Chapter 10 Developing Business/IT Solutions

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1 Chapter 10 Developing Business/IT Solutions 1. The systems approach to problem solving uses a systems orientation to define problems and opportunities and to develop solutions. When the systems approach to problem solving is applied to the development of information system solutions to business problems, it is called information systems development or application development. 2. The essence of the discipline of systems thinking is seeing the forest and the trees in any situation by seeing the linear causeand-effect chains whenever events occur. 3. One way of practicing systems thinking is to try to find discrete snapshots of change, whenever change occurs. This is also known as using a systems context. 4. Business processes such as the sales process can be viewed as a system. 5. Systems thinking means recognizing systems, subsystems, components of systems, and system interrelationships in a

2 situation as well as having a full understanding of the problem or opportunity that you are studying 6. Most computer-based, information systems are conceived, designed, and implemented using some form of systematic development process in which end users and information specialists design information systems based on an analysis of the information requirements of an organization. 7. The systems approach to develop information system solutions involves a multistep process called the information systems development cycle, also known as the systems development life cycle (SDLC) that includes the steps of investigation, analysis, design, implementation, and maintenance. 8. Your text outlines the steps involved in the systems approach to problem solving. In the systems development life cycle (SDLC), all activities involved are highly related and interdependent with several developmental activities occurring at the same time. 9. The traditional information systems development cycle has five steps that are based on the stages of the systems approach. The systems investigation step is used to determine how to address business opportunities and priorities.

3 10. The traditional information systems development cycle has five steps that are based on the stages of the systems approach. The systems investigation step results in the development of the functional requirements of a system that can meet business priorities and he needs of all stakeholders. 11. When the systems approach to problem solving is properly implemented, each step in the process is performed in a structured sequence, making it unnecessary to go back and repeat any of the steps in the system being develope 12. Although prototyping tools are improving the quality of systems development and making it easier for IS professionals to develop systems, there have been no major developments that enable end users to develop their own systems. 13. Developments such as prototyping are being used to automate and change some of the activities of the traditional way of doing information systems development. 14. Prototyping is the development of methodologies that avoid the need for repeated or iterative modifications to an information system as it is being designe

4 15. The major advantage of using the prototyping method to develop and test working models is that it makes the development process slower and more difficult to define, making the process necessary to include IS professionals. 16. One of the major advantages of using prototyping to develop and test working models is that it has opened up the application development process to end users by simplifying and accelerating systems design. 17. In a typical prototyping-based systems development process for a business application, the development team is composed of a few end users and IS developers formed to develop the application. 18. In a typical prototyping-based systems development process for a business application, the development team develops a schematic of the development process but not an initial prototype schematic design. 19. During the presentation stage of the prototyping-based systems development process for a business application, a few screens and routine linkage are presented to end users for feedback to the process. After the team gets the feedback, the prototype is reiterate

5 20. Your text outlines the steps involved in the systems development process. In the systems investigation stage, a feasibility study is a preliminary study that investigates the information needs of prospective users and determines the resource requirements, costs, benefits, and feasibility of a proposed project. 21. Your text outlines the steps involved in the systems development process. Of the four major categories of feasibility studies, economic feasibility focuses on how well a proposed information system supports the objectives of the organization and its strategic plan for information systems. 22. Your text outlines the steps involved in the systems development process. Of the four major categories of feasibility studies, organizational feasibility focuses on how well a proposed information system supports the objectives of the organization and its strategic plan for information systems. 23. Your text outlines the steps involved in the systems development process. Of the four major categories of feasibility studies, operational feasibility focuses on the willingness and ability of management, employees, customers, suppliers, and others to operate, use, and support a proposed system. 24. Your text outlines the steps involved in the systems development process. When conducting a cost/benefit analysis, intangible benefits result if costs and benefits can both be quantifie

