Access and Use of Imagery and Data from MODIS, Landsat, and Commercial Satellites

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1 Access and Use of Imagery and Data from MODIS, Landsat, and Commercial Satellites Forrest Melton Ecological Forecasting Lab CSU Monterey Bay & NASA Ames Research Center Moffett Field, CA MODIS Rapid Response image, June 7, 2011

2 NASA s Earth Observing System Currently 20 operating satellite missions returning ~1.8 TB of data per day

3 Imagery vs Data Remote sensing imagery is a transformation of digital data collected across the electromagnetic spectrum into the visible spectrum to assist in visualization and analysis.

4 Introduction to Remote Sensing (abridged version) Satellite and airborne instruments measure multiple bands across the full electromagnetic spectrum. Remote Sensing Tutorial:

5 Example: MODIS on Terra & Aqua Terra Satellite Launched Dec. 18, 1999 with five instruments (ASTER, CERES, MISR, MODIS, MOPITT) Satellite Instruments: MODIS Aqua Satellite Launched May 4, 2002 with six instruments (AIRS, AMSR-E, AMSU, CERES, HSB, MODIS) MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Orbit: 705 km, 10:30 a.m. descending node (Terra) or 1:30 p.m. ascending node (Aqua), sun-synchronous, near-polar, circular Swath Dimensions: 2330 km (cross track) by 10 km (along track at nadir) Data Rate:10.6 Mbps (peak daytime); 6.1 Mbps (orbital average) Spatial Resolution: 250 m (bands 1-2), 500 m (bands 3-7), 1000 m (bands 8-36) Design Life: 6 years

6 Multiple Data Products per Instrument: MODIS Measurements MOD01 MOD02 MOD03 MOD04 MOD05 MOD06 MOD07 MOD08 MOD09 MOD10 MOD11 MOD12 MOD13 MOD14 MOD15 MOD16 MOD17 MOD18 MOD19 MOD20 MOD21 MOD22 Level-1A Radiance Counts Level-1B Calibrated Relocated Radiances Relocation Data Set Aerosol Product Total Precipitable Water Cloud Product Atmospheric profiles Gridded Atmospheric Product (Level-3) Atmospherically-corrected Surface Reflectance Snow Cover Land Surface Temperature & Emissivity Land Cover/Land Cover Change Vegetation Indices Thermal Anomalies, Fires & Biomass Burning Leaf Area Index & FPAR Surface Resistance & Evapotranspiration Vegetation Production, Net Primary Productivity Normalized Water-leaving Radiance Pigment Concentration Chlorophyll Fluorescence Chlorophyll_a Pigment Concentration Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) MOD23 Suspended-Solids Conc, Ocean Water MOD24 Organic Matter Concentration MOD25 Coccolith Concentration MOD26 Ocean Water Attenuation Coefficient MOD27 Ocean Primary Productivity MOD28 Sea Surface Temperature MOD29 Sea Ice Cover MOD31 Phycoerythrin Concentration MOD32 Processing Framework & Match-up Database MOD35 Cloud Mask MOD36 Total Absorption Coefficient MOD37 Ocean Aerosol Properties MOD39 Clear Water Epsilon MOD43 Albedo 16-day L3 MOD44 Vegetation Cover Conversion MODISALB Snow and Sea Ice Albedo

7 EOS Data Information System (EOSDIS) EOSDIS is the comprehensive ground system for processing, archiving, and distributing data from all the EOS spacecraft Data processed, archived and distributed from nine distributed active archive centers, each with its own focus Accepts, process, and archives 1.8 TB per day of data from EOS > 4.2 petabytes of data archived 2.3 TB of user data requests per day fulfilled from 910,000 unique users Also provides mission operation systems that perform command and control of the spacecraft and instruments, health and safety monitoring, mission planning and scheduling, initial data capture, and Level 0 processing. Figure courtesy of Raytheon

8 Sources of Imagery and Data Resource Summary URL Warehouse Inventory Search Tool (WIST) MODIS Rapid Response System Data search and access interface for EOSDIS Near real-time RGB and NDVI imagery from MODIS https://wist.echo.nasa.gov/api/ MODIS Reprojection Tool Web Interface USGS Earth Resource Observation (EROS) Center Web Enabled Landsat Data (WELD) On-line data access and subsetting and access tool for MODIS Data search and access interface for land surface satellite data products On-line data acces and subsetting and access tool for Landsat

