Stain, Decay, and Cankers of Deciduous Trees

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1 Stain, Decay, and Cankers of Deciduous Trees Lori Trummer Pathologist, USDA FS

2 Outline Birch Dissection study Study Design Pathogens of Birch Management implications Alder Dieback What s happening? Pathogens

3 Birch Dissection Study Locations

4 Sample Design 2 AGE CLASSES yrs yrs 3 AREAS KENAI MAT-SU INTERIOR 10 PLOTS / AREA / AGE 60 PLOTS 10 TREES / PLOT 600 TREES

5 60 TO 80 YEARS 120 TO 150 YEARS

6 Site parameters: elevation, aspect, slope drainage, understory veg. Tree parameters: dbh, height, live crown, etc. External assessment: 19 indicator codes 9 disease agents 10 injuries frost cracks broken branches wounds

7

8 Destructive Sampling Sectioned at 8 ft intervals above stump Cross-sectional measurements at bole ends Additional cuts to trace stain or decay Photographs taken of defective sections Stain and decay was digitized Cubic foot volumes calculated Thanks to Bill VanHees for data compilation

9 Summary AVG DBH (IN) AVG HEIGHT (FT) LOCATION YR YR YR YR KENAI MAT SU INTERIOR

10 Tree Defects Stain Decay

11 % TREES DECAY % TREES STAIN LOCATION YR YR YR YR KENAI MAT SU INTERIOR

12 % ft 3 decay volume % ft 3 stain volume LOCATION YR YR YR YR KENAI MAT SU INTERIOR **Significant relationship with age

13 Decay 20 % cu ft volume Kenai Mat-Su Interior Age is overriding Age (ye ars) Stain %cu ft volume Kenai Mat-Su Interior Age (years)

14 Thin Bark Decay Agents and Age Entrance courts Broken Branches Frost Cracks Wounds Host defenses Decay development may take decades

15 Tree Defects - Stain

16 Stain Red heart wetwood pathological heartwood dark red brown central discolor Oxidation reaction, invasion of bacteria and non-decay fungi through wounds: root, branch, stem pre-conditioning succession of microorganisms

17 Mean Stain Column Length by Region and Age stain lenght (ft) yrs yrs 0 Kenai Mat-Su Interior

18 Stain Challenges Higher in moisture content Birch paneling Differential drying from normal wood Differs in physical and chemical properties May lead to excessive warp and checking Photo credits: Dave Nicholls

19 Stain Challenges Higher in moisture content Slower drying than normal wood Differs in physical and chemical properties May lead to excessive warp and checking Photo credits: Dave Nicholls

20 Tree Defects - Decay

21 Stem Decay Process Entry: bark openings Spore lands, germinates and infects susceptible tissue Moisture: % Temperature: F

22

23 No replace or repair of injured tissues Wood cells react to injury and invasion through Compartmentalization

24 Shigo Compartmentalization Model Wall 1: plug vertical vascular system - weakest Wall 2: tangential wall of growth ring - 2 nd weakest Wall 3: ray cells of the radial walls strongest at time of wounding Wall 4: barrier zone between new growth and injured tissue - strongest

25 Shigo Compartmentalization Model WALLS 1, 2, 3?? WALLS 1, 2, 3 Wall 1: plug vertical vascular system - weakest Wall 2: tangential wall of growth ring - 2 nd weakest Wall 3: ray cells of the radial walls strongest at time of wounding Wall 4: barrier zone between new growth and injured tissue - strongest

26 Shigo Compartmentalization Model WALL 4 WALLS 1, 2, 3?? WALLS 1, 2, 3 WALL 4 Wall 1: plug vertical vascular system - weakest Wall 2: tangential wall of growth ring - 2 nd weakest Wall 3: ray cells of the radial walls strongest at time of wounding Wall 4: barrier zone between new growth and injured tissue - strongest

27 Decay Agents Stem Decays Phellinus igniarius Inonotus obliquus Pholiota sp. Fomes fomentarius Root Disease Armillaria sp.

28 False Tinder Conk (Phellinus igniarius) Most common stem decay Perennial, 5 ft decay above, below Invades wounds White rot Ecologically important

29 Cinder Conk (Inonotus obliquus) 2 nd most common Perennial, 5 ft decay above, below Invades wounds, dead branches Canker rot, compartmentalization fails! White rot, ecological importance

30 Scaly Cap Mushroom (Pholiota sp.) Several species, stem and root Annual, challenging to detect Invades wounds, frost cracks Stringy white rot Ecologically important

31 True Tinder Conk (Fomes fomentarius) Common top rot Perennial Invades wounds, broken tops Stringy white rot

32 Shoestring Root Rot (Armillaria sp.) Older age class: MS 51%, K 61%, F 85% Annual, challenging to detect Entrance courts? Decay in butt log, >6 ft Stringy white rot

33 Target Canker (Nectria galligena ) Perennial canker Appears as wound Invades dead branches Lacks decay

34 Birch Management and Decay Reduce or Enhance Rotation ages Wounding Multiple entries in stands

35 What s happening to our alder in Alaska? Lori Trummer Pathologist, USDA FS

36 Dieback & Mortality Branches, stems, genets Nome to Skagway Pronounced in SC Noted 2003 Hosts: Alnus incana Alnus crispa

37 Monitoring plots: Kenai, Mat-Su, Interior 31% Dead 31% Live with dieback Healthy 38% Proportion of Stems (%) healthy live with dieback dead *Dieback and Mortality continuing*

38 Symptoms Leaves expanded in spring but are dead by early summer. Individual branches, sections of ramet, entire genet may die Fairbanks, Interior

39 Native Canker Pathogen Valsa melanodiscus Cytospora umbrina (aka)

40 Canker pathogen close-up Cankered area is outlined

41 Stress factors Lack of Moisture drought stress Palmer Hayflats

42 Stress- Defoliation Photo credit CES

43 Stress Climate Induced? Reduced host defenses Favor lifecycle of pathogen

44 Future Health of Alder? 31% Dead Healthy 38% 31% Live with dieback

45 QUESTIONS?

46

47 Frost Crack winter wound length of FC +

48 Wounds larger than 1 ft 2, basal length of wound +

49 Dead top decay at or near 4 top

50 Broken Branches Decay common in large broken branches (>2 dia)

51 AVG DBH (IN) LOCATION YR YR KENAI MAT SU FAIRBANKS

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