6 25. Your text outlines the steps involved in the systems development process. When conducting a cost/benefit analysis, intangible costs would include the loss of customer goodwill or employee moral caused by errors and disruptions arising from the installation of a new system. 26. Your text outlines the steps involved in the systems development process. When conducting a cost/benefit analysis, intangible benefits are favorable results, such as the decrease in payroll costs caused by a reduction in personnel or a decrease in inventory carrying costs caused by a reduction in inventory. 27. Your text outlines the steps involved in the systems development process. When conducting a cost/benefit analysis, a good example of an intangible benefit would be better customer service or faster and more accurate information for management. 28. When developing or improving an information system, it is important to study the system that will be improved or replaced and analyze how this system uses hardware, software, network, and people resources in order to convert data resources. 29. When developing or improving an information system, IS specialists need not possess in-depth knowledge of the organizational environment in which the system is locate

7 30. In the systems development process, in the systems design stage, you can specify what the resources, products, and activities should be to support the user interface in the system you are designing. To make this stage most successful, it is important to understand the business processes the system will support from the user's perspective. 31. When completing the systems analysis stage for a new system or for improvements to an old system, functional requirements include end user information requirements that are not tied to the hardware, software, network, data, and people resources that end users presently use or might use in the system. 32. The systems analysis stage for a new system or for improvements to an old system basically describes "how" a system should meet the information needs of the users. 33. The systems design stage focuses on three major products or deliverables: user interface methods and products, database structures, and processing and control procedures. 34. User interface design concentrates on the input/output methods and the conversion of data and information between humanreadable and machine-readable forms.

8 35. User interface design is frequently a prototyping process, where working models or prototypes of user interface methods are designed and modified with feedback from end users. 36. The system specification stage involves the design of specifications for user interface, database, software, hardware and facilities, and personnel required for a proposed system. 37. Within the context of end user development, systems analysts and other IS professionals work extensively with end users in order to analyze their problems, suggest alternative solutions, and to develop the application. 38. It is important to remember that end user development should focus on the fundamental activities of any information system: input, processing, output, storage, and control. 39. It is important to remember that end user development should focus on the fundamental activities of any information system: input, processing, output, storage, and control. In analyzing a potential application, you should focus first on the input to be supplied to the application.

9 40. It is important to remember that end user development should focus on the fundamental activities of any information system: input, processing, output, storage, and control. In analyzing a potential application, the storage component will vary in importance in end user applications. 41. In end user development, you and other business professionals can develop new or improved ways to perform your job without the direct involvement of IS specialists. 42. Companies are encouraging and managing intranet website development by business end users. One of the ways the company can spur intranet website development is to consider a competition among departments for the best website. 43. Once a new information system has been designed, it must be implemented and maintaine Implementation is a vital step in the deployment of information technology to support the business information systems developed by a company for employees, customers, and other business stakeholders. 44. The systems implementation stage involves hardware and software acquisition, software development, testing of programs and procedures, development of documentation, and a variety of conversion alternatives. It also involves the education and training of end users and specialists who will operate a new system.

10 45. Implementation is never difficult and time-consuming. Nevertheless, the implementation process requires a project management effort on the part of the IT and business unit managers to make sure the process is completed within budget. 46. When evaluating and selecting hardware and software suppliers, many organizations formalize their requirements by listing them in a document called an RFP (request for proposal). 47. When evaluating and selecting hardware and software services, many organizations formalize these requirements by listing them in a document called an RFQ (request for quotation). 48. When organizations that use large computers require a formal evaluation process like special "benchmarking" of test programs and test data for proposed hardware and software, it helps them reduce the possibility of buying inadequate or unnecessary hardware or software. 49. Since so many computer systems are interconnected within wide area or local area telecommunications networks, connectivity is an important hardware evaluation factor to be considered when acquiring computer equipment.

11 50. Some of the factors involved in evaluating IS services include assistance during installation or conversion of hardware and software, employee training, customer hot lines, and hardware maintenance. 51. Some of the factors involved in evaluating IS services include assistance during installation or conversion of hardware and software, employee training, customer hot lines, and hardware maintenance. IS services can be outsourced to an outside company for a negotiated price. Systems integrators take over complete responsibility for an organization's computer facilities when an organization outsources its computer operations. 52. A major source of information system services is systems integrators. Systems integrators take over complete responsibility for an organization's computer facilities when an organization outsources its computer operations. 53. System testing normally does not involve debugging computer programs, or testing the information processing procedures. 54. Training of employees on a computerized application may involve activities such as data entry, or it may involve all aspects of the proper use of a new system.