9 Warehouse Inventory Search Tool (WIST) Access to full EOSDIS data archive Searchable by keyword, satellite or sensor, location, and date/time range Many datasets require specialized software to open and process, though increasing support for scientific data formats by commonly used GIS tools WIST includes an extensive tutorial https://wist.echo.nasa.gov/api/

10 Warehouse Inventory Search Tool (WIST) https://wist.echo.nasa.gov/api/

11 MODIS Reprojection Tool Web Interface Provides access to geographic and temporal subsets from global MODIS data products.

12 MODIS Rapid Response System Provides access to near real-time RGB / NDVI imagery from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the NASA Terra and Aqua satellites Imagery available in JPEG and GeoTIFF formats, and includes geographic information and KMZ files for viewing in Google Earth Excellent source of easily accessible imagery at 250m to 2km resolution NASA Terra Satellite

13 MODIS Rapid Response

14 MODIS Rapid Response

15 MODIS Rapid Response and Google Earth

16 Landsat Landsat 5 launched in 1984 Landsat 7 launched in 1999 Landsat 8 scheduled for launch in m resolution 16 day scene interval Landsat 5 Satellite Band No. Wavelength Interval (µm) Spectral Response Resolution (m) Blue-Green Green Red Near IR Mid-IR Thermal IR Mid-IR 30 Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) Instrument

17 WELD: Web-Enabled Landsat Data

18 WELD: Web-Enabled Landsat Data Available data includes NDVI in TIF format (viewable in many image processing tools) WELD derived from Landsat 7 ETM+ data, and WELD composites address many of the issues with L7 data Some residual striping due to scan line correction hardware failure on satellite

19 Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) NDVI is an index that ranges from -1 to 1, and provides a measure of the differential reflectance of light in the visible and nearinfrared wavelengths Commonly used of as an index of photosynthetic activity or vegetation greenness

20 USGS: GLOVIS

21 Working with Data and Imagery in ArcGIS

22 Working with Data and Imagery in ArcGIS NDVI (b47,4,3 b3) / (b4+ b3) Bands False-color NDWI ==(b4 b5) / (b4 + b5)

23 Viewing and Analyzing Data Multiple commercial tools for viewing and analyzing commercial data: Application Description RSI ENVI/IDL Geospatial Image Processing ERDAS Imagine Geospatial Image Processing PCI Geomatics (ecognition) Geospatial Image Processing Idrisi Geospatial Image Processing ERMapper Geospatial Image Processing Matlab Technical Computing & Image Processing HDF Explorer Pro Data Visualization ArcGIS 9.x, 10 Geographic Information System

24 Viewing and Analyzing Data Open Source Remote Sensing Applications RemoteSensing.org, Application Description MultiSpec Multispectral Image Data Analysis MSPHINX Satellite Process Handling Images under Xwindow LDOPE Tools MODLAND Quality Assessment MODIS Swath-to-Grid IDL-Based Conversion Cube Visualization (CV) Data Visualization WebWinds Data Visualization/Processing WinVicar Windows-Based Image Processing HEW Web-based HDF-EOS Subsetter NCSA HDF Tools HDF Utilities 24

25 Commercial Satellite Data Quickbird (2) Quickbird nm / 0.6m Ikonos nm / 0.8m GeoEye nm / 0.4m Pan Blue Green Red Near-IR nm / 2.4m nm / 3.2m nm / 1.65m Ikonos nm / 2.4m nm / nm / nm / 2.4m nm / 3.2m nm / 1.65m nm / 2.4m nm / 3.2m nm /1.65m GeoEye Pansharpened multispec data with m spatial resolution Data cost of ~$25/km 2 ; $500-$2500 minimum order

26 Commercial Satellite Data: Disaster Monitoring

27

28 Resources for More Information NASA Earth Science Reference Handbook Finding Data WIST: MODIS Rapid Response: MRT Web: USGS EROS: USGS GLOVIS WELD: EOS Missions Mission Overviews: Missions Profiles: NASA Decadal Survey Missions Further Resources NASA Remote Sensing Tutorial: GIS Cafe Forums:

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