USEFULNESS AND BENEFITS OF E-BANKING / INTERNET BANKING SERVICES

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1 CHAPTER 6 USEFULNESS AND BENEFITS OF E-BANKING / INTERNET BANKING SERVICES 6.1 Introduction In the previous two chapters, bank customers adoption of e-banking / internet banking services and functional / psychological aspects of barriers / benefits in adoption of e-banking are evaluated. In this chapter an attempt is made to evaluate the usefulness and benefits of e-banking services as well as intention to use e-banking / internet banking services in the future. In the questionnaire, to find out the benefits of e-banking / internet banking, 14 statements pertaining to different characteristics of e-banking have been included with 7 point scale from Very Strongly Disagree (VSD), Strongly Disagree (SD), Disagree (D), Normal (N), Agree (A), Strongly Agree (SA) and Very Strongly Agree (VSA). The collected data were first subjected to reliability analysis to ascertain internal consistency of the items in the scale. After ascertaining that the items in the scale were consistent, the data were subjected to Principal component method of Factor analysis with varimax rotation to find out primary benefits (major dimensions) of e-banking. After identifying the primary benefits, the average scores for each primary benefit and then compared across respondent groups based on type of bank sector, availing e-banking services, location, gender, age, education, occupation and family income to evaluate whether the opinion regarding benefits of e-banking is independent of the socio-economic and banking characteristics or not. 140

2 Similarly, seven different services through e-banking / internet banking included with 7-point scale ranging from Not at all useful, Little useful, Somewhat useful, Moderately useful, Useful, Very useful and Very highly useful to measure the usefulness of e-banking. The most useful services are identified by ordering the seven different services based on mean perception scores of the entire sample. Then the perception of the respondents across categories by type of bank sector, availing e-banking services, location, gender, age, education, occupation and family income is compared to identify whether there is any association between socio-economic / banking characteristics and perceived usefulness of e-banking services. Further, information regarding intention to use e-banking / internet banking in the future gathered from respondents were also analysed in this chapter. Finally, the relationship of benefits as well as usefulness of e-banking with intention to use e-banking / internet banking were analyzed using Canonical correlation analysis. The results of the analysis are presented and discussed hereunder. The results of the reliability / item analysis for scale items measuring benefits of e-banking / internet banking are reported in Table

3 Table 6.1 Reliability / Item Analysis Results for Scale Items Measuring Benefits of e-banking / Internet Banking [IB] Item No Description of Scale Items Item to Total Correlation Alpha if Deleted 1 IB transactions save more time IB provides more responsive service IB transactions have lower cost IB can make me feel enjoyable that I can control processes of financial transactions on my own via the Internet IB provides customized services according to my needs and wants IB provides systems to assist me to share my experiences with other customers of my bank more efficiently IB provides systems to assist me to share my experiences with my bank more efficiently IB provides link to other websites IB provides accurate information IB provides relevant information IB provides up-to-date information IB is easy to access with my Convenience IB has more flexible ways to search for information IB transactions save more time Cronbach s Alpha Reliability Coefficient Source: Primary Data From the table, it can be seen that the correlation of all 14 items with their total sum score (Item to total correlation) ranged between (Item 1) and (Item 4). It reveals the sufficient positive correlation values of at least 0.30 for all items in the scale. As there is sufficient correlation between each 142

4 item and total sum score, all 14 items in the scale for measuring benefits of e- banking / internet banking are considered to be internally consistent with each other. It is further apparent from the table that the Cronbach s alpha reliability coefficient is , indicating that the degree of internal consistency among 14 items in the scale has been excellent. It further reveals that information against 18 items collected from respondents are consistent, reliable and valid. As the scale items measuring benefits of e-banking / internet banking are highly reliable and internally consistent, further analysis have been carried with collected data. As the scale items measuring benefits of e-banking and internet banking is reliable, the opinion data against these items were subjected to factor analysis. The results of factor analysis, such as eigen value and explained variance of each factor are reported in Table 6.2 and factor loadings of each item with valid factors are depicted in Table 6.3. According to the table 6.2, the initial eigen values before Varimax rotation is above one (the required nor for valid factors as per Kaiser Criterion) for first four factors. This envisages that there are four major benefits from adoption of e-banking / internet banking. 143

5 Factors Table 6.2 Eigen values of Factors Underlying Benefits of e-banking / Internet Banking Eigen value % of Total Variance Cumulative % of Total Variance Source: Primary Data Further, from eigen value of 6.00 for the first, 1.57 for the second, 1.32 for the third and 1.10 for the fourth factor, it is understood that the first, second, third and fourth factors posses per cent, per cent, 9.44 per cent and 7.85 per cent of the essence of original data before Varimax rotation respectively. The total variance explained together by all these four valid factors is per cent in the actual data regarding benefits of e-banking / internet banking. The extractable factors are shown diagrammatically using Scree plot chart in

