# High Tech High Top Hat Technicians. Introduction to Encoders. You spin me right 'round, baby, right 'round

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1 High Tech High Top Hat Technicians Introduction to Encoders Or You spin me right 'round, baby, right 'round

2 Encoders: Linear versus Rotary Linear encoders measure linear motion A coded linear scale moves past sensor head(s) to detect motion Resolution is typically defined as pulses per linear measurement, e.g. pulses per millimeter Rotary encoders measure rotational motion A coded wheel scale moves past sensor head(s) to detect motion Resolution is typically defined as pulses per revolution (PPR) Through the use of a rack and pinion gear system, rotary encoders can provide linear encoding "Rack and pinion animation". Licensed under Public Domain via Wikimedia Commons - https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/file:rack_and_pinion_animation.gif#/media/file:rack_and_pinion_animation.gif

3 Encoders: Absolute versus Incremental Absolute encoders Scales, wheel or linear, have discrete, unique measurement positions spaced equally on the scale At each measurement point, sensor heads read the position of the scale in Gray code When an absolute encoder powers on, the sensor heads read the current position of the scale Resolution of an absolute encoder is 0.5 of a measurement position Incremental encoders Sensor head(s) read code spots on the scale providing information on the relative motion of the scale At each pass of a code position, the incremental encoder produces a pulse An incremental encoder does not read the absolute position of the scale Tracking position or determining speed requires external electronics Decimal Binary Gray

4 Quadrature Encoding Quadrature encoding uses two (2) different sets of code positions on the scale offset by 90 degrees of phase shift These two (2) sets of code positions can be either high or low, which allows four (4) different states for each period, hence quadrature Benefits of quadrature encoding Doubles the resolution of the encoder Allows determination of the direction of rotation A Z index on an incremental encoder provides a one (1) per revolution indication of scale location

5 Encoder: Sensing Techniques There are four (4) sensing techniques commonly used by encoders Mechanical/electrical Magnetic Capacitive Optical Mechanical encoding uses physical contact between sensor heads and circuit paths on the scale to measure motion One of the oldest sensing techniques Limited resolution due to the requirement to establish sustained physical contact with the code points to produce the signal Resistant to electromagnetic interference (EMI) and many environmental contaminants Life limited by wear of the mechanical surfaces Magnetic encoding use the poles of magnets and Hall effect to measure motion Each pass of the magnet(s) induce a voltage/current in the sensing head Space required for each magnet on the scale limits the resolution of the encoder Resistant to environmental contaminants Susceptible to EMI

6 Encoder: Sensing Techniques, continued Capacitive encoding uses changes in capacitance to sense motion Capacitance changes as a function of the distance between the capacitor's conductive surface Changes in capacitance change the current produced by the circuit containing the capacitor. Capacitive encoders use an alternating current and changes in gap between the conductive surfaces, code points, to measure motion Capacitive encoders can provide very good resolution Resistant to EMI and environmental contaminants Relatively new technology, but is becoming increasingly common and cheaper Optical encoding uses slots or alternating areas of varying reflectance to interrupt, transmit, or reflect incident light at each code position Light is typically provided by an LED, laser, or incandescent bulb and focused into a narrow beam A light sensitive sensor turns incident light into an electrical signal Optical encoders provide very good resolution Highly resistant to EMI, but sensitive to environmental contamination Optical encoders are the most common form of motion encoding

7 Encoder: Considerations Each encoder will have a maximum allowable speed Bandwidth and response of the encoder electronics set the maximum speed at which the encoder maintains specification resolution and accuracy Mechanical speed limit is the maximum speed the encoder can spin without reducing the life of the encoder or coming apart Maximum encoder speed is the lower of mechanical and electrical speed Encoder signals are susceptible to signal degradation and electromagnetic interference Limit encoder signal cable length to the maximum recommended length for the encoder output signal type Route encoder signal cables away from power cables Use twisted, shielded cable pairs where possible Ground the encoder signal cable at the control module end of the signal cable not the encoder end

8 Questions?

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