Kingswood Primary School Progression in spelling, handwriting, punctuation and grammar

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1 Reception In Reception, children use their phonic knowledge to write words in ways which match their spoken sounds. They also write some irregular common words. They write simple sentences which can be read by themselves and others. Some words are spelt correctly and others are phonetically plausible. Pupils should be: * practising the formation of their name * picking up the pencil themselves and deciding which hand they prefer * practising both clockwise and anti-clockwise movements * linking letter shapes with sounds through multi-sensory activities e.g. air writing, drawing in damp sand etc. * learning about left to right directionality * learning about different letter families * start using some of the diagonal and horizontal strokes needed to join letters * Expect written text to make sense and to check for sense if it does not. * To know that words are ordered from left to right. * To use a capital letter for the start of their name. * To use a capital letter for the first word in a sentence and a full stop to end a sentence. Children are exposed to all single letter sounds and some diagraph sounds linked with their phonics learning. *use the grammatical terminology: WORD, SENTENCE, LETTER, CAPITAL LETTER, FULL STOP.

2 Year 1 * spell: a. words containing each of the 40+ phonemes already taught in reception b. common tricky words, e.g. the, said, one, two c. the days of the week * name the letters of the alphabet: a. naming the letters of the alphabet in order b. using letter names to distinguish between alternative spellings of the same sound * add prefixes and suffixes: a. using the spelling rule for adding s or es as the plural marker for nouns e.g. brush/brushes and the third person singular marker for verbs e.g. he jumps, she skips, he dances. b. using the prefix un e.g. unkind, untidy, unfair. c. using ing, ed, er and est where no change is needed in the spelling of root words (e.g. helping, helped, helper, eating, quicker, quickest no need to teach rules about changing the root word at this point e.g. doubling consonants, dropping e or changing y for i ) * write from memory simple sentences dictated by the teacher that include words taught so far. * sit correctly at a table, holding a pencil comfortably and correctly * begin to form lower-case letters in the correct direction, starting and finishing in the right place * continue practising the diagonal and horizontal strokes needed to join letters * form capital letters * form digits 0 9 * understand which letters belong to which handwriting families (i.e. letters that are formed in similar ways) and to practise these. a. leaving spaces between words b. using the word and to join words and join sentences c. beginning to punctuate sentences using a capital letter and a full stop, question mark or exclamation mark d. using a capital letter for names of people, places, the days of the week, and the personal pronoun I - Ladder letters i, j, l, t, u, y - One armed robot letters b, h, k (looped), m, n, p, r - Curly caterpillar letters c, a, d, e, g, o, q, f, s - Zig zag letters (k straight), v, w, x, z - Ascenders b, d, h, k, l - Descenders - g, j, p, q, y *use the grammatical terminology: WORD, SENTENCE, LETTER, CAPITAL LETTER, FULL STOP, PUNCTUATION, QUESTION MARK, EXCLAMATION MARK, SINGULAR, PLURAL

3 Year 2 * spell by: a. segmenting words into phonemes (sounds) and representing these by graphemes (sounds in their written form which may be made from 1, 2, 3 or even 4 letters representing 1 sound), spelling many correctly. b. learning new ways of spelling phonemes for which one or more spellings are already known, and learn some words with examples of each of these sounds (e.g. the different ways of making the long a sound) including a few common homophones (e.g. two, to, too) c. learning to spell common tricky words d. learning to spell more words with contracted forms, e.g. can t, don t * add suffixes to spell longer words, e.g. ment, ness, ful and less * write from memory simple sentences dictated by the teacher that contain words and punctuation taught so far. * form lower case letters of the correct size relative to one another * use with increasing accuracy some of the diagonal and horizontal strokes needed to join letters * write capital letters and digits of the correct size, orientation and relationship to one another and lower case letters * use spacing between words that reflects the size of the letters The vast majority of children should leave Year 2 joining their writing. - Diagonal joins to letters without ascenders e.g. ai, ar, un - Horizontal joins to letters without ascenders e.g. ou, vi, wi - Diagonal joins to letters with ascenders e.g. ab, ul, it - Horizontal joins to letters with ascenders e.g. ol, wh, ot a. learning how to use both familiar and new punctuation correctly, including full stops, capital letters, exclamation marks, question marks, commas for lists and apostrophes for contracted forms e.g. can t, don t b. learning how to use: >sentences with different forms: statement, question, exclamation, command > expanded noun phrases to describe and specify, e.g. the blue butterfly > subordination (using when, if, that, or because) and co-ordination (using or, and, or but) to begin to create some complex and compound sentences. c. using some features of written Standard English e.g. use appropriately was/were, done/did etc.) terminology: VERB, TENSE PAST AND PRESENT, ADJECTIVE, NOUN, SUFFIX, APOSTROPHE, COMMA, SINGULAR, PLURAL, NOUN PHRASE, STATEMENT, QUESTION, EXCLAMATION, COMMAND, COMPOUND

4 Year 3 * use further prefixes and suffixes and understand how to add them * spell further homophones * spell words that are often misspelt * write from memory simple sentences, dictated by the teacher, that include words and punctuation taught so far. * use the diagonal and horizontal strokes that are needed to join letters * increase the legibility and quality of their handwriting, e.g. by ensuring that the down strokes of letters are parallel and equidistant; that lines of writing are spaced sufficiently so that the ascenders and descenders of letters do not touch. When children are consistently joining their handwriting neatly they can start to write with a pen. FOCUS ON INCREASING QUALITY looking at issues involving spacing, parallel lines and keeping lines equidistant. - Diagonal joins to letters without ascenders e.g. ai, ar, un - Horizontal joins to letters without ascenders e.g. ou, vi, wi - Diagonal joins to letters with ascenders e.g. ab, ul, it - Horizontal joins to letters with ascenders e.g. ol, wh, ot * develop their understanding of how spoken language differs from and can be represented in writing by: a. extending the range of sentences with more than one clause by using a wider range of connectives e.g. when, if, because, although b. choosing nouns or pronouns appropriately for clarity and cohesion c. choosing nouns or pronouns appropriately within a sentence to avoid ambiguity and repetition d. using conjunctions, adverbs and prepositions to express time and cause e. using fronted adverbials (use of an adverb to begin a sentence) f. discussing dialogue in narratives or characters language in drama a. using commas after fronted adverbials b. indicating possession by using the possessive apostrophe with singular and plural nouns c. using and punctuating direct speech appropriately when discussing their writing and reading: CONJUNCTION, ADVERB, PREPOSITION, DIRECT SPEECH, INVERTED COMMAS/SPEECH MARKS, PREFIX, CONSONANT, VOWEL, CLAUSE, SUBORDINATE CLAUSE.

5 Year 4 * use further prefixes and suffixes and understand how to add them * spell further homophones and near homophones e.g. where, were, we re * spell words that are often misspelt * write from memory simple sentences, dictated by the teacher, that include words and punctuation taught so far. * use the diagonal and horizontal strokes that are needed to join letters and understand which letters, when adjacent to one another, are best left un-joined * increase the legibility and quality of their handwriting, e.g. by ensuring that the down strokes of letters are parallel and equidistant; that lines of writing are spaced sufficiently so that the ascenders and descenders of letters do not touch. When children are consistently joining their handwriting neatly they can start to write with a pen. FOCUS ON INCREASING QUALITY looking at issues involving spacing, parallel lines and keeping lines equidistant. - Diagonal joins to letters without ascenders e.g. ai, ar, un - Horizontal joins to letters without ascenders e.g. ou, vi, wi - Diagonal joins to letters with ascenders e.g. ab, ul, it - Horizontal joins to letters with ascenders e.g. ol, wh, ot * develop their understanding of how spoken language differs from and can be represented in writing by: a. extending the range of sentences with more than one clause by using a wider range of connectives e.g. when, if, because, although b. choosing nouns or pronouns appropriately for clarity and cohesion c. choosing nouns or pronouns appropriately within a sentence to avoid ambiguity and repetition d. using conjunctions, adverbs and prepositions to express time and cause e. using fronted adverbials (use of an adverb to begin a sentence) f. discussing dialogue in narratives or characters language in drama a. using commas after fronted adverbials b. indicating possession by using the possessive apostrophe with singular and plural nouns c. using and punctuating direct speech appropriately when discussing their writing and reading: PRONOUN, POSSESSIVE PRONOUN, ADVERBIAL, PHRASE, SYNONYM, APOSTROPHES FOR POSSESSION DETERMINER

6 Year 5 a. use further prefixes and suffixes and understand the guidelines for adding them b. spell some words with silent letters, e.g. knight, psalm, solemn c. continue to distinguish between homophones and other words which are often confused d. use knowledge of morphology (how a word is constructed e.g. root, affixes) and etymology (history/origin of a word) in spelling and understand that the spelling of some words needs to be learnt specifically e. use dictionaries to check spelling and meaning of words f. use the first three or four letters of a word to look up words in a dictionary to check spelling, meaning or both of these. g. use a thesaurus * write legibly, fluently, with increasing speed and personal style * choose the writing implement that is best suited for a task (e.g. quick notes, letters). When children are consistently joining their handwriting neatly they can start to write with a pen. a. recognising vocabulary and structures that are appropriate for formal speech and writing b. using the passive voice to affect the presentation of information in a sentence c. using expanded noun phrases to convey complicated information concisely d. using modal verbs or adverbs to indicate degrees of possibility e. using relative clauses beginning with who, which, where, why or whose a. using commas to clarify meaning or avoid ambiguity in writing b. using hyphens to avoid ambiguity c. using brackets, dashes or commas to indicate parenthesis d. using semi-colons, colons or dashes to indicate a stronger sub-division of a sentence than a comma e. punctuating bullet points consistently In upper KS2 teachers should look specific aspects of handwriting that need further modelling and practising and teach discreet sessions to address these issues. appropriately in discussing their writing and reading: RELATIVE CLAUSE, MODAL VERB, RELATIVE PRONOUN, PARENTHESIS, BRACKET, DASH, DETERMINER (YEAR 4), COHESION, AMBIGUITY, APOSTROPHES FOR CONTRACTION, SIMPLE/COMPOUND/COMPLEX SENTENCE, ARTICLES, ANTONYMS.

7 Year 6 a. use further prefixes and suffixes and understand the guidelines for adding them b. spell some words with silent letters, e.g. knight, psalm, solemn c. continue to distinguish between homophones and other words which are often confused d. use knowledge of morphology (how a word is constructed e.g. root, affixes) and etymology (history/origin of a word) in spelling and understand that the spelling of some words needs to be learnt specifically e. use dictionaries to check spelling and meaning of words f. use the first three or four letters of a word to look up words in a dictionary to check spelling, meaning or both of these. g. use a thesaurus * write legibly, fluently, with increasing speed and personal style * choose the writing implement that is best suited for a task (e.g. quick notes, letters). a. recognising vocabulary and structures that are appropriate for formal speech and writing b. using the passive voice to affect the presentation of information in a sentence c. using expanded noun phrases to convey complicated information concisely d. using modal verbs or adverbs to indicate degrees of possibility e. using relative clauses beginning with who, which, where, why or whose a. using commas to clarify meaning or avoid ambiguity in writing b. using hyphens to avoid ambiguity c. using brackets, dashes or commas to indicate parenthesis d. using semi-colons, colons or dashes to indicate a stronger sub-division of a sentence than a comma e. punctuating bullet points consistently In upper KS2 teachers should look specific aspects of handwriting that need further modelling and practising and teach discreet sessions to address these issues. appropriately in discussing their writing and reading: ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE, SUBJECT AND OBJECT, HYPHEN, COLON, SEMI-COLON, BULLET POINTS, SUBORDINATING CONNECTIVE, I and ME, ELLIPSES.

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