# The Not-Formula Book for C1

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2 The Not-Formula Book for C1 Everything you need to know for Core 1 that won t be in the formula book Examination Board: AQA Brief This document is intended as an aid for revision. Although it includes some examples and explanation, it is primarily not for learning content, but for becoming familiar with the requirements of the course as regards formulae and results. It cannot replace the use of a text book, and nothing produces competence and familiarity with mathematical techniques like practice. This document was produced as an addition to classroom teaching and textbook questions, to provide a summary of key points and, in particular, any formulae or results you are expected to know and use in this module. Contents Chapter 1 Advancing from GCSE maths: algebra review Chapter 2 Surds Chapter 3 Coordinate geometry of straight lines Chapter 4 Quadratics and their graphs Chapter 5 Polynomials Chapter 6 Factors, remainders and cubic graphs Chapter 7 Simultaneous equations and quadratic inequalities Chapter 8 Coordinate geometry of circles Chapter 9 Introduction to differentiation: gradient of curves Chapter 10 Applications of differentiation: tangents, normals and rates of change Chapter 11 Maximum and minimum points and optimisation problems Chapter 12 Integration Page 1 of 25

3 Chapter 1 Advancing from GCSE maths: algebra review An equation of the form, where and are constants, is said to be a linear equation with variable. The method of solving linear equations is to collect all the terms involving on one side of the equation and everything else on the other side. Sometimes linear equations involve fractions. To convert this to a linear equation with integer coefficients, multiply through by the lowest common multiple of the denominators. Eg: One method for solving simultaneous linear equations is the elimination method. Coefficients of one of the variables are made equal and then the equations are effectively added or subtracted from one another to eliminate this variable. Eg: (1) (2) (1) 2 (2)+(1 ) Sub into (2) Page 2 of 25

4 More generally, a wider range of simultaneous equations can be solved more easily using substitution. Eg: (1) (2) Rearrange (1) Sub into (2) Rearrange (2 ) Solve (2 ) Sub into (1 ) Write out solutions Note: Take care to pair up the correct values of and they represent the coordinates of the crossing points for the two equations. When solving an inequality, if you multiply or divide by a negative, you must reverse the sign. Note: The reason for this is clear when you consider. By subtracting 8 from each side we get, which is of course perfectly correct. But notice that this is equivalent to which not only has different signs to the original statement but also has the inequality sign reversed. A function is any rule that produces an output value for a given input. The function, when applied to the input value, is written as. Eg: The function which subtracts 2 and then squares the result would be written as: Note: Numbers may be substituted into functions simply by replacing : Page 3 of 25

5 Chapter 2 Surds The counting numbers, or natural numbers are a subset of all whole numbers, or integers, which are themselves a subset of rational numbers (numbers which can be written as a fraction). The rationals are a subset of real numbers, which also include numbers called irrational numbers which cannot be written as fractions (and therefore also not as either terminating or recurring decimals). Examples of irrational numbers include,,,. Irrational numbers involving roots, such as or, are known as surds. Multiplication or division within a root can be brought outside the root. In general: Eg: Simplify Note: The equivalent for addition and subtraction is not valid. Eg If a fraction is written with a surd in the denominator, it is often useful to be able to rewrite it so that the denominator is a rational number. This is known as rationalising the denominator, and is accomplished by multiplying top and bottom of the fraction by a number which will have the desired effect. Eg: Page 4 of 25

6 Chapter 3 Coordinate geometry of straight lines The distance between two points can be calculated by constructing a right-angled triangle between the coordinates and applying Pythagoras Theorem: The midpoint of the line between the points and is given by: Note: This is simply the average of the coordinates and the average of the coordinates. The gradient of the line between the points and is given by: Note: This is often described as step over step, or rise over run. Lines with gradients and are parallel if. They are perpendicular if. Note: The concepts behind the above results are more important (and more easily memorable) than the formulae used to describe them mathematically. The result below is the only one where memorising the formula gives an advantage to quickly solving problems. Given the gradient,, and a single point,, the equation of a line can be generated using: Given two points, the equation of a line can be generated using: Note: The above result is simply a combination of the definition of gradient and the gradient & point formula above. As such it is not necessary to memorise this form if you are already confident with finding the gradient between two points and can recall. The crossing point of two lines directly corresponds with the values of and which satisfy both equations. This can be found either by reading off the graph, or more precisely by solving the equations simultaneously. Page 5 of 25