6 Chart 6.1 Eigen values of Factors Underlying Benefits of e-banking / Internet Banking In the above Scree plot, it is apparent that the mountain point (steep slope from top) ends at eigenvalue 1. This strongly provides evidence that there are four benefits of e-banking / internet banking according to bank customers in the sample. Table 6.3 reports the factor loadings of each item with four valid factors (correlation between each item and each factor) benefits of e-banking / internet banking after varimax rotation. After varimax rotation, the eigen values (variance in the data) of valid factors have become 2.47 (17.65 per cent), 2.48 (17.73 per cent), 2.97 (21.18 per cent), 2.07 (14.77 per cent) and at the same time leaving the total explained variance in the actual data as the same as before rotation (71.33 per cent). 145

7 Table 6.3 Factor Loadings of Items with Extracted Factors (After Varimax Rotation) Factor Description of Scale Items IB transactions save more time Item No 2 IB provides more responsive service IB transactions have lower cost IB provides accurate information IB provides relevant information IB provides up-to-date information IB provides link to other websites IB is easy to access with my Convenience IB has more flexible ways to search for 13 information Using IB fits well with the way I like to 14 manage my finances IB can make me feel enjoyable that I can 4 control processes of financial transactions on my own via the Internet 6 IB provides systems to assist me to share my experiences with other customers of my bank more efficiently 7 IB provides systems to assist me to share my experiences with my bank more efficiently IB provides customized services according to my needs and wants Explained Variance % of Total Variance Cumulative % of Total Variance Factor Label Save time & Cost Less Provide accurate, relevant and up-to date information Flexible and easily accessible with convenience Assists to share the experience with bank and other customers more efficiently Source: Primary Data 146

8 From the observation of the factor loadings, it is understood that the loadings of items 1 (0.87), 2 (0.84) and 3 (0.74) with the first factor, items 9 (0.84), 10 (0.76), 11 (0.70) and 8 (0.63) with the second factor, items 12 (0.85), 13 (0.81), 14 (0.80) and 4 (0.68) with the third factor, and items 6 (0.81), 7 (0.79) and 5 (0.60) with the fourth factor are higher than that of those with other remaining factors. The above picture implies that most of the characteristics of items 1 and 2, item 9, items from 12 to 14 and items 6 and 7 are possessed by the first, second, third and fourth factors respectively. Therefore, from highest loading of item(s) with each factor, the first factor is identified as Save time & Cost less, the second factor as Provide accurate, relevant and up-to date information, the third factor as Flexible and easily accessible with convenience and the fourth factor is identified with label as Assists to share the experience with bank and other customers more efficiently The scores for each valid factor are calculated by averaging the scores of items highly loaded in that factor. The scores thus obtained are used in the subsequent analysis. As the opinion from each respondent against each items in the scale is measured using 7 point Likert type scale ranging from 1 for Very Strongly Disagree to 7 for Very Strongly Agree, the opinion of a respondent group is considered to be as Very Strongly Disagree, Strongly Disagree, Disagree, Neutral, Agree, Strongly Agree, Very Strongly Agree for mean score of < 1.50, >= 1.50 and < 2.50, >= 2.50 and < 3.50, >=3.50 and < 4.50, >= 4.50 and < 5.50, >= 5.50 and < 6.50 and >= 6.50 respectively. 147

9 6.2 Benefits of e-banking / Internet Banking Vs Socio-Economic / Banking Characteristics First, the level of opinion of the entire sample about major benefits is evaluated by averaging the opinion scores against each dimension. The mean and standard deviation of the score are reported in Table 6.4. Table 6.4 Major Benefits of e-banking as per Entire Sample Benefits Mean Standard Deviation Save time & Cost Less Provide accurate, relevant and up-to date information Flexible and easily accessible with convenience Assists to share the experience with bank and other customers more efficiently Source: Primary Data As shown in the table, the mean perception scores of all sample are in the agree range (>= 4.50 and < 5.50) for all four benefit dimension. However, the score is as high as 5.12 for Flexible and easily accessible with convenience followed by 5.10 for Provide accurate, relevant and up-to date information, 5.00 for Save time & Cost Less and 4.79 for Assists to share the experience with bank and other customers more efficiently. This envisages that flexibility and easy accessibility with convenience is the top most benefit followed by Providing accurate, relevant and up-to date information and Saving time & Cost Less. 148

10 The major benefits of e-banking / internet banking adoption as perceived by the respondent are compared between public and private sector banks and the results of the test are reported in Table 6.5. Table 6.5 Benefits of e-banking - Comparison of Perception between Public and Private Sector Bank Customers Q. No Major Benefits 1 Save time & Cost Less 2 Banking Sector Public (n=247) Private (n=113) t value *** (1.26) (1.02) Provide accurate, relevant *** and up-to date information (1.05) (0.99) 3 Flexible and easily *** accessible with convenience (1.14) (0.86) 4 Assists to share the experience with bank and other customers more efficiently (1.19) (1.12) Source: Primary Data. Figures in brackets are standard deviation. ***Significant at 1% level. It can be seen from the table, the bank customers of both public and private sector banks have agreed that e-banking / internet banking save time & cost less (Mean = 4.89 for public & 5.26 for private sector), provide accurate, relevant and up to date information (Mean = 5.00 for public & 5.31 for private sector), flexible and easily accessible with convenience (Mean = 4.97 for public & 5.43 for private sector) and it assists to share the experience with bank and 149