12 55. Of the four major forms of system conversion, parallel conversion occurs when both the old and the new system are operated until the project development team and end user management agree to switch completely over to the new system. 56. Of the four major forms of system conversion, plunge conversion occurs when management has decided to a direct cutover to the newly developed system. 57. Of the four major forms of system, the pilot method of conversion involves one department or work site serving as a test site for a new system. 58. Systems maintenance is the monitoring, evaluating, and modifying of operational information systems to make desirable or necessary improvements. 59. The maintenance activity includes a post-implementation review process to ensure that newly implemented systems meet the systems development objectives established for them.

13 60. One of the keys to solving problems of end user resistance is proper end user education and training, improved communications with IS professionals, and end user involvement in the development and implementation of new systems. 61. Although any "new way of doing things" in an organization can generate some resistance by the people affected, direct end user participation in systems development projects before a system is implemented does very little to reduce the potential for end user resistance. 62. Although any "new way of doing things" in an organization can generate some resistance by the people affected, direct end user participation in systems development projects before a system is implemented helps ensure that end users "assume ownership" of a system, and that it is designed to meet their needs. 63. People are a major focus of organizational change management. This includes activities such as developing innovative ways to measure, motivate, and reward performance. 64 Prototyping involves:

14 The execution of the standard systems development cycle using CASE tools. A rapid generation of systems by information systems professionals without the need for end user input. The use of a fail-safe development process designed to ensure that an information system meets all user requirements without revision. An iterative and interactive development process with extensive end user involvement. 65 Which one of the following statements would most accurately applies to the concept of prototyping?: Rapidly produces an "actual working model" of the information system needed by the user. Is most practical for large-scale projects. Emphasizes getting the design right the first time.

15 Reduces the need for user involvement in systems development. 66 A typical prototyping-based systems development process for a business application includes an acceptance stage. Which of the following best describes what occurs in the acceptance stage? The new business software is installed on network servers. The prototype is converted into a finished application. The users review and sign off on their acceptance of the new business application. Further presentations of the software are made. 67 A feasibility study is a preliminary study to investigate the information needs of prospective users and is used to determine the proposed systems: Resource requirements.

16 Costs and benefits. Feasibility. All of the above. 68 A feasibility study would NOT answer which of the following questions?: Does the technology exist that is necessary to implement the proposed system? Is the proposed system technologically, economically and operationally feasible? Which type and model of computer will be used by the proposed system? What impact will the proposed system have on current employees?

17 69 Economic feasibility: Focuses on how well a proposed information system supports the objectives of the organization and its strategic plan for information systems. Is concerned with whether expected cost savings, increased revenue, increased profits, reductions in required investment, and other types of benefits will exceed the cost of developing and operating a proposed system. Is concerned with demonstrating if reliable hardware and software capable of meeting the needs of a proposed system can be acquired or developed by the business in the required time. Involves the willingness and ability of management, employees, customers, suppliers, and others to operate, use, and support a proposed system. 70 Determining whether expected cost savings, increased profits, and other benefits exceed the cost of developing and operating a system is related to: Economic feasibility.

18 Functional feasibility. Operational feasibility. System feasibility. 71 Technical feasibility: Focuses on how well a proposed information system supports the objectives of the organization and its strategic plan for information systems. Is concerned with whether expected cost savings, increased revenue, increased profits, reductions in required investment, and other types of benefits will exceed the cost of developing and operating a proposed system. Is concerned with demonstrating if reliable hardware and software capable of meeting the needs of a proposed system can be acquired or developed by the business in the required time.

19 Involves the willingness and ability of management, employees, customers, suppliers, and others to operate, use, and support a proposed system. 72 Determining whether reliable hardware and software required by a proposed system is available or can be acquired by the computer using organization is called: Cost/benefit analysis. Economic feasibility. Operational feasibility. Technical feasibility. 73 The costs of computer hardware and software are an example of: Intangible costs.

20 Tangible costs. Intangible benefits. Tangible benefits. 74 Which one of the following is an example of an intangible cost? : Employee salaries. Loss of customer goodwill. Reduced inventory-carrying costs. Improved customer service. 75 Which one of the following is an example of an intangible benefit?:

21 Employee salaries. Loss of customer goodwill. Reduced inventory-carrying costs. Improved customer service. 76 Which one of the following is a function of the systems analysis stage?: Developing the functional requirements of the system. Conducting a feasibility study. Hardware acquisition. Personnel training.

22 77 Why are business end users frequently added to systems development teams? They know very little about the organizational environment in which the system will be locate They know a lot about the company and the types of business activities that affect the company's business processes. They are usually experienced in IS development. They are more likely to eliminated unnecessary documentation and steps. 78 In systems design, user interface design refers to the design of: Programs and procedures to be used by end-users. Display screens, forms and reports, and interactive computer user dialogs.

23 User training manuals. The structure of databases and files accessible by end users. 79 Which one of the following statements does NOT apply to end user development?: IS professionals play a consulting role while end users do their own application development. User service groups or information centers may provide assistance for both mainframe and microcomputer applications developments. Electronic spreadsheet packages cannot be used by end users as a tool to develop ways to analyze information. Database management packages can be used to design dataentry displays to help sales clerks enter sales dat 80 The systems implementation stage involves:

24 Hardware and software acquisition. Software development and testing of programs and procedures. Development of documentation and a variety of conversion alternatives. All of the above. 81 Which one of the following is a major software evaluation factor?: Business position. Documentation. Training. Conversion.

25 82 Which one of the following is a major evaluation factor in selecting IS services?: Speed, capacity, and throughput. Availability of backup facilities. Efficient programs. Programming language utilize 83 Which one of the following is a major source of information system services in the computer industry?: Computer leasing companies. System integrators.

26 Documentation consultants. Peripheral manufacturers. 84 Testing of information systems: Proceeds from low level modules of programs to higher level modules. Occurs only after implementation when the prototyping development method is use Includes a systems test in which all related modules are tested together. Becomes mandatory if CASE tools are used since automatically generated code is likely to be error-prone.

27 85 The four major forms of system conversion include: Parallel, phased, pilot, and plunge. Timed, phased, direct, and delaye Phased, pilot, timed, and schedule Plunge, direct, timed, and delaye

28 86 The conversion process in which both the old and the new system are operated until there is agreement to switch completely to the new system is called: Pilot conversion. Plunge or direct cutover. Parallel conversion. Phased conversion.

29 87 Your text defines the to problem solving as a systematic process of problem solving that defines problems and opportunities in a systems context. Data are gathered describing the problem or opportunity, and alternative solutions are identified and evaluate Then the best solution is selected and implemented, and its success evaluate Systems Approach 88 Your text refers to as the idea of having a full understanding of a problem or opportunity that you are studying. It involves recognizing systems, subsystems, components of systems, and system interrelationships in a situation. Also known as a systems context or a systemic view of a situation. Systems Thinking 89 When the systems approach is applied to the development of information system solutions to business problems, it is called. System development life cycle 90 Your text defines a as a working model. In particular, a working model of an information system that includes tentative versions of user input and output, databases and files, control methods, and processing routines. Prototype 91 The systems stage is the first step in the systems development process and may involve considerations of proposals generated by an information systems planning process. Investigation

30 92 In the systems stage, the goal of feasibility studies is to evaluate alternative systems and to propose the most feasible and desirable systems for development. Investigation 93 Your text defines a study as a preliminary study that investigates the information needs of end users and the objectives, constraints, basic resource requirements, cost/benefits of proposed projects. Feasibility 94 Your text defines feasibility as to how well a proposed information system supports the objectives of an organization's strategic plan for information systems. Organizational 95 The focus of feasibility is concerned with whether expected cost savings, increased revenue, increased profits, reductions in required investment and other types of benefits will exceed the costs of developing and operating a proposed system. Economic 96 feasibility focuses on the willingness and ability of management, employees, customers, suppliers, and others to operate, use, and support a proposed system. Operational

31 97 This analysis is used to identify the advantages of benefits and the disadvantages or costs of a proposed solution.. Cost/Benefit 98 In a cost/benefit analysis, your text refers to a number of benefits. For example, if this benefit (costs of hardware, software, and employee salaries) could be quantified, they would be called benefits/costs. Tangible 99 In a cost/benefit analysis, your text refers to a number of benefits. For example, if the analysis reported favorable results, such as the decrease in payroll costs caused by a reduction in personnel or a decrease in inventory carrying costs caused by a reduction in inventory, the benefits would be called benefits/costs. Intangible 100 When developing or improving an information system, it is important to study the system that will be improved or replace You should analyze how this system uses hardware, software, network, and people resources to convert data resources. This analysis is commonly known as analysis. Organizational

32 101 The systems analysis stage for a new system or for improvements to an old system basically describes " " a system should do to meet the information needs of end users. Systems design specified how the system will accomplish this objective. What 102 When performing systems analysis and design, these requirements are defined as the information system capabilities required to meet the information needs of end users. Functional 103 The system design stage for a new system or for improvements to an old system basically describes a system should meet the information needs of end users. How 104 When performing systems analysis and design, these requirements are defined as the information system capabilities required to meet the information needs of end users. Functional 105 is the system component closest to the business end users and the one they most likely help design. User interface design

33 106 Your text describes several examples of system specifications for new e-commerce systems. The specification describes how to organize the company's data and access to that dat Database 107 Your text defines system as the product of the systems design stage. It is used to determine requirements for hardware, software, hardware, facilities, personnel, databases, and the user interface of a proposed information system. Specifications 108 It is important to remember that end user development should focus on the fundamental activities of any information system: input, processing, output, storage, and control. In analyzing a potential application, you should focus first on the to be produced by the application. Output 109 The process for newly designed information systems involves a variety of acquisition, testing, documentation, installation, and conversion activities. It also involves the training of end users in the operation and use of the new information system. Implementation 110 In evaluating hardware, software, and IS services, many large business firms and government agencies formalize their requirements in a document called a. Request for Proposal (RFP)

34 111 Companies that can be used to take over complete responsibility for an organization's computer facilities are called. Systems Integrators 112 involves testing hardware devices, testing and debugging programs, and testing information-processing procedures. Programs are tested using test data that attempt to simulate all conditions that may arise during processing. System testing 113 Companies that provide industry-specific software for use with the computer systems of selected manufacturers are called. Value-Added Resellers 114 Your text defines this process ( ) as the IS implementation activity that records and communicates detailed system specifications, including procedures for end users and IS personnel and provides examples of input/output displays and reports. Documentation 115 Your text defines this activity ( ) as a critical step in developing good systems. Your text defines this activity as the collection of documents or information that describes a computer program, information system, or required data processing operations. Documentation

35 116 is an IS services evaluation factor that identifies the process in which the hardware, software, people, and data resources of an old information system must be change to the requirements of a new information system. Conversion 117 Your text outlines four major forms of system conversion. Conversion of a new system can be done on a basis, whereby both the old and the new system are operated until the project development team and end user management agree to switch completely over to the new system. Parallel 118 Your text outlines four major forms of system conversion. Conversion of a new system may be done on a basis, where only parts of the new system at a time are converte Phased 119 Your text outlines four major forms of system conversion. A new system may involve using a conversion, where installation can be accomplished by a direct cutover to a newly developed system. Plunge 120 Systems is the monitoring, evaluating, and modifying of operational information systems to make desirable or necessary improvements. Maintenance

36 121 The maintenance activity includes a process to ensure that newly implemented systems meet the systems development objectives established for them. Post-implementation review 122 People are a major focus of organizational. This includes activities such as developing innovative ways to measure, motivate, and reward performance. Change management

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