7 Chapter 4 Quadratics and their graphs A quadratic function can be written in the form, and the shape of the graph produced is known as a parabola. It is symmetrical, and resembles either a U shape (for ) or an inverted U (for ). If it crosses the -axis, the equation has two distinct solutions. If it only touches at one point this will be at its maximum or minimum and the equation will have one (repeated) solution. If the graph doesn t touch the -axis at all, the equation will have no real solutions. A quadratic can sometimes be factorised; that is, written in the form, and in this case the solutions are and, giving crossing points of and. Note: These values of and could be positive or negative, or even fractional. For more difficult examples, an alternative method of solving might be used (completing the square or using the quadratic formula). Note: Some simple cases can be solved more easily. For instance, if, one factor will always be, giving one of the solutions as, and if, the equation can be directly rearranged to make the subject, giving the solutions as. Any quadratic can be rearranged into the completed square form: Note: This form allows you not only to solve a quadratic equation through a few quick steps of rearrangement, but also provides a useful method for identifying a maximum or minimum. Note that the stationary point will occur when, and will take the value ; that is,. The transformation represented by a change from to is a translation of. This means the graph has effectively moved to the right and up. The solutions of any quadratic (if they exist) can be found using the quadratic formula: Note: This formula is a direct result of solving the general equation by completing the square. The discriminant of a quadratic enables us to determine whether the equation will have 0, 1 or 2 real roots. For, since we can t square root a negative, there are no real roots. For, there is one (repeated) root, and for there are two roots. Page 6 of 25

8 Chapter 5 Polynomials A polynomial of degree is an expression of the form: Where etc are constants,, and is a positive integer (the degree is the highest power). Note: Two polynomials can be added to make a new polynomial. To combine, simply collect like terms. Note: The number in front of a particular power of is known as its coefficient. Eg: Find the coefficient of in The coefficient of is. Note: Recall that when multiplying brackets it is necessary to multiply every term in the first bracket by every term in the second. Eg: Multiply out: Page 7 of 25

9 Chapter 6 Factors, remainders and cubic graphs The factor theorem: Note: This means that if we know a factor of a polynomial, we can find the corresponding root (or solution), and vice versa. To factorise a cubic, first find a root by trial and error, then use the factor theorem to generate a linear factor. Finally, use inspection to find the remaining (quadratic) factor, and factorise this, where possible. Eg: Factorise fully 0 not a root. 1 is a root. By inspection, we need in the second bracket to give the term in the cubic. We also need in the second bracket to give the term in the cubic. To get the term we need to examine the terms from each, as well as the combination of the and constant terms. Since we already have giving, we need to give the result. This must be achieved by multiplied by the second bracket s term which therefore must be simply. Finally, factorise the quadratic if possible: To sketch the graph of a cubic: Step 1: Determine the overall direction by looking at the sign of the coefficient of. Step 2: Find the -intercept by looking at the constant term (evaluate at ). Step 3: Find any points where the graph crosses the -axis by solving. Repeated roots represent points where the graph touches the axis but does not cross it. Step 4: Plot the points and sketch the graph. Check some additional points if necessary. Page 8 of 25

10 When a polynomial is divided by a linear expression, the following is true: Where: is a polynomial of degree is the divisor of degree 1 (linear) is the quotient of degree is the remainder of degree 0 (constant) Note: By considering the case when, we produce the remainder theorem. The remainder theorem: When a polynomial is divided by, the remainder is and vice versa. Note: The factor theorem is a corollary of the remainder theorem, for the case where. Eg: When the polynomial is divided by it has a remainder of. Find. Note: Often it will be necessary to combine knowledge of the factor theorem and the remainder theorem and use simultaneous equations to solve a problem. Eg: The polynomial has as a factor, but gives a remainder when divided by. Find and. By the factor theorem: By the remainder theorem: Solving simultaneously: (1) (2) (2) 40 (1)(2 ) Sub into (1) Page 9 of 25