11 other customers more efficiently (Mean = 4.73 for public & 4.92 for private sector). However, from F value, which is significant at 1 per cent level for all benefits except assists to share the experience with bank and other customers more efficiently, it is apparent that the level of agreement among private bank customers is significantly higher than that of public sector bank customers. This shows that adoption of e-banking / internet banking provided by the private sector banks is more beneficial in terms of time and cost, providing accurate, relevant and up-to date information and accessibility with convenience compared to public sector banks. The opinion about benefits of e-banking / internet banking is compared between non-users and users of e-banking groups and Table 6.6 presents the results. Table 6.6 Benefits of e-banking - Comparison of Perception between Users and Non-Users of e-banking / Internet Banking [IB] e-banking / IB Q. Major Benefits User Non-User No (n=229) (n=131) t value 1 Save time & Cost Less ** (1.17) (1.24) 2 Provide accurate, relevant and *** up-to date information (0.96) (1.10) 3 Flexible and easily accessible *** with convenience (0.90) (1.25) Assists to share the experience ** 4 with bank and other customers more efficiently (1.07) (1.31) Source: Primary Data. Figures in brackets are standard deviation. **Significant at 5% level; ***Significant at 1% level 150

12 From the perusal of the table, it is evident that the users and non-users of e-banking / IB among bank customer groups have agreed with all four primary benefits of e-banking / IB. But the level of agreement is significantly less among non-user group than that of user group with regard to all benefit dimensions. Hence, it is concluded that perceived benefits of e-banking / internet banking is significantly influenced by availing of e-banking / IB services among bank customers. From the opinion of respondent groups from rural, semi-urban and urban areas four major benefits of e-banking / IB is compared using F-test and results of the analysis are reported in Table 6.7. Q. No Table 6.7 Benefits of e-banking - Comparison of Perception by Respondents Location Major Benefits 1 Save time & Cost Less 2 3 Location Rural Semiurban Urban (n=161) (n=80) (n=119) F value *** (1.05) (1.26) (1.32) Provide accurate, relevant *** and up-to date information (1.14) (0.67) (1.00) Flexible and easily *** accessible with convenience (1.20) (0.74) (1.01) Assists to share the *** 4 experience with bank and other customers more efficiently (1.32) (0.85) (1.01) Source: Primary Data. Figures in brackets are standard deviation. ***Significant at 1% level. 151

13 According to the table 6.7, the urban customers have agreed with all benefits, while semi-urban customers have strongly agreed with Assists to share the experience with bank and other customers more efficiently (Mean = 5.52, in the strongly agree range) and agree with the other three benefits (Mean scores are in agree range). The rural groups, on the other hand, have neither disagreed nor agreed with Assists to share the experience with bank and other customers more efficiently (Mean = 4.45, in neutral range) while agreeing with other benefits. The F value, 3.53, 13.82, and for the first, second, third and fourth benefits are significant at one per cent level. This has led to the finding that the perceived level of benefits from e-banking / IB adoption differ significantly by location of the bank customers. Table 6.8 exhibits the results of comparison of opinion about e-banking / IB benefits across respondent groups by Gender. It can be observed from the table that the mean perception scores for both male and female groups are in the agree range in respect of all the four major benefits of e-banking / IB. At the same time, the number of female customers with agree opinion about the second and third benefits is less compared to those in the male groups as the mean perception score for female group is less than that of the male group. However, from the F values, which are insignificant for all, it is apparent that the difference in opinion between the two gender groups is due to chance and not significant at required hypothetical level. 152

14 Table 6.8 Benefits of e-banking - Comparison of Respondents Perception by Gender Q. No Major Benefits Gender Male Female (n=286) (n=74) t value 1 Save time & Cost Less (1.19) (1.27) 2 3 Provide accurate, relevant and up-to date information (1.03) (1.07) Flexible and easily accessible with convenience (1.04) (1.24) Assists to share the experience with bank and other customers more efficiently (1.06) (1.52) Source: Primary Data. Figures in brackets are standard deviation. So, it is concluded from the results of comparative analysis for customer groups by gender that the perceived level of benefits of e-banking / IB is independent of gender of the bank customers. Table 6.9 reports the results of one way ANOVA (F test) comparing the mean perception scores by Age groups with regard to benefits of e-banking / IB. From the examination of the table, it is clear that the mean scores for all age groups against all benefit dimensions are in between 4.50 and 5.50, the range for agree opinion. Regarding all benefits except Assists to share the experience with bank and other customers more efficiently, all age groups have expressed similar level of agreement (F values are insignificant). 153

15 Q. No Table 6.9 Benefits of e-banking - Comparison of Respondents Perception by Age Major Benefits 1 Save time & Cost Less 2 Age (in Years) Up to Above 40 (n=87) (n=216) (n=57) F value (1.03) (1.28) (1.15) Provide accurate, relevant and up-to date information (1.02) (0.99) (1.23) Flexible and easily accessible with convenience (1.09) (0.97) (1.43) Assists to share the * experience with bank and 4 (1.25) (1.11) (1.22) other customers more efficiently Source: Primary Data. Figures in brackets are standard deviation. *Significant at 10% level. But there seems to be marginal difference in the level of agreement among age groups regarding the fourth benefit as mean scores of respondents with age up to 25 years is 4.58 and F value is 2.44, which is significant at 10 per cent level. As the difference in the opinion among age groups about the fourth benefit is marginal, and the level of agreement among all groups about the remaining three benefits is at similar extent, it is deduced that the perceived benefits of e-banking / IB is independent of the age of the bank customers. The difference in opinion about benefits of e-banking / internet banking among respondent groups by education is tested with F-test and the results of the test are depicted in Table

