Ch 13 Live lamb evaluation, grading, and pricing. Dr. Fa-Jui Tan

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1 Ch 13 Live lamb evaluation, grading, and pricing Dr. Fa-Jui Tan 1 2 1

2 Live lamb evaluation an estimate of lamb carcass evaluation Indicators of amount of fat/muscle & quality grade carcass values Live value of animals: calculated from estimated carcass values 3 Evaluation of lamb Wt live wt Actual wt of the lamb at the time of evaluation extreme range: lb (27-90kg) normal range: lb (40-70kg) average: 125lb (55kg) carcass wt (with kidney & pelvic fat removed) vs. beef carcass hot carcass wt chill carcass wt hot carcass wt = chill carcass wt % or hot carcass wt / 97.25% = chilled carcass wt 4 2

3 dressing percentage (DP) DP = (Chilled carcass wt / live wt )* 100 Extreme range: 40-60% normal range: 45 57% average: 52% Table 13.1 Quality grade Prime Choice Good Utility Range (%) AVG (%) dressing percentage (DP) Factors affecting DP How??? Stomach fill pelt wt (skin and fleece) muscling degree fatness degree DP in young, light wt lambs smaller DP When age & wt DP, why? 6 3

4 Fat thickness : Method 1: Measured over the center of the left and right ribeye muscles at the 12th rib at the midpoint of the lateral of the ribeye muscle, and average To calculate Yield grade Fat thickness: an estimate of carcass 7 external fat Fat thickness : Method 2: p.90 vs. beef fat thickness measurement p. 151 [Methods 1 (measured over the center of the left and right ribeye muscles at the 12th rib at the midpoint of the lateral of the ribeye muscle) + measures taken laterally from the eye muscle on both sides at the point where the fat thickness is greatest)]/4 = average of 4 measurements A better predictor of carcass fat vs. method 1 (WHY?) but less used (WHY?) Figure 13.1 Method 2 fat thickness = inch + method 1 fat 8 thickness 4

5 Method 1 Extreme range Normal range Average 0.25 Method Fat thickness carcass fat yield grade Location on lamb 9 Ribeye area average area of right and left ribeye muscle (ribbed between the 12th & 13th rib) extreme range: in2 normal range: in2 average: 2.6 in2 indicator of carcass muscling, Easy to measure (if ribbed) but Why measuring ribeye muscle (longissimus) the largest muscle the most valuable muscle The major muscle of lamb chops/ roasts Easy to measure (if ribbed) 10 5

6 Kidney and pelvic fat (KP fat) p. 152 Fat in pelvic fat and with the kidney expressed as % of chilled carcass wt extreme range: % normal range: % average: 3.0% KP fat is removed when grading (vs. beef) KP fat remaining in the carcass < 1% not a factor in lamb carcass evaluation Overall conformation 11 P. 153 A subjective evaluation of the relative muscling distribution esp. in the leg, lion, rack, and shoulder regions. (vs. P. 122) A relative development of the muscular and skeletal system Expressed: 1/3 of a quality grade (i.e. US Prime+, US Prime0, US Prime-) Extreme rang: High Prime low Utility normal range: High Prime low Good average: Average Choice reference to the relative development of muscle and bone. 12 6

7 Overall conformation (cont.) Considering the entire lamb, including Averaging the conformation of the entire lamb Portion that each part comprises of the total wt The desirable of each part compared to other parts Best conformation A higher portion of edible meat to bone A high proportion of the wt in the demanded cuts Wide and thick in relation to the length Have a plump, full, well-rounded appearance 13 leg conformation P. 153 The muscling degree in the leg Expressed: 1/3 of a conformation grade (i.e. US Prime+, US Prime0, US Prime-) Extreme rang: High Prime low Utility normal range: High Prime low Good average: Average Choice 14 7

8 P. 153 leg conformation Leg conformation similar to final quality grade Leg conformation can be estimated from quality grade Why leg conformation estimated? lamb carcass not ribbed in commercial practice leg conformation (not ribeye area) as muscling assessment Thick (view from rear) Plump and bulging (view from side) Vs Narrow and tapering Maturity 15 P. 153 an estimation of the chronological age of the live lamb By assessing the physiological age of bone & muscle characteristics in the carcass Determined Lamb: 1 break joint on the front cannon bones (metacarpals) Other characteristics color, moistness, porosity of the break joint shape of ribs color of the inside flank muscles Extreme range: A-B Normal range: A-B 16 8

9 Live lamb grading 2 must-have procedures Quality grade (U.S. Prime, Choice, Good, Utility) Yield grade (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) Vs. beef? 17 Quality grade P. 154 An estimation of Conformation Maturity quality of the lean flesh Evaluated by the quantity of fat streaking on the inside flank muscles Lean flesh firmness External fat 18 9

10 Minimum external fat thickness is required, WHY? Carcass with a very thin or no fat covering excessive shrink, discolor, & dehydration during cold storage Too thick fat thickness (>0.25 inch) is objective, WHY? 19 Finish (degree of fatness) P. 154 Related to degree of marbling Related to degree of flank fat streaking Degree of flank fat streaking used to predict marbling quantity Estimate of fatness of live lamb Estimate of fatness is directly related to other 2 quality factors (degree of firmness of the lean flesh and external fat, the quantity of fat on the external surfaces of the carcass) 20 10

11 Actual maturity Seldom known Identified by mouthing and determining age by the teeth 21 Yield grade (YG) P. 154 Yield of boneless, closely trimmed, retail cuts from the leg, loin, rack and shoulder Yield grade = cutability Expressed as a % of carcass wt (i.e. 50%) converted to YG between 0.1 ~ 5.9 YG 1.0 = 51.0% YG 5.9 = 44.7% P. 156 YG = (10 adjusted fat thickness, in inches) 22 11

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