015 CANNONVALE STATE SCHOOL CURRICULUM. GRAMMAR and PUNCTUATION GUIDELINES WHAT IS GRAMMAR?

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1 GRAMMAR and PUNCTUATION GUIDELINES WHAT IS GRAMMAR? In the Australian Curriculum: English, the purpose of punctuation and grammar is to reflect that in describing language, attention is paid to both structure (form) and meaning (function) at the level of the word, the sentence and the text. The punctuation content of the curriculum moves from a focus in the early years of schooling on how punctuation works to perform different functions in a text, to applying punctuation conventions when creating texts for different purposes and audiences. In grammar, the content descriptions in the early stages of schooling focus on developing students foundational knowledge of how language works. Students learn about the structures and functions of word- and sentence-level grammar and text patterns and the connections between them. Students also develop a clear, consistent and shared language (metalanguage) for talking about learning. Across the years of schooling, students learn how texts are structured to achieve particular purposes, how language is used to create texts that are cohesive and coherent, and how texts about more specialised topics contain more complex language patterns and features. (Based on Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA) materials) Grammar and Punctuation is explicitly taught, daily in the English block. 1. Model an example of text. Always begin with an interesting or exciting piece of text to hook your students. 2. Introduce the Grammar concept. Read definitions and explore the use of the concept in the modelled text. 3. Model the writing of a simple sentence. Grammar and punctuation start with the basic sentence. Ensure that your children are absolutely secure in their concept of a sentence. 4. Ask students to individually, in pairs or as small groups enhance the sentence. This could be by adding at either end, joining it to another sentence, or inserting something in it. Whatever you do, always start with a well-composed (and intriguing) sentence. 5. Combine the teaching of grammar and punctuation. Teach and explore the use of punctuation within the sentence. Students will often grasp how commas and other punctuation marks work when these are taught within the context of phrases and clauses, as opposed to isolated insert the commas exercises. 6. Guide students through modelling and exploration of text samples to show how any author uses a skill that you have recently been practising to enhance the text s impact. 7. Spend time playing with each new skill/concept together. Study the concept and explore making sentences using the rules that apply to this concept at the appropriate level of instruction required.

2 8. Model and compose grammatical sentences using it together (making shared writing an intrinsic part of the process), then have the children apply the new skill in their writing. 9. Have children work in pairs to write with the new skill, then swap and peer-assess and improve. 10. Use the correct terminology when teaching grammar, and use it when marking, giving feedback and setting targets. Have children use it in self- and peer-assessment. 11. Spend time returning to the new language skill to ensure mastery: hear it, speak it and write it in as many different contexts as possible. TIPS Be organized good warm ups don t happen accidentally! Always use formative assessment to decide next steps for your class. This might seem really obvious, but can be too easily overlooked- look at the grammar and punctuation in children s actual writing their stories, their reports, biographies and explanations as well as any grammar testing you might do. Have children evaluate examples, and then you will have an extremely clear idea of what to teach next and their prior knowledge/understanding of a particular concept. Demonstrate and model an enthusiasm and love for language; relish a wonderful subordinate clause and take joy in a wellchosen verb. If grammar is reduced to a dreary exercise, learning is unlikely; positive emotional resonance supports memory and deep learning. Make Grammar fun use of multi-sensory and game-based activities for the weekly teaching concept is acceptable. Broaden the application of grammar across the curriculum: start a History lesson with children composing a single sentence that recaps your last lesson s learning, applying the grammar skill taught most recently: Give me a sentence about the olden days that includes an embedded clause. Keep moving at a fast pace. Provide feedback and generous praise at a class and individual level. Consider having some students write their sentence out at another time to be placed on the exemplary work display. If something is not working, change it! Be prepared to make adjustments to this process to cater for the needs and learning styles of your students. MAKE IT FUN, ENGAGING AND CHALLENGING

3 Nouns Pronouns Adjectives Articles Verbs Verb Tense Adverbs Prepositions Conjunctions Time Connectives Simple Sentence Compound Sentence Complex Sentence Clauses Commands Contrast GRAMMAR MAPPING Prep Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6

4 GRAMMAR TEACHING SEQUENCE 1 Nouns Verbs Simple Sentence Simple Sentence 2 Nouns Verbs Simple Sentence Simple Sentence 3 Nouns Verbs Simple Sentence Nouns 4 Nouns Verbs Simple Sentence Nouns 5 Nouns Verbs Simple Sentence Verbs 6 Simple Sentence Simple Sentence Adjectives Verbs 7 Simple Sentence Simple Sentence Adjectives Verbs 8 Simple Sentence Simple Sentence Adjectives Adjectives 9 Simple Sentence Simple Sentence Adjectives Adjectives 10 Simple Sentence Simple Sentence Adjectives Adjectives PREP 1 Nouns Verbs Adjectives Pro-nouns 2 Nouns Verbs Adjectives Pro-nouns 3 Nouns Verbs Adjectives Verbs 4 Nouns Verbs Adjectives Verbs 5 Pro-nouns Ad-verbs Simple Sentences Ad-verbs 6 Pro-nouns Ad-verbs Simple Sentences Ad-verbs 7 Pro-nouns Ad-verbs Simple Sentences Adjectives YEAR 1

