Manifest Destiny. Chapter 13

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1 Manifest Destiny Chapter 13

2 Mountain Men Rough and tough men who braved the wilderness to trap and capture furs, animals, etc First Americans to move beyond the Rocky Mountains

3 Western Land Americans believed it was their right to take the land from the Native Americans

4 Land Speculators Bought huge pieces of land in the hope it would increase in value and make them rich If land went up in value they sold some to people moving west and made huge profits

5 Santa Fe Trail Trail from Missouri to Santa Fe, New Mexico 800 miles long Founded by William Becknell and he continues to find safer routes along the trail

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7 Oregon Trail From Missouri to Oregon Missionaries were the first to use this trail 2000 miles long

8 Mormon Trail Mormons moved west for religious freedom Founded by Joseph Smith Made enemies among non Mormons b/c of their policy of polygamy or having more than one wife

9 1844, after Joseph Smith was murdered, Brigham Young moved his people west to Utah Built Salt Lake City, Utah

10 Texas Settlement 1821 Mexico gets independence from Spain Texas is allowed to have Americans move there and create a colony if they agree to become Mexican citizens and Catholic Stephen F. Austin negotiates this

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12 Between 1821 and 1830, population of Texas grew from ,000 By 1830, Americans outnumbered Tejanos (people of Spanish heritage) 6 to 1

13 Problems grow in Texas Americans in Texas grew angry that laws were written in Spanish and didn t like some Mexican laws Mexico outlawed slavery in 1829, which angered more Americans in Texas (Austin negotiated for Americans to keep slavery) Mexicans cracked down on the Americans out of fear of a revolution More Mexican soldiers in TX, taxes for first time, no more Americans can move to TX

14 Texas Revolution 1833, Austin goes to negotiate with Mexicans for more freedoms for Texas President Santa Anna finds out that Austin wrote a letter saying if demands weren t met, Texas would break away from Mexico (Austin was put in jail for a year) 1835, Mexican soldiers fight Texans in Gonzales for the first time Tried to capture a Texas cannon that had sign on it, Come and Take it!

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16 The Alamo (Feb 1836) March 1836, Texas declares its independence Sam Houston is put in charge of the Texas Army (about 600 men) 183 men were stationed at the Alamo Led by William Travis and James Bowie and Davey Crocket

17 Mexican army had 6000 men at the Alamo led by Santa Anna Battle for the Alamo took 13 days 1000 Mexicans were killed and 176 of the Texans (the survivors were executed)

18 Juan Seguin, a Tejano member of the Texas Army was lone survivor of the Alamo He was sent with a letter from Travis to Sam Houston during the battle and by the time he returned, the Alamo was in flames and everyone dead

19 Battle of Goliad Texan soldiers based her Santa Anna and the Mexican army kill 300 Texans who were captured Helped anger Texans and more joined the army

20 Battle of San Jacinto (April 1836) Houston and Texas army surprise and surround Santa Anna and Mexican Army Soldiers yell, Remember the Alamo Remember Goliad Lasted only 18 minutes

21 Half the Mexican army was killed Santa Anna was captured and forced to sign a treaty ending the war and giving Texas its independence

22 Republic of Texas Sam Houston was its first president Nicknamed the Lone Star Republic 1836, they asked to become part of US but Congress said no Didn t want war with Mexico and didn t want fight over if it s a slave state

23 James Polk James Polk elected president in 1844 and he wanted to add Texas and Oregon to USA Slogan was or fight! -map designates for borders of Oregon 1846, he negotiates a split of the Oregon territory with British at 49 th parallel (todays border with Canada) Offered Mexico $30 million for Texas, New Mexico, and California (Mexico said no)

24 Manifest Destiny Belief by Americans that it was our destiny to expand the US across the continent from ocean to ocean

25 