11 Chapter 7 Simultaneous equations and quadratic inequalities Simultaneous equations can sometimes be solved by elimination of one or other of the variables. Simultaneous equations can be used to find the intersection of two lines, a line and a curve or even two curves. Where elimination is unsuitable, substitution is another valid method. Note: See chapter 1 for detailed examples of these methods. When dealing with the intersection of a line and a parabola, the resulting equation will be a quadratic. Two solutions correspond to two crossing points, no solutions to no crossing points, and exactly one solution (a repeated root) means the line is a tangent to the curve at that point. To solve a quadratic inequality, use the equivalent equation to determine critical values, then consider the graph to determine the range of solutions for the inequality. Eg: Solve the inequality. Page 10 of 25

12 A quadratic inequality can also be solved using a sign diagram which indicates whether the graph is positive or negative in each region. Eg: Find all values of which satisfy the inequality. Writing a quadratic in completed square form can help to identify the signs for each region. It may be useful to note the following two results (visualising them as a graph can help): Eg: Solve the inequality Note: Frequently knowledge of the discriminant is combined with solving quadratic inequalities. Eg: For what values of does the quadratic have no solutions? Page 11 of 25

13 Chapter 8 Coordinate geometry of circles The equation of a circle with centre and radius is given by: Note: This can be understood by considering any point on the circle and constructing a right-angled triangle, with the line from the origin to the point as the hypotenuse. By Pythagoras Theorem, the square of the radius must be equal to the sum of the squares of the and coordinates. The general equation of a circle with centre and radius is given by: Note: This is simply a translation on the original circle centre by the translation vector. Eg: The circle : Note: The most common mistakes to watch out for when interpreting a circle equation are getting the signs wrong for the centre coordinates or forgetting to square root the number on the right to get the radius. Recall that a translation by the vector represents a movement of in the positive direction and a movement of in the positive direction. Note: This transformation can be applied repeatedly. It is often easiest to consider where the centre of a circle is, and where the centre of the new circle will be after the translation. Eg: Translate the circle by vector. Page 12 of 25

14 To sketch a circle: Step 1: Find the radius and centre from the equation. Step 2: Mark the centre. Step 3: Use the radius to mark on the four points directly above, below and to either side. Step 4: Draw the circle through these four points, indicating where the circle crosses the axes, if applicable. Note: It may be necessary, when finding the centre and radius of a circle, to rearrange the equation into the desired form. This is accomplished by completing the square separately for and. Eg: Find the centre and radius of the circle whose equation is To find the equation of a circle given the end points of the diameter, calculate the midpoint and the distance between the points (see chapter 3). This will give you the centre and the diameter. Halve the diameter to get the radius, then put into the form. The perpendicular bisector of any chord passes through the centre. Note: This means the centre of a circle can be found by finding the intersection of any two such perpendicular bisectors. All that is required is two chords (which means a minimum of 3 points). Eg: Find the coordinates of the centre of the circle through the points. Using and, then midpoints and for perpendicular lines: Points and : Points and : Note: By finding the distance from the centre to one of the points, we could also find the radius, and thus the equation of the circle, if required. Page 13 of 25

15 Like any other curve, and as discussed in chapter 7, finding the crossing points of a line and a circle can be found by solving simultaneously (using the substitution method). Note: Just like with a line crossing a parabola, the discriminant can be used to determine if the line passes through the circle (cutting it at two points; positive discriminant), lies tangent to the circle (one, repeated, root; zero discriminant) or misses the circle completely (no solutions; negative discriminant). Eg: For which values of does the line lie tangent to the circle? Substituting for : Multiplying out and rearranging: Using the discriminant condition: Simplifying: Rearranging and solving: (optional) Verify solution graphically: Page 14 of 25

