VCOP Grammar Ros Wilson & Sarah Threlkeld-Brown Tel: Fax:

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1 VCOP Grammar Ros Wilson & Sarah Threlkeld-Brown Tel: Fax:

2 = Current Curriculum (tested until 2015) = proposed new curriculum (additional content tested from 2016) The examples below are examples only. The lists of possibilities may be infinite. The technical terminology is usually only for the teacher. At an early age, the children should be able to use and recognise the features, but may not know all the technical names. However, we recommend they are used in juxtaposition in oral, by the adults, so that they gradually become a natural part of the child s lexicon. By Years 5/6 they should be used in games and quizzes to check children now know them. The following is a quick and user friendly guide to how grammar is addressed through Big Writing. For more understanding of grammar, see our free Demystifying Grammar document. No. Grammar VCOP Example Sentences Make sense. Capital letter at start. Full stop at end. Connective and = joining words and joining sentences using and Capital letter for names of people, places, days, months et cetera Year 1 Requirements First First First Which one has correct sentences? How many sentences? How many are not full sentences? (oral) How many have capital letters to start? How many have full stops to finish? Make me up... etc. Can you join those two together? How many connectives has he used? Which has used connectives? How many? How many connectives? Where could we put a connective? How can you make these two sentences one? Etc. Can you put in his capitals? Compare 2 copies of same paragraph, one with capitals used incorrectly OR missing, one with errors corrected. How many capitals for names? Where should there be capitals? Which of these need a capital letter? Et. Andrell Education 2

3 4 5 6 Full Stop Question Mark Exclamation Mark Pronouns Singular and plural Thief First First First Year 2 Requirements Where has he missed...?...used incorrectly? Compare 2 copies of same paragraph, one with punctuation used incorrectly OR missing, one with errors corrected. Teacher led + VCOP Fastest = punctuation on the end of this sentence? How many...? What would this need at the end? Etc. Can you up-level by changing the repeated noun into a pronoun? How many nouns has he used? Can you up-level by changing the repeated noun into a pronoun? Compare 2 copies of same paragraph, one with pronouns used incorrectly OR missing, one with errors corrected. Shout the pronoun for the nouns I give. How many pronouns...? Where could he have used pronouns? What is the correct pronoun for...? Etc. Can you correct his mistakes? Compare 2 copies of same paragraph, one with singular / plurals used incorrectly, one with errors corrected. How many...? (are there? / mistakes?/ of each?) What is the singular of...?...plural of? Can you change this into...? Etc. Andrell Education 3

4 7 8 Co-ordinating conjunctions and, or, but Current National Curriculum: these are known as connectives. Subordinating conjunctions when, if, because, that Current National Curriculum: these are known as subordinating connectives. Can you join those two together? Which would you use to join...? How could he have...? Which could he have used? Compare 2 copies of same paragraph, one with connectives used incorrectly OR missing, one with errors corrected. Best connective for these two sentences. How does meaning change if we change the conjunction? How many connectives? Where could we use a connective? Etc. Can you up-level through adding more information? Can you add a clause? Try the when, if, because, that words. Can you up-level Marmaduke s? (As above.) Compare 2 copies of same paragraph, one with connectives used incorrectly OR missing, one with errors corrected. How could we add more information using...?. (When, if, because or that). Count the connectives how many are...? What information follows...? Where could we use a connective to add more information? (All above using : when, if, because or that). Etc. Andrell Education 4

5 9 10 Statement Question Command Exclamation (SQCor E) Include the correct use of the appropriate punctuation already learned.!?, Commas for lists within sentences. Eg The book, the pen and the ruler were on the table. How many... has he used? (SQCor E) Where could he have used a...? (SQCor E) How do we know that is a...? (SQCor E) Compare 2 copies of same paragraph, one with examples of one or more used incorrectly OR missing, one with errors corrected. Teacher led + VCOP Which type of sentence is this? How many...? (SQCor E) Where could we use...? (SQCor E) What punctuation should this use? (SQCor E) Etc. Can you put in his commas (in lists)? How many commas has he used? Compare 2 copies of same paragraph, one with examples of commas used incorrectly OR missing (in lists), one with errors corrected. Teacher led + VCOP How many commas have been used? Which is wrong? Where should there be...? Where would you put the commas? Etc. Andrell Education 5

6 11 12 Contractions: use of the apostrophe to show letters are omitted isn t = is not, it s = it is, phone = telephone Adjectives: describing words for nouns or things a beautiful picture, the elderly woman Thief Snappy Synonyms Where could he have used the short form? Compare 2 copies of same paragraph, one with examples of apostrophes used incorrectly OR missing, one with errors corrected. Repeat with no contractions and contractions. Teacher led + VCOP Expanded form to contraction & contraction to expanded form. SPELL IT! How many contractions...? Where could we have used a contraction? SPELL this! (contracted forms) What is the contraction for...? Etc. Can you put in a word to describe that noun or thing? An adjective? Can you up-level by using a more powerful ( WOW ) describing word (adjective) to describe the noun or thing. Count how many adjectives he used. Up-level with an adjective. Up-level his adjectives. Where could he have used an adjective? Compare 2 copies of same paragraph, one with adjectives used incorrectly OR missing, one with error corrected or adjectives now used. Good describing words / adjectives for these nouns. How many adjectives...? Where could we put an adjective? Find an adjective for... Find more adjectives for...? Etc. Andrell Education 6

7 13 14 Verbs = doing words ran, talked, sees, wants, will give Verb tenses (Standard English): Noun / verb agreement Errors = The man were walking... I is going... Duchess Count how many verbs or doing words he used. Up-level with a WOW verb instead of said. Has he used any verbs wrongly / incorrectly? Compare 2 copies of same paragraph, one with verbs used incorrectly OR low level, one with error corrected or higher level now used. How many verbs? Which are the verbs in these sentences? Where can you up-level the verb? Which verbs would in these sentences? Etc. How many verbs need changing for the IF / Duchess? Eg He is... instead of He are... How many of Marmaduke s verbs are not Standard English? Where has he made grammar errors? Where has he used street language? How would The Duchess say it? Compare 2 copies of same paragraph, one with examples of noun /verb agreement used incorrectly, one with errors corrected. Spot the grammar errors. Correct these sentences. Which is right? How SHOULD we say...? What s wrong with this? Etc. Drama & Role Play Andrell Education 7

8 15 16 Adverbs: describing words for verbs or doing words He ran rapidly down the road. Sweetly, she smiled at him. Noun Phrases: expand a noun with description or similar The fluttering butterflies... The over active dog... The shabby looking house... Snappy Synonyms Year 3 & 4 Requirements Can you put in a word to describe that verb? An adverb? Can you up-level by using a more powerful ( WOW ) ly word (adverb) to open the sentence? Count how many adverbs he used. Where could he have used an adverb? Up-level with an adverb. Up-level his adverbs. Compare 2 copies of same paragraph, one with adverbs not used or used incorrectly, one with adverbs used or errors corrected. How many adverbs? Name the adverbs? Which adverbs could we have used in these sentences? Which adverb would be good here? How many more adverbs could you find to use instead of...? Etc. Can you up-level through putting more than a single adjective with the noun? Eg The fluttering, blue butterflies... The over active dog... The shabby and dirty house... Can you up-level Marmaduke s? (As above). Compare 2 copies of same paragraph, one with noun phrases not used or used incorrectly, one with noun phrases used or errors corrected. Find the noun phrases. How many noun phrases are there? Make the noun into a noun phrase. How could we up-level this with a noun phrase? Etc. Andrell Education 8

9 17 18 Subordinating Conjunctions: when, if, because, although (WIBA) Current National Curriculum SPaG test: these are known as subordinating connectives. Nouns and Pronouns: The girl = she, The book = it, Haseem = he, The three boys = they, My friend and I = we Can you up-level through adding in more information? Try using the when, if, because, although words (to add a subordinating clause). Can you up-level Marmaduke s using? (WIBA) (As above.) Compare 2 copies of same paragraph, one with one or more of WIBA used incorrectly or with none used, one with one or more used correctly or errors corrected. Count the how many times. Has / have been used. (WIBA) Shout /Spot the connectives how many are? (WIBA) Which connective could open this clause? Where could we have used? (WIBA) Etc. Can you up-level by changing the repeated noun into a pronoun? How many pronouns has he used? Where could / should he have used a pronoun? Can you up-level by changing the repeated noun into a pronoun? Compare 2 copies of same paragraph, one with incorrect or with no use of pronouns, one with one or more used or errors corrected. Where could you use a pronoun instead of a noun? How many pronouns in this passage? Which pronoun would you use for? Etc. Andrell Education 9

10 19 20 Multiple clauses: The young boy, who was scared of heights, didn t want to go up the tower because he was scared he would fall. Current National Curriculum: complex sentences, including clauses, phrases and connectives. NB: In the new draft curriculum, subordinate clauses are in Y3/4, while relative clauses are in Y5/6) Direct Speech: Use of inverted commas (speech marks):,. to show words said out loud. John said, I am hungry. Go away, said Janet. Thief Can you up-level again through adding in even more information a second clause? Try another of the when, if, because, although words to add a second clause. Can you up-level Marmaduke s through adding a second or third clause? Where has he used / could he have used one or more of? (WIBA) Compare 2 copies of same paragraph, one no examples, one with one or more used or errors corrected. How many? Where does one start? Where could I use? Is this used correctly? What sort of extra information comes after? (All using WIBA) Etc. Can you include what the boy actually said out loud? Where could we put direct speech / use inverted commas? Can you punctuate Marmaduke s? Can you put in his speech marks? Where could he have used speech marks / direct speech? How many sets of speech marks has he used? Compare two copies of the same paragraph, one with no direct speech in one and with it added in the second. Repeat with inverted commas used incorrectly in the first and correctly in the second. VCOP + Teacher led + VCOP Shout the words that were said aloud (both from teacher verbalised sentences and written sentences). How many sets of? Where should we / could we use? Where did this need inverted commas? Etc. Andrell Education 10

11 21 Fronted Adverbials + comma: Adverb openers or ly Power Openers (should be followed by a comma) Slowly, she turned the page. Angrily, he shook his fist. Can you up-level by: Moving the ly word (doing word or adverb), or other adverb, to the front, making it a Fronted Adverbial? How many Power Openers has he used? How many are ly openers or Fronted Adverbials? Where could he have used a Fronted Adverbial? Has he used too many? Compare 2 copies of the same paragraph with i ) embedded adverbs within sentences ii) Adverbs moved to the front Fronted Adverbials. How many Fronted Adverbials can you see? Shout out the Fronted Adverbials on these sentences. (Read and spoken) Where could we use? Which are? Etc. Andrell Education 11

12 22 Conjunctions, adverbs and prepositions to express time and cause: Subordinating Conjunctions of time: next, then, later, before, since, lastly, finally, after, meanwhile Subordinating Conjunctions of cause: so, then, because, as, if, thus, unless, whether, for, besides, anyway, therefore, consequently Adverbs of time: Now, First, Last, Early, Yesterday, Tomorrow, Today, Later, Regularly, Often, Never, Monthly, Always, Usually Adverbs of cause: as, as a result of, because, although, even though, in order to, on account of, so that, since, as long as, due to, in as much as Can you up-level by using a subordinating clause / connective of time? Repeat or similar for connectives of cause. Repeat or similar for adverbs of time. Repeat or similar for adverbs of cause. How many connectives of time has he used? Repeat for cause + adverbs of time and cause. Where could he have used? Compare 2 copies of the same paragraph with connectives of time used incorrectly or not used and the other used correctly. Repeat or similar for connectives of cause Repeat or similar for adverbs of time. Repeat or similar for adverbs of cause. Count the adverbs / connectives of time / cause Which are? Where could we use? How many connectives of time / cause do you know? Use them in sentences. Repeat for adverbs. Etc. N.B. Adverbs/subordinating conjunctions of cause and time often take the role of a connective, therefore the term CONNECTIVE can be used in VCOP and BIG Writing as the umbrella term which links all these together. We want children to use ALL of these connectives in their writing. See below: Andrell Education 12

13 Connectives Coordinating conjunctions Subordinating conjunctions Connecting adverbs (adverbs, adverbial phrases and clauses) For After Although Accordingly Additionally And As As if Anyway Also Nor As long as As much as As a result Besides But As soon as As though Consequently Finally Or Because Before First of all First(ly) Yet Even Even if Further Furthermore So Even though If Elsewhere Equally If only In as much Hence Henceforth In order that Just as However In addition Provided that Rather than In comparison In contrast Since Supposing In other words Indeed Though Unless Instead Later Until When Likewise Meanwhile Whenever Where Moreover Nevertheless Whereas Wherever Next Nonetheless Whether Which On one hand On the other hand While Who Otherwise Rather Whoever While Similarly Subsequently Whilst Then Thereafter That is to say Yet Andrell Education 13

14 23 24 Prepositions of: Time: at, on, in, for Place: at, in, on, near, across, under, between Cause: for, from, through, because of, on account of Possessive apostrophe: The boy s books (one boy), The boys books (more than one boy) The table s legs (one table, The tables legs (more than one table) Men s hobbies (plural word with no s before possession) Sheep s fold (could be one or many sheep. Spot the And in all text related Thief By this stage all children will be using prepositions frequently. It is almost impossible to write at length in high level voice without them. One quick taught input will unable children to spot the 3 different types at speed, high lighting them or playing First or similar games. Spot the prepositions. How many prepositions can you hear / see? Fastest to name as many? Etc. Can you help Marmaduke to use the possessive apostrophe correctly? Can you high light the apostrophes? Where should he have used? Which of two identical passages has the possessive apostrophes used correctly? Teacher led + VCOP How many possessive pronouns are there? Shout out the possessive pronouns. (From spoken and written sentences. How many possessive apostrophes? Which show singular / plural? Where should I put the apostrophe in these? Etc. Include use of the possessive pronoun, which does not use an apostrophe s e.g. The bike is his. The pens are ours. It is hers. The books are theirs. Andrell Education 14

15 25 26 Perfect verbs for time or cause: Present: has (verb, eg has done) Past: had (verb, eg had done) Future: Will have (verb eg will have done) Commas to clarify / avoid ambiguity Put the commas into the sentence: The panda eats shoots and leaves. How does the position of the comma/s change meaning? By this stage all children will be using perfect verbs regularly. We just play Spot them / How many? One quick taught input will unable children to spot the 3 different types at speed, high lighting them or playing First, Change It or similar games. Shout the perfect verbs in these sentences. (Both written and spoken) How many? Year 5 & 6 Requirements Thief Change this to. Spot the mistakes here. Etc. Can you help Marmaduke to use the comma correctly for meaning? Can you high light the commas? Can you put in the commas? Compare 2 copies of the same paragraph with commas missing or used incorrectly in first and correct in the second. Teacher led + VCOP Show you know how to How many commas have been used? Where are the commas needed in this? Which are right / wrong? Punctuate this. How does the meaning change when we move the commas? How many meanings can you find if you move the commas? Etc. Andrell Education 15

16 Relative clauses who, which, where, why, whose, that, used as connectives to link in a clause. Subject / verb agreement Grammar Singular / plural noun / tense of verb match Eg The dogs was Yesterday they is Expanded noun phrases: The fluttering, blue butterflies... The over active dog... The shabby and dirty house... continuing to The old man who lived on the hill... The ancient book I had lost... Talk Posh Like The Duchess By this stage all children will be using examples of all these clauses frequently. It is almost impossible to write at length in high level voice without them. One quick taught input will enable children to spot different ones at the opening of clauses, at speed, high lighting them or playing First or similar games. Put in a relative clause. Which word opens the relative clause? How many relative clauses? Name the connectives / Pick out the connectives that can open a relative clause. Etc. By Upper Key Stage 2 all children will be writing (and talking when required) in correct grammar, so this will be an easy point to raise in discussion. Then children will, through playing Spot the, Talk To The Duchess and helping Marmaduke, be able to point out grammar errors in script, including non agreement of nouns and verbs. Which type of voice am I using? Change this into posh speak. Spot the Mistake/s Change these to. (Tense or singular / plural) Etc. Drama and Role Play As noun phrases were introduced in Year 2, by Upper Key Stage 2 children will be using expanded noun phrases confidently and will merely need to be taught the technical name in a focussed teaching session. They should then practise identifying them in quick games such as First and asking how many Marmaduke has used. Which is the expanded noun phrase in these sentences? (Written and spoken) Put in an. Turn this into an Count how many. Etc. Andrell Education 16

17 Subjunctive: This is a mine field at this age and I would ask a politician to explain it to you. I would teach children that the use of a that... clause and a conditional if... clause are examples of subjunctive clauses. Passive voice: The cake was eaten by the child. Modal verb or adverb: can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, would It can be hard to... You could ask someone... She may be likely to... and so on. I would use both Marmaduke and Spot the to build in clauses led by the subjunctives that (..., that they might be improved.) and if (...if he were to do so.) I would then use both, plus games like Fastest Finger First to spot them in writing. Which is the subjunctive clause in these sentences? (Both written and spoken). How many? Where could we use? Up- Level through Etc. See also Demystifying Grammar Through Big Writing This is purely a game. It will be useful to teach children subject / verb/ object which is proposed as a requirement in Y5/6. Then it is purely a case of showing children that the object can become the subject in the passive voice. The child ate the sweet becomes The sweet was eaten by the child. Then use Marmaduke s, Spot the and games like First to enable children to recognise passive voice in tex Change these simple sentences into the passive voice. (Both written and spoken). Active or Passive?? Where might we use the? Etc. This is purely a game. It is purely a case of showing children that verbs can have conditions put on them. These are included in qualifiers in The Criterion Scale. Then use Marmaduke s, Spot the and games like First to enable children to recognise modal verbs in text. Which is the modal verb? Change the verb into a modal verb. How many? Where could we use? Match the modal verbs to their nouns. Etc. Andrell Education 17

18 33 34 Hyphens: to sub-divide words where two words are used as one (as in subdivide) OR to mark boundaries between independent clauses as in I laughed it really was funny. Parentheses (brackets, dashes or commas) (), - an alternative to the 2 comma trick or embedded clause or to insert additional information. The boy, who was scared, went home. The boy (who was scared) went home. Thief Thief Can you help Marmaduke to use all Level 5 punctuation correctly? Can you high light the hyphens? Compare 2 copies of the same paragraph, one has the hyphens used correctly and the second are used incorrectly or not used at all. VCOP Teacher led + VCOP What is this punctuation called? What punctuation could you use to divide these two? How many hyphens? Where could we have used a hyphen? How many words do you know that can be hyphenated? When is it a hyphen and when is it a dash? Etc. Can you help Marmaduke to use all Level 5 punctuation correctly? Can you highlight the brackets (dashes or commas) used for parenthesis? Compare 2 copies of the same paragraph, one has brackets, dashes and/or commas used correctly and the second are used incorrectly or not used at all. Teacher led + VCOP What is this punctuation called? What punctuation could you use to divide these two? How many? Where could we have used? Etc. Andrell Education 18

19 35 36 Semi-colon, colon, dashes to mark boundaries between independent clauses: I would teach a colon before a list and a semi colon as an alternative to a full stop. List: Use the following: Eggs butter milk Independent clauses: I like chocolate; chocolate may be one of the most unhealthy foods on the planet. Subject and object Thief Model texts Working on own or any other text Can you help Marmaduke to use all Level 5 punctuation correctly? Can you highlight the semi-colons, colons and/or dashes? Compare 2 copies of the same paragraph, one has semi-colons, colons and/or dashes used correctly and the second are used incorrectly or not used at all. VCOP Teacher led + VCOP What is this punctuation called? What punctuation could you use to divide these two? How many? Where could we have used? Etc. As soon as children are confidently using a range of sentences it is easy to teach in a short slot, how to identify the subject ( the main noun and the information that goes with it before the verb) and the object (any clauses or phrases that follow the main verb. Can you use red crayon to underline the subjects, blue for the verbs and green for the objects in every sentence? Which is the subject in each of these sentences? Which is the object in each of these sentences? (Read and spoken) Etc. Andrell Education 19

20 37 Determiners: Often a noun needs a word in front of it to make the grammar correct. The most common determiners are a, an and the. In current National Curriculum SPaG test the word article is used. How many determiners can you find in Marmaduke s? Underline all the determiners. Where has he forgotten a determiner that is necessary? Shout out the determiner/s in these sentences. (Both writer and spoken. How many? Underline Which should go in front of the noun in these sentences? Etc. The following are some common determiners: A, an, the, this, that, these, those, my, our, your, his, her, its, some, any, no, all, both, half, two, three, two-thirds et cetera, such, other, last, next, many, few, little, much. Three boys love soccer. / Our dog bites. / Those books are mine. 38 Relative pronoun: who, whom, which, that. Spot the relative pronoun.. Which is a relative pronoun? How many? Spot in all text. Etc. As children mature, they learn that these pronouns introduce relative clauses or clauses related to the subject or the object. Give them to the children who want them. / I drove the car that broke down. Andrell Education 20

21 39 Ellipsis + Bullet point: By Year 5/6 all children will have met, be able to name accurately and be using (with varying degrees of accuracy) all punctuation at Level 5 on the pyramid, including ellipses and bullets. How many... has he used? Where could he have used a...? How do we know that is a...? Compare 2 copies of same paragraph, one with examples of one or more used incorrectly OR missing, one with errors corrected. Teacher led + VCOP Which type of sentence is this? How many...? Where could we use...? What punctuation should this use? Etc. Andrell Education 21

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