5 8 Pro-nouns Ad-verbs Simple Sentences Adjectives 9 Simple Sentence Simple Sentence Nouns Simple Sentences 10 Simple Sentence Simple Sentence Nouns Simple Sentences 1 Nouns Compound sentence Compound Sentence Clauses 2 Nouns Compound sentence Compound Sentence Clauses 3 Pro-nouns Compound sentence Compound Sentence Clauses 4 Pro-nouns Compound sentence Compound Sentence Compound Sentence 5 Verbs Verb tense Prepositions Compound Sentence 6 Verbs Verb tense Prepositions Compound Sentence 9 Compound sentence Articles Conjunctions Revision 10 Compound Sentence Articles Conjunctions Revision YEAR 2 1 Nouns Compound sentence Compound Sentence Clauses 2 Nouns Compound sentence Compound Sentence Clauses 3 Pro-nouns Compound sentence Compound Sentence Clauses 4 Pro-nouns Compound sentence Compound Sentence Compound Sentence 5 Verbs Verb tense Prepositions Compound Sentence YEAR 3

6 6 Verbs Verb tense Prepositions Compound Sentence 9 Compound sentence Articles Conjunctions Revision 10 Compound Sentence Articles Conjunctions Revision 1 Nouns Compound sentence Compound Sentence Clauses 2 Nouns Compound sentence Compound Sentence Clauses 3 Pro-nouns Compound sentence Compound Sentence Clauses 4 Pro-nouns Compound sentence Compound Sentence Compound Sentence 5 Verbs Verb tense Prepositions Compound Sentence 6 Verbs Verb tense Prepositions Compound Sentence 9 Compound sentence Articles Conjunctions Revision 10 Compound Sentence Articles Conjunctions Revision YEAR 4 1 Nouns Complex sentence Complex Sentence Clauses 2 Nouns Complex sentence Complex Sentence Clauses 3 Pro-nouns Complex sentence Complex Sentence Clauses YEAR 5

7 4 Pro-nouns Complex sentence Complex Sentence Complex Sentence 5 Verbs Verb tense Prepositions Complex Sentence 6 Verbs Verb tense Prepositions Complex Sentence 9 Complex sentence Articles Conjunctions Revision 10 Complex Sentence Articles Conjunctions Revision 1 Nouns Complex sentence Complex Sentence Clauses 2 Nouns Complex sentence Complex Sentence Clauses 3 Pro-nouns Complex sentence Complex Sentence Clauses 4 Pro-nouns Complex sentence Complex Sentence Complex Sentence 5 Verbs Verb tense Prepositions Complex Sentence 6 Verbs Verb tense Prepositions Complex Sentence 9 Complex sentence Articles Conjunctions Revision 10 Complex Sentence Articles Conjunctions Revision YEAR 6 ENGLISH GRAMMAR SCOPE AND SEQUENCE: FOUNDATION TO YEAR 6 /AUSTRALIAN CURRICULUM (ACARA) Focus of thread within the sub-strand Sentences and clause level grammar What a clause is and Foundation Year Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Recognise that sentences are key units for expressing ideas Identify the parts of a simple sentence that represent What s happening?, Who or Understand that simple connections can be made between ideas by using a compound sentence with Understand that a clause is a unit of grammar usually containing a subject and a verb and Understand that the meaning of sentences can be enriched through the use of noun Understand the difference between main and subordinate clauses and that a complex sentence Investigate how complex sentences can be used in a variety of ways to elaborate, extend and

8 how sim and complex sentences are constructed through one clause (simple) or by combining clauses using different types of conjunctions (compound and complex) what is involved? and the surrounding circumstances two or more clauses usually linked by a coordinating conjunction that these need to be in agreement groups/phrases and verb groups/phrases and prepositional phrases Investigate how quoted (direct) and reported (indirect) speech work in different types of text involves at least one subordinate clause explain ideas Word level grammar The different classes of words used in English (nouns, verbs etc) and the functions they perform in sentences and when they are combined in particular recognisable groups such as phrases and noun groups. Recognise that texts are made up of words and groups of words that make meaning Explore differences in Understand that nouns words that represent represent people, places, people, places and t things and (nouns, including be, for example, common, pronouns), happenings proper, concrete or and states (verbs), abstract, and that noun qualities (adjectives) and groups/ phrases can be details such as when, expanded using articles where and how (adverbs) and adjectives id Understand that verbs represent different processes (doing, thinking, saying, and relating) and that these processes are anchored in time through tense Understand how adverb groups/phrases and prepositional phrases work in different ways to provide circumstantial details about an activity Understand how noun groups/phrases and adjective groups/phrases can be expanded in a variety of ways to provide a fuller description of the person, place, thing or idea Understand how ideas can be expanded and sharpened through careful choice of verbs, elaborated tenses and a range of adverb groups/ phrases

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