16 A tangent to the circle at a particular point is a line which touches the circle only at that point. It is always perpendicular to the radius. A normal to the circle at a particular point is a line passing through a circle which is perpendicular to the tangent at that point. Note: The normal line at any point on a circle will pass through the centre, since it is perpendicular to the tangent which is perpendicular to the radius. To find the equation of a tangent or normal at a particular point: Step 1: Find the centre of the circle. Step 2: Calculate the gradient of the line segment from the centre to your point. Step 3i: For a normal, use this gradient and your point in the formula. Step 3ii: For a tangent, first find the tangent gradient by using, then use the formula. Eg: Find the equation of the tangent to the circle at the point. Page 15 of 25

17 Chapter 9 Introduction to differentiation: gradient of curves Differentiation is a method for finding the gradient of a curve at any given point. It can be thought of as the rate of change of with respect to. For a small change in and a corresponding small change in, the gradient of a chord can be written as: Note: In this case, chord refers to a straight line segment drawn between two nearby points on a curve. We define the gradient of a curve at a particular point as the gradient of the tangent to the curve at that point. Note: As the end-points get closer together, the gradient of the chord approaches the gradient of the tangent at each point (ie, the gradient of the curve). This is the basis for differentiation the limit to which the gradients of the ever-decreasing chords tends is the gradient of the curve at that point. The limit of as is written as and is known as the differential of with respect to. Note: The proof of this idea is given in the textbook, but while it is worth understanding it is not necessary to memorise the proof. Note: This can be thought of as bring the power down in front, then reduce the power by one. Note: If there is a constant multiplied by the term, this is not affected by differentiating. Eg: Note: is the notation sometimes used to denote the derivative of. It means the same as, but is less cumbersome than,. Eg: The differential of is (note that any constants differentiate to ). Page 16 of 25

18 To find the gradient of a curve at a particular point, calculate and substitute in the coordinate. Eg: Find the gradient of the curve at the point. Multiply out: Differentiate: Substitute in : To find a point on a curve with a given gradient, differentiate then set your expression equal to the gradient and solve for. Finally, substitute into the original equation for a corresponding value for. Eg: Find any points on the curve where the gradient is. Differentiate: Rewrite using : Substitute back into the original equation: Page 17 of 25

19 Chapter 10 Applications of differentiation: tangents, normals and rates of change Given the gradient of a curve at a particular point, we can find the equation of the tangent using where is the point on the curve and is the gradient. Note: We can calculate the gradient for a particular point on a curve using differentiation. (see chapter 9). Also note that, when dealing with circles, although this method does work, it requires knowledge beyond the scope of this module to apply, and it is still more straightforward to use the method described in chapter 8 using the centre and a normal line. Eg: Find the equation of the tangent to the curve at the point. Differentiate: Substitute in : Use : Recall that means the rate of change of with respect to. Note: Often the rate of change will be with respect to time. Page 18 of 25

20 Eg: The height metres of a skydiver at time seconds is modelled by the equation: Calculate the skydiver s rate of descent when he has fallen 1000 metres. Substitute in to find the time at which he is at a height of 1000: Solve (using the quadratic formula) to find (note: only positive values are valid for this problem): Find the rate of descent (in other words, speed) by differentiating: Substitute to find the rate of descent at this time: Note: This is negative as it is the rate of change of height, so the rate of descent is. If for all values in a given interval, the function is said to be increasing for this interval. If for all values in a given interval, the function is said to be decreasing for this interval. Note: You may be asked to show that a given function is either increasing or decreasing for a given range. You would do this by finding the gradient by differentiating and showing that the expression you have found fits the criteria above. Page 19 of 25