16 Table 6.10 Benefits of e-banking - Comparison of Respondents Perception by Education Q. No Major Benefits 1 Save time & Cost Less 2 Secondary Education Degree Above Degree (n=42) (n=145) (n=173) F value *** (0.95) (1.10) (1.31) Provide accurate, relevant *** and up-to date information (0.67) (1.10) (1.00) 3 Flexible and easily *** accessible with convenience (0.99) (1.14) (1.03) Assists to share the *** 4 experience with bank and other customers more efficiently (1.00) (1.14) (1.16) Source: Primary Data. Figures in brackets are standard deviation. ***Significant at 1% level An examination of the table indicates that the mean perception scores for all educated groups against all benefit dimensions except for graduates in respect of Assists to share the experience with bank and other customers more efficiently (Mean = 4.44) are in the agree range. The level of agreement is significantly higher for post-graduates (above degree holders) (Mean = 5.19) with Save time & Cost Less (F = 4.36, p < 0.01) whereas it is significantly lesser among graduates regarding Provide accurate, relevant and up-to date information (Mean = 4.82) (F = 9.70, p < 0.01), Flexible and easily accessible with convenience (Mean = 4.89) (F = 5.38, p < 0.01) and Assists to share the experience with bank and other customers more efficiently (F = 11.41, 155

17 p < 0.01). To sum up, it is found that the perceived level of benefits from adoption of e-banking / internet banking is related to educational status of the bank customers. Table 6.11 provides the results of F test comparing respondents opinion about benefits from e-banking / IB among groups by occupational status. Table 6.11 Benefits of e-banking - Comparison of Respondents Perception by Occupation Occupation Q. No Major Benefits Student Housewife Govt. Employee Private Employee Business / Self Employed F value 1 Save time & Cost Less 2 3 Provide accurate, relevant and up-to date information Flexible and easily accessible with convenience (n=55) (n=18) (n=136) (n=120) (n=31) (0.97) (0.94) (1.34) (1.13) (1.35) * (0.85) (0.61) (1.08) (1.13) (0.85) (1.14) (1.27) (1.20) (0.91) (0.96) Assists to share the ** 4 experience with bank and other customers more efficiently (1.27) (1.73) (1.19) (1.03) (0.80) Source: Primary Data. Figures in brackets are standard deviation. *Significant at 10% level; **Significant at 5% level According to the table, bank customers belonging to student, housewife, government employee, private employee and business / self-employed groups 156

18 have all agreed with all benefits except housewives in respect of Assists to share the experience with bank and other customers more efficiently and Provide accurate, relevant and up-to date information. The housewife group, while expressing strong agreement with Provide accurate, relevant and up-to date information (Mean = 5.61), have expressed neither disagreement nor agreement with Assists to share the experience with bank and other customers more efficiently (Mean = 4.24). From F value, it is evident that the level of agreement is similar among all occupational groups with regard to Save time & Cost Less and Flexible and easily accessible with convenience, whereas the level of agreement among housewives is marginally higher in respect of Provide accurate, relevant and up-to date information (F value = 2.16, p < 0.10) and significantly less regarding Assists to share the experience with bank and other customers more efficiently (F value = 2.91, p < 0.05) compared to that of those in other occupational groups. So, it is concluded that perceived benefits from e-banking / IB such as save time & cost less as well as Flexible and easily accessible with convenience is independent of the occupational status whereas the perception regarding the other two benefits is affected by the occupational status of the bank customers. Table 6.12 presents the results of the analysis comparing the respondents perception about the four major benefits of e-banking / IB adoption by monthly income of the family. 157

19 Table 6.12 Benefits of e-banking - Comparison of Respondents Perception by Income Q. No Major Benefits 1 Save time & Cost Less 2 3 Up to Rs Income Rs > Rs (n=119) (n=154) (n=87) F value *** (1.23) (1.14) (1.18) Provide accurate, relevant *** and up-to date information (1.23) (0.93) (0.84) Flexible and easily accessible with convenience (1.06) (1.20) (0.87) Assists to share the *** 4 experience with bank and other customers more efficiently (1.18) (1.21) (0.89) Source: Primary Data. Figures in brackets are standard deviation. ***Significant at 1% level As shown in the table, the level of opinion about all four benefits of e-banking / IB among respondents groups with all levels of family income (per month) is in between 4.50 and 5.50, the range for agree. But the mean perception, 5.43, 5.32 and 5.34 of respondent group with family income above Rs are significantly higher than the mean perception of those in the group with family income up to Rs and between Rs and in respect of Save time & Cost Less (F value = 7.48, p < 0.01), Provide accurate, relevant and up-to date information (F value = 6.11, p < 0.01) and Assists to share the experience with bank and other customers more efficiently (F value = 13.72, p < 0.01) respectively. Regarding Flexible and easily accessible with convenience, the level of agreement is the same among all income groups 158

