Technology Education Key Learning Area. Technology and Living. (Secondary 1-3) APPAREL INDUSTRY

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1 Technology Education Key Learning Area Technology and Living (Secondary 1-3) APPAREL INDUSTRY

2 Booklet 1 Booklet 2 Booklet 3 Booklet 4 Booklet 5 Booklet 6 Booklet 7 Booklet 8 Booklet 9 Booklet 10 Booklet 11 Booklet 12 Booklet 13 Booklet 14 Booklet 15 Booklet 16 Booklet 17 Booklet 18 Booklet 19 Booklet 20 Family and Lifestyle Consumer Behaviour in Food Choices and Implications Health and Nutrition Chemistry of Foods Diet and Meal Planning Food Commodities Food Preparation Technology Food Hygiene Food Spoilage and Food Poisoning Food Preservation Technology Food Culture Food Science and Technology Extended Study Food Product Development Consumer Behaviour in Clothing Choices and Implications Fashion Design Basics Fibres and Fabrics Clothing Technology Culture and Fashion Design Textiles and Textile Technology Apparel Industry

3 Apparel Industry 20.1 Types, Size and Operation of Companies in the Apparel Industry Textile-clothing Supply Chain Textile suppliers Apparel suppliers Traders and Distributors Auxiliary Auxiliary ` Sectors Sectors Main Sectors Supporting Sectors Natural Fiber (Agricultural) and Man-made fiber (Petrochemical) suppliers Service Companies Merchandising companies Fashion Magazine Publishers Fashion consultants and intelligence services Publicity and adevertising agencies Trade associations Spinning plants (From fiber into yarn) Weaving and knitting mills (From yarn to fabric) Dyers, Printers and Finishers (From greige (unfinished) fabric to finished fabrics) Apparel manufacturers (From finished fabric to apparel) Converter Contractors/ subcontractors Wholesalers Apparel retailers Department and specialty stores, chain stores, discounters, supermarkets, non-store retailing Consumers 1

4 The Primary Sector Textile Industry Textile Raw Materials and Fibre Industry natural fibres production - takes place in the agriculture section man-made fibre production - takes place in the technologically advanced chemical and allied products sectors Yarn Production filament yarn processing staple fibre spinning blending of yarns thread mill Fabric Production weaving knitting non-woven (fibre-web) fabric greige goods - greige goods may be used directly for end products such as pocketing in trousers (d) Dyeing, Printing and Finishing Mills dyeing - solution dyeing - stock dyeing - yam dyeing - piece dyeing - cross dyeing - garment dyeing printing - wet printing - dry printing finishing - mechanical means of finishing - chemical means of finishing 2

5 The Secondary Sector Clothing Industry Types of Apparel Producers manufacturers contractors Product Specialisation apparel knitting hosiery and sock outerwear knitting underwear and sleepwear knitting cut-and-sew apparel men s and boys cut-and-sew apparel women s and girls cut-and-sew apparel infants cut-and-sew apparel (d) Garment Production woven garment - cutting room - sewing room - finishing and packaging knitwear production - cut-and-sewn - fully-fashioned knits (sweaters) Ready-to-wear versus Couture ready-to-wear couture The Tertiary Sector Apparel Distribution (d) Apparel Trading importing apparels exporting apparels Wholesaling Retailing Licensing, Franchising and E-tailing 3

6 Operations of Different Department in an Apparel Company Merchandising Merchandising Sourcing Purchasing Marketing & Sales Marketing Executive Sales Representative Market Researcher Design & Development Fashion Design Pattern Making Sample Making Advertising & Promotion Brand Management Public Relations Fashion Photography Production & Operations Production Coordinator Shipping Quality Control Finance & IT Accounting Costing IT Administration 4

7 20.2 Fashion Theories What is Fashion? Fashion can be defined as the style or styles most popular at a given time. Fashion has 3 components: style, change and acceptance. Style fashion ideas created by designers and offered to customers designs that have similar characteristics such as A-line skirt, empire-style dress, blazer-style jacket, polo-shirt, etc personal characteristics by wearing fashionable clothes particularly suited to individuals Changes Fashion changes because: it reflects changes in people s lifestyle and current events people like changes people get bored with what they already have Acceptance Acceptance means that consumers must be willing to buy and wear a style. Fashion products can also be broadly classified high fashion mass fashion 5

8 Fashion Product Life Cycle Maturity Sales Level Introduction Growth Decline Time (d) Introduction Stage most styles are introduced with new elements such as line, shape, colour and details on apparel the new fashion is bought and worn by fashion conscious consumers only Growth Stage new styles attract the attention of mass consumers and they wish to buy the new styles the styles become more popular Maturity Stage when a style is at the peak of popularity, the demand is saturated Decline Stage fashion conscious consumers are tired of the style and begin to look for something new 6

9 Length of Apparel Product Life Cycle Different styles have different lengths of lifespan. Culture when a style is worn from generation to generation, it becomes a part of a culture (d) Classic some styles never completely declined but remain accepted for a long period Fashion the product is accepted by the market for one or a few seasons Fads very short-lived fashion, a few days or weeks in a season Fashion Adoption Theories Buying and wearing a fashion product is called Adoption trickle-down theory trickle-up theory trickle-across theory Lifestyle and Consumer Needs Consumer Needs physiological needs safety needs social needs esteem needs needs for self-actualisation Buying Motives emotional motives rational buying 7

10 20.3 Market Research and Development Market Research Market Research Methods (i) Market Analysis and Marketing Research In the highly competitive business environment, market information is necessary for business persons to make right decisions at the right time. Marketing research provides precise information to businessmen for them to understand and analyze the market environment. Typical market research studies include the following: market size market share market potential market segmentation consumer profile competition analysis (ii) Type of Research qualitative research quantitative research Sources of Information primary sources secondary sources Secondary Data Internal Accounts Company report Customer Complaint Sales figures External Financial reports Government statistics Trade information Trade publication 8

11 (d) Data Collection Methods observation focus group experimentation survey Marketing Research and New Product Development new product development - generation of ideas - evaluating and developing new product concepts - evaluating and developing new products - pricing of new products Market Segmentation testing product - building up customer profiles - collecting profiles of competitor - preparing marketing strategy report - marketing plans Mass Market it is assumed that all customers in the market are the same and their needs do not vary the market can offer a standardized product, fix a standard price, use the same distribution channel and promotion effect for every individual, e.g. one size tight Differentiated Market it is assumed that each group of customers has specific needs and purchasing behavior a group of consumers has a set of similar needs that is different from other groups Considerations in market segmentation segmentation based on descriptors (e.g. demographic, geographic and variables) segmentation based on benefits and consumer behavior 9

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