21 Chapter 11 Maximum and minimum points and optimisation We can find a point on a curve with a particular gradient (see chapter 9). If we look specifically for points where the gradient is zero, these must correspond to points on the curve which are either maxima, minima or turning points. These points are known as stationary points. Stationary points occur when: For a minimum on a curve, such as the lowest point of a parabola, the gradient must be negative just before the minimum and positive just after. For a maximum, the gradient is positive just before and negative just after. Note: This is one way we can determine if a given stationary point is a maximum or a minimum. If we differentiate a function a second time we get the rate of change of the gradient. This can be written as: Note: These are usually said as -double-dashed of and -two- by --squared. Another way of testing the nature of a stationary point is to calculate the second derivative. Note: Since this is the rate at which the gradient changes, if the stationary point is a minimum the gradient goes from negative to positive; it is increasing which means its rate of change is positive. Page 20 of 25

22 If the gradient is, the curve may be at a local maximum or minimum, or it might be at a point of inflection. This means the gradient goes to zero, but then continues with the same type of gradient (positive or negative) it had before. A point of inflection can be either positive or negative. A positive point of inflection has a positive gradient either side, and a negative point of inflection has a negative gradient. One common application of stationary points is optimisation problems. If a problem can be formulated algebraically and we are aiming to maximise or minimise something (eg maximum volume, or minimum surface area for a given shape), we can use differentiation to find the required value of. Eg: A box is to be made by cutting corners from a square sheet of cardboard and folding up the edges as shown. The original square measures by. Find the maximum volume for the resulting box and the corresponding height. Let be the height of the cuboid; then: Differentiate to find stationary points: Find the resulting volume: Page 21 of 25

23 Chapter 12 Integration Integration is the reverse of differentiation. If you know the derivative of a function, the process of finding the function itself is known as integration. If is the differential of then: Note: This would be described as The integral of with respect to. Note: The on the end is due to the fact that any constant would differentiate to, therefore, for instance, differentiates to the same thing as. By including this arbitrary constant of integration we are describing all possible functions (the family of functions ) which differentiate to the function we are integrating. Note: This can be thought of as increase the power by one, then divide by the new power. Since integration in this way always yields an arbitrary constant, and therefore cannot give a single unique value, the integral is known as an indefinite integral. Note: The specific solution for a particular case can be found provided initial conditions are provided typically a value for at, but could be any specific point on the curve. Eg: A function has derivative and goes through the point. Find in terms of. A result concerning combinations of functions has been given for differentiation (see chapter 9). An equivalent result is valid for integration: Note: It may often be necessary to multiply out brackets in order to turn a function into an easily integrable form. Page 22 of 25

24 In the same way that differentiation can be thought of as finding the gradient of a curve at any point, integration is a way of finding the area under a curve between any two points. Finding the area under a curve using integration requires the use of limits. The resulting integral is known as a definite integral, since the effect of any arbitrary constant is cancelled out and is therefore superfluous. Note: It is important to be aware of the shape of the graph, since integration will yield a negative result for any section of the area which lies below the axis. Eg: Find the area bounded by the curve, the axis and the lines and. In this example, there is no problem because the entire region lies above the axis. The positive value given by integration is equal to the area. Eg: Find the area bounded by the curve, the axis and the lines and. Here, since the whole region is below the axis, the integral is negative, but the same size as the area. All that is necessary is to change the sign from negative to positive. Page 23 of 25

25 Eg: Find the area bounded by the curve, the axis and the lines and. Here, because part of the integral would be negative, it would cancel out with some of the positive part, so we need to separate and integrate each region independently. In this case, the axis crossing points are obvious because the function is a quadratic that easily factorises. In other cases, more work may be necessary. The area under a line can be found using integration, just like any function of, but it is generally quicker to consider it as a trapezium. Eg: The area under the line between and can be calculated by: Using integration: Using area of a trapezium: Page 24 of 25

26 To find the area of a region bounded by a curve and a line, it is necessary to calculate the points of intersection, and then calculate the difference between the area under the curve and the area under the line. Eg: Find the area bounded by the curve and the line. Find points of intersection: Find area under line (note: this is a trapezium): Find area under curve: Calculate the difference to find the area in between: Produced by A. Clohesy; TheChalkface.net 28/03/2013 Page 25 of 25

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