Youth and Road Crashes Magnitude, Characteristics and Trends

Youth and Road Crashes Magnitude, Characteristics and Trends Youth and Road Crashes Magnitude, Characteristics and Trends The The mission of the (TIRF) is to reduce traffic related deaths and injuries TIRF is a national, independent, charitable road safety institute.

More information

Bicycle Safety Enforcement Action Guidelines

Bicycle Safety Enforcement Action Guidelines Introduction Bicycle Safety Enforcement Action Guidelines People ride bicycles for many different reasons: fitness, recreation, or for transportation. Regardless of the reason for riding, bicyclists young

More information

Road fatalities in 2012

Road fatalities in 2012 Cambodia Source: IRTAD, National Road Safety Committee Inhabitants Vehicles/1 000 inhabitants Road fatalities in 2012 Fatalities /100 000 inhabitants in 2012 14.7 million 148 1 966 13.4 Cambodia joined

More information

Evidence-Based Effective Strategies for Preventing Injuries:

Evidence-Based Effective Strategies for Preventing Injuries: : Child Restraints, Seat Belts, Reducing Alcohol-Impaired Driving, Teen Drivers, Child Abuse Prevention, Bike Helmets, Residential Fire, and Drowning Compiled by L.J. David Wallace, MSEH National Center

More information

RISK RESPONSIBILITY REALITY APPENDIX D AUTOMOBILE INSURANCE IN CANADA

RISK RESPONSIBILITY REALITY APPENDIX D AUTOMOBILE INSURANCE IN CANADA The appendix includes relevant clauses drawn from the Compulsory Minimum Insurance Coverage for Private Passenger Vehicles as prepared by the Insurance Bureau of Canada (FACTS 2005 p. 12-15) used with

More information

Identifying Factors Underlying Injury

Identifying Factors Underlying Injury Moving Towards Competency in Injury Prevention Identifying Factors Underlying Injury Thomas Songer, PhD University of Pittsburgh Center for Injury Research & Control Lecture Objectives On completion of

More information

Result Card: Road Safety

Result Card: Road Safety Result Card: Road Safety Our population Everyone in Wairarapa What we want to achieve (result / outcome) Wairarapa roads are free of serious and fatal injuries How we will measure success (indicator) 1)

More information

Drowning. Canadian. Report. 2013 Edition. drownings as Canadians get older

Drowning. Canadian. Report. 2013 Edition. drownings as Canadians get older Canadian Drowning Report Change in Deaths and Death Rates in Canada, 1991 to 2010 More 2013 Edition Prepared for the Lifesaving Society Canada by the Drowning Prevention Research Centre Canada drownings

More information

Driving as a Public Health Problem.

Driving as a Public Health Problem. Driving as a Public Health Problem. Dr Nicola Christie (UCL),Dr Philip Edwards (LSHTM), Professor Judith Green (LSHTM), Dr Sarah Jones (Cardiff University), and Professor Lindsay Prior (QUB). 1. The Issues:

More information

BE ACTIVE TOGETHER NEIGHBORHOOD HOUSE 2013 PROGRESS REPORT

BE ACTIVE TOGETHER NEIGHBORHOOD HOUSE 2013 PROGRESS REPORT BE ACTIVE TOGETHER NEIGHBORHOOD HOUSE 2013 PROGRESS REPORT PURPOSE AND APPROACH. Be Active Together (BAT) is a project to improve the health of the residents of the High Point and Greenbridge public housing

More information

A Safer Way: Consultation on making Britain s. roads the safest in the world. Response from:

A Safer Way: Consultation on making Britain s. roads the safest in the world. Response from: A Safer Way: Consultation on making Britain s roads the safest in the world Response from: British Vehicle Rental and Leasing Association River Lodge Badminton Court Amersham BUCKS HP7 0DD Tel: +44 1494

More information