20 (F value is insignificant). From the inferences of the results, it is found that the perceived benefits of e-banking / IB is related to the status of family income of bank customers. 6.3 Usefulness of e-banking / Internet Banking The usefulness of e-banking / Internet banking as perceived by the respondents are evaluated here. Table 6.13 presents the opinion of all respondents in the sample. The opinion is obtained in the 7 point scale, the mean score < 1.50, >= 1.50 and <2.50, >= 2.50 and 3.50, >= 3.50 and 4.50, >= 4.50 and 5.50, >= 5.50 and < 6.50 and >= 6.50 refers to Not at all useful, Little useful, Somewhat useful, Moderately useful, Useful, Very useful and Very highly useful respectively. Table 6.13 Usefulness of e-banking / IB All Sample e-banking Services Mean Standard Deviation Account details and balance statements Funds transfer Loan transaction Pay bills using available cash in the accounts Order to buy and sell shares Open new accounts Generate the latest reports of banking transactions Source: Primary Data. 159

21 As per the table, the mean perception of the total sample, which ranges between 4.66 and 5.36, is in the useful opinion range (>= 4.50 and < 5.50), in turn indicating that majority of the respondents in the sample have perceived all facilities of e-banking / IB as useful. Further from the ordering of mean scores from high to low, it is clear that Generating the latest reports of banking transactions (Mean = 5.36) is major usefulness followed by Funds transfer (Mean = 5.19), Pay bills using available cash in the accounts (Mean = 5.18) and Order to buy and sell shares (Mean = 5.16) whereas e-banking / IB is not very much useful for opening new accounts and loan transactions. To check whether the usefulness of e-banking / Internet banking differ by type of banking sector, the mean perception between public and private sector bank customers is compared with t-test and the results of the test are given in Table From the table, it can be seen that the public sector group have seen all but open new accounts as usefulness of e-banking / internet banking as the mean scores are in the useful range (>= 4.50 and 5.50). Regarding open new accounts (Mean = 4.48), public sector customer group have perceived as moderately useful (>= 3.50 and 4.50). On the other hand, private sector bank customers have found Account details and balance statements (Mean = 5.33), Loan transaction (Mean = 4.86), Pay bills using available cash in the accounts (Mean = 5.21) and Open new accounts (Mean = 5.04) as useful whereas they found Funds transfer (Mean = 5.67), Order to buy and sell shares (Mean = 5.59) and Generate the latest reports of banking transactions (Mean = 6.02) as very useful (Mean scores are >= 5.50 and < 6.50, the range for very useful ). 160

22 Table 6.14 Usefulness of e-banking / IB - Comparison of Perception between Public and Private Sector Bank Customers Q. No 1 Banking Sector e-banking Services Public Private t value (n=247) (n=113) Account details and balance * statements (1.64) (1.35) 2 Funds transfer 3 Loan transaction *** (1.56) (0.76) (1.95) (1.55) Pay bills using available cash in the accounts (1.43) (1.11) 5 Order to buy and sell shares 6 Open new accounts *** (1.56) (1.07) *** (1.93) (1.50) Generate the latest reports *** of banking transactions (1.57) (0.90) Source: Primary Data. Figures in brackets are standard deviation. *Significant at 10% level; ***Significant at 1% level The level of opinion among private sector bank customers is significantly higher than that of public sector bank customers in respect of Funds transfer (t-value = 4.54, p < 0.01), Order to buy and sell shares (t-value = 3.85, p < 0.01), Open new accounts (t-value = 2.75, p < 0.01) and Generate the latest reports of banking transactions (t-value = 6.07, p < 0.01). This in turn reveals that these services through e-banking / internet banking are much better in private sector banks compared to their public sector counterparts. In short, it is found that all services of e-banking / IB is useful according to both public and 161

23 private sector bank customers, but usefulness of services like Funds transfer, Order to buy and sell shares, Open new accounts and Generate the latest reports of banking transactions in private sector banks are significantly better compared to these services in public sector banks through e-banking / internet banking. The level of usefulness of e-banking and internet banking for users and non-users of these services is analyzed by comparing the mean perception between two groups. Table 6.15 reports the results of the analysis. As reported in the table, the users of e-banking services have perceived all the services except Generate the latest reports of banking transactions as useful as the mean perception score these services, which ranges between 4.83 (Open new accounts) and 5.40 (Funds transfer). In respect of Generate the latest reports of banking transactions, the mean perception score is 5.66 (>= 5.50 and < 6.50, the range for very useful ), indicating that the e-banking / internet banking is very useful for generating the latest reports of banking transactions for user group. The perceived status of usefulness is slightly different among non-users of e-banking services. 162

24 Q. No 1 Table 6.15 Usefulness of e-banking / IB - Comparison of Perception between Users and Non-Users of e-banking / IB e-banking Services e-banking / IB User Non-User (n=229) (n=131) t value Account details and balance *** statements (1.49) (1.60) 2 Funds transfer 3 Loan transaction *** (1.22) (1.60) *** (1.67) (2.03) Pay bills using available *** cash in the accounts (1.12) (1.62) 5 Order to buy and sell shares 6 Open new accounts *** (1.40) (1.51) ** (1.70) (1.98) Generate the latest reports *** 7 of banking transactions (1.30) (1.59) Source: Primary Data. Figures in brackets are standard deviation. **Significant at 5% level; ***Significant at 1% level Though non-user group have perceived all services except loan transaction and open new accounts through e-banking as useful (Mean scores are >= 4.50 and < 5.50), the level of their opinion about all services is significantly less than that of those in the user group. Regarding loan transaction and open new accounts, the perception of the non-user group is in the moderately useful level. To sum up, it is understood that almost all the services are perceived to be useful by both user and non-user of e-banking services, but the level of perception about usefulness of e-banking/ib among non-user group is significantly less than that of user group. 163

25 The perception of the respondents about usefulness of e-banking / IB is compared across categories of respondents based on their socio-economic and banking characteristics to ascertain whether the opinion is independent of these characteristics or not. First in this line, Table 6.15 present the results of the analysis comparing the opinion among respondent groups belonging to rural, semi-urban and urban areas. Q. No 1 Table 6.16 Usefulness of e-banking / IB - Comparison of Perception by Respondents Location e-banking Services Location Rural Semiurban Urban (n=161) (n=80) (n=119) F value Account details and balance *** statements (1.61) (1.69) (1.17) 2 Funds transfer 3 Loan transaction *** (1.55) (1.44) (1.02) *** (1.96) (1.28) (1.77) Pay bills using available *** cash in the accounts (1.45) (1.26) (1.08) 5 Order to buy and sell shares 6 Open new accounts *** (1.50) (1.12) (1.49) *** (1.96) (1.31) (1.84) Generate the latest reports ** 7 of banking transactions (1.70) (1.15) (1.27) Source: Primary Data. Figures in brackets are standard deviation. **Significant at 5% level; ***Significant at 1% level. 164

26 From the perusal of the table, it is apparent that the bank customers belonging to rural areas have seen all e-banking services except loan transaction as useful (Mean scores ranging between 4.18 and 5.22 are >= 4.50 and < 5.50, in the useful range). The loan transaction through e-banking is moderately useful according to rural customers (Mean = 4.18). On the other hand, semi-urban group have perceived the Order to buy and sell shares (Mean = 5.58) and Generate the latest reports of banking transactions (Mean = 5.70) through e-banking as very useful ( >= 5.50 and < 6.50, very useful) while considering other remaining services as useful (Mean scores are in between 4.50 and 5.50). The urban bank customers have considered the Account details and balance statements (Mean = 5.57) and Pay bills using available cash in the accounts (Mean = 5.57) as very useful and other services as useful (>= 4.50 and 5.50). The F values obtained for the difference in group mean values are significant in respect of all e-banking services. This has led to the conclusion that the level of usefulness of e-banking services is significantly less for rural bank customers compared to their semi-urban and urban counterparts. Table 6.17 shows mean perception score and t-values for the difference in mean perception between male and female respondents regarding usefulness of e-banking. 165

27 Q. No 1 Table 6.17 Usefulness of e-banking / IB - Comparison of Respondents Perception by Gender e-banking Services Gender Male Female (n=286) (n=74) t value Account details and balance statements (1.60) (1.39) 2 Funds transfer 3 Loan transaction (1.36) (1.53) (1.85) (1.76) Pay bills using available ** cash in the accounts (1.33) (1.31) 5 Order to buy and sell shares 6 Open new accounts (1.48) (1.35) (1.79) (1.92) Generate the latest reports of banking transactions (1.39) (1.71) Source: Primary Data. Figures in brackets are standard deviation. **Significant at 5% level It can be seen from the table that the male respondents have considered all the e-banking services as useful because the mean perception scores, ranging between 4.60 and 5.42, are in useful range (>= 4.50 and 5.50). The perceived status of e-banking /IB services has also been in the useful range for female respondent groups. Both male and female bank customers do not differ in their level of opinion about usefulness of all e-banking services except Pay bills using available cash in the accounts. For male customers, usefulness of e-banking service for paying bills using available cash in the accounts is significantly higher than that of female customers (F value = 2.51, p < 0.05). 166

28 Overall, it is found that there is no difference in the perceived status of usefulness of e-banking services between male and female customers. The usefulness of e-banking / internet banking services is compared by age of the respondents and the results of the comparative analysis are reported in Table Q. No 1 Table 6.18 Usefulness of e-banking / IB - Comparison of Respondents Perception by Age e-banking Services Age (in Years) Up to Above 40 (n=87) (n=216) (n=57) F value Account details and balance statements (1.68) (1.60) (1.15) 2 Funds transfer 3 Loan transaction ** (1.49) (1.48) (0.70) ** (1.84) (1.81) (1.84) Pay bills using available * cash in the accounts (1.28) (1.38) (1.21) 5 Order to buy and sell shares 6 Open new accounts (1.07) (1.55) (1.61) (1.70) (1.92) (1.59) Generate the latest reports ** 7 of banking transactions (1.18) (1.62) (1.10) Source: Primary Data. Figures in brackets are standard deviation. *Significant at 10% level; **Significant at 5% level. As reported in the table, the bank customers group with age up to 25 have perceived all services except loan transaction and Generate the latest reports 167

29 of banking transactions as useful (Mean scores are >= 4.50 and < 5.50). The bank customers with the age group of, up to 25 years and above 40 years have both perceived loan transaction service as moderately useful (Mean = 4.39 & 4.37) and Generate the latest reports of banking transactions as very useful (Mean = 5.56 & 5.70 >= 5.50 and < 6.50 ). The usefulness of e-banking services in respect of loan transaction is significantly higher (F value = 3.36, p < 0.05) while in the case of Generate the latest reports of banking transactions, it is significantly less (F value = 4.01, p < 0.05) among bank customers with the age between years compared to the other two age groups. For the customer group with the age above 40 years, the fund transfer through e-banking is found to be very useful (Mean = 5.63) and it is significantly higher compared to that of the other two age groups (F value = 3.54, p < 0.05). Regarding Pay bills using available cash in the accounts also, the customer group with the age between years, perceived status of usefulness is significantly less at marginal level compared to the other two age groups (F value = 2.54, p < 0.10). As there is difference in the perceived status of usefulness in respect of 4 out 7 e-banking / IB services by age, it is concluded that usefulness of e-banking / internet banking services is depending upon the age of the bank customers. Table 6.19 presents the F-test results comparing the status of usefulness by educational status of the bank customers. 168

30 Q. No 1 Table 6.19 Usefulness of e-banking / IB - Comparison of Respondents Perception by Education e-banking Services Education Secondary Degree Above Degree (n=42) (n=145) (n=173) F value Account details and balance *** statements (1.46) (1.65) (1.43) 2 Funds transfer 3 Loan transaction *** (1.32) (1.60) (1.15) *** (1.95) (1.80) (1.78) Pay bills using available ** cash in the accounts (1.21) (1.43) (1.27) 5 Order to buy and sell shares 6 Open new accounts (0.94) (1.38) (1.62) * (1.61) (2.01) (1.68) Generate the latest reports of banking transactions (0.96) (1.62) (1.42) Source: Primary Data. Figures in brackets are standard deviation. *Significant at 10% level; **Significant at 5% level; ***Significant at 1% level It can be observed from the table that the loan transaction for secondary educated (Mean = 4.10) and open new account for graduates (Mean = 4.43) are moderately useful. For secondary education, the service like Pay bills using available cash in the accounts through e-banking is very useful (Mean=5.64). Generally, for all educated groups with regard to all the services other than the above, the e-banking and internet banking is useful (Mean scores are >= 4.50 and < 5.50). 169

31 From the observation of the significant F values, it is understood that usefulness of e-banking / IB in respect of Account details and balance statements is significantly less among graduates compared to that of secondary educated and post graduates (F value = 8.51, p < 0.01). Also, the level of usefulness of e-banking services like Fund transfer (F value = 8.01, p < 0.01), loan transaction (F value = 5.30, p < 0.01) among secondary educated and extend of using e-banking services such as Pay bills using available cash in the accounts (F value = 3.62, p < 0.05) and open new accounts (F value = 2.35, p < 0.10) among graduates is remarkably less compared to that of those in the respective other educated groups. On the whole, from the entire above results, it is found that there is significant difference in the perceived status of usefulness of e-banking / internet banking services by educational status of the bank customers. The results of comparative analysis between usefulness of e-banking / internet banking services and occupational status of the bank customers are depicted in Table

32 Table 6.20 Usefulness of e-banking / IB - Comparison of Respondents Perception by Occupation Occupation Q. No e-banking Services Student Housewife Govt. Employee Private Employee Business / Self Employed F value 1 (n=55) (n=18) (n=136) (n=120) (n=31) Account details and balance statements (1.67) (0.94) (1.54) (1.56) (1.70) 2 Funds transfer 3 Loan transaction (1.05) (1.88) (1.29) (1.41) (1.88) (1.72) (2.52) (1.84) (1.75) (1.88) Pay bills using available ** cash in the accounts (1.23) (1.91) (1.26) (1.36) (1.17) Order to buy and sell shares (1.03) (0.92) (1.67) (1.44) (1.45) 6 Open new accounts *** (1.56) (1.76) (1.93) (1.88) (1.00) Generate the latest reports *** of banking transactions (0.99) (2.13) (1.66) (1.33) (0.67) Source: Primary Data. Figures in brackets are standard deviation. **Significant at 5% level; ***Significant at 1% level From the perusal of the table, it is understood that the e-banking / internet banking service like generating the latest reports of banking transaction is very useful for student group (Mean = 6.02), loan transaction (Mean = 4.39) and open new accounts (Mean = 4.17) is moderately useful for housewife group, and Pay bills using available cash in the accounts is very useful for business / self employed group (Mean = 5.65). 171

33 The e-banking service for opening new account is found to be moderately useful for Government employees (Mean = 4.41) while it is very useful for business / self-employed group (Mean = 5.74). Further, from the perusal of F values, it is evident that the perceived status of usefulness in the case of services like Pay bills using available cash in the accounts (F value = 3.13, p < 0.05), open new accounts (F value = 3.99, p < 0.01) and generating the latest reports of banking transaction (F value = 4.87) differ by occupational status of bank customers. In short, it is found that the extent of usefulness of e-banking services Account details and balance statements, Funds transfer, Loan transaction and Order to buy and sell shares is same for all occupational groups whereas there is significant difference in the usefulness of e-banking services - Pay bills using available cash in the accounts, open new accounts and generating the latest reports of banking transaction by occupational status of bank customers. Table 6.21 presents the mean scores and F values eliciting the statistical significance of the difference in mean perception among respondent groups with different levels of family income regarding usefulness of e-banking and internet banking services. 172

34 Q. No 1 Table 6.21 Usefulness of e-banking / IB - Comparison of Respondents Perception by Income e-banking Services Up to Rs Income Rs > Rs (n=119) (n=154) (n=87) F value Account details and balance *** statements (1.85) (1.28) (1.37) 2 Funds transfer 3 Loan transaction *** (1.87) (1.02) (0.85) *** (2.04) (1.74) (1.47) Pay bills using available cash ** in the accounts (1.76) (1.04) (1.08) 5 Order to buy and sell shares 6 Open new accounts *** (1.78) (1.15) (1.18) *** (1.76) (2.02) (1.34) Generate the latest reports of *** banking transactions (1.68) (1.24) (1.34) Source: Primary Data. Figures in brackets are standard deviation. **Significant at 5% level; ***Significant at 1% level According to the table, the mean scores for all services except loan transaction ranges between 4.57 and 4.93 (>= 4.50 and 5.50, the range for useful ) for the respondent group with family income up to Rs per month. In respect of loan transaction, the above income group has perceived moderately useful (Mean = 4.18). For respondent group with family income between Rs and Rs.25000, the mean scores with regard to all services except open new accounts and Generate the latest reports of banking transactions are in the useful range. The above respondent group has 173

35 perceived the e-banking service for opening new accounts as moderately useful (Mean = 4.32) and generating the latest reports of banking transactions as very useful (Mean = 5.69). The bank customer group in the sample with family income above Rs per month has perceived the Loan transaction (Mean = 5.29), Pay bills using available cash in the accounts (Mean = 5.18), Open new accounts (Mean = 5.21) and Generate the latest reports of banking transactions (Mean = 5.39) as useful, and Account details and balance statements (Mean = 5.68), Funds transfer (Mean = 5.76) and Order to buy and sell shares (Mean = 5.54) as very useful. F values for the difference in group means are significant for all services through e-banking / internet banking. This has led to the conclusion that the perceived status of usefulness is associated with monthly income of the bank customers. 6.4 Intention to use e-banking / Internet banking in the Future The bank customers opinion about their intention to use e-banking / Internet banking in the future is obtained using four statements with 7-point scale (From Very Strongly Disagree (VSD), Strongly Disagree (SD), Disagree (D), Neutral (N), Agree (A), Strongly Agree (SA) to Very Strongly Agree (VSA) ) in the questionnaire. The data of the entire sample were first subjected to descriptive statistics. Then canonical correlation analysis was used to find out the relationship of benefits and usefulness (of e-banking / IB) with an intention to use in future. The canonical correlation is the statistical 174

36 technique used to find out the relationship between two sets of variables one dependent set and another independent. The results of the above analysis are presented and discussed in the remaining part of this chapter. Table 6.22 shows mean level of opinion of all respondents about their intention to use e-banking / internet banking in the future. Table 6.22 Intention to use e-banking / Internet Banking in the Future Opinion of Entire Sample Intention Mean Standard Deviation I intend to continue using this Internet banking site in the future I expect my use of this Internet banking site to continue in the future I will frequently use this Internet banking site in the future I will strongly recommend others to use this Internet banking site Source: Primary Data It can be seen from the table that the mean perception of the entire sample of the bank customers have agreed that they have intention to continue using this Internet banking site in the future (Mean = 5.34), expect their use of this Internet banking site to continue in the future (Mean = 5.41) and frequently use this Internet banking site in the future (Mean = 5.45) as the mean values are in the agree range (>= 4.50 and 5.50). At the same time, the respondents have strongly agreed that they would strongly recommend to others to use this Internet banking site (Mean = 5.54 >= 5.50 and < 6.50, the range for strongly agree ). In short, 175

37 it is found that majority of the bank customers, whether presently use e-banking or not, have intention to continue using e-banking / internet banking and strongly recommend to others to use this Internet banking site in the future. The results of canonical correlation between intention to use in the future and benefits of e-banking are presented in Table 6.23 and In the table 6.23, the canonical function and chi-square test statistics indicating the significance of the function are presented. Table 6.23 Chi-Square Tests with Successive Roots Removed testing Significance of Overall Model Fit for Canonical Correlation between Intention to Use in the Future and Benefits of e-banking Canonical Function Canonical R Canonical R 2 (Eigen value) Chi-Square df p-value Wilks Lambda Source: Primary Data There are four canonical functions in the table. Canonical function is nothing but relationship between two canonical variates, which is similar to latent variables (factors) in Factor analysis. So, each canonical function has two canonical variates, one for left set and another for right set of variables. The strength of relationship between two canonical variates is given by canonical correlation. Number of canonical function produced by the canonical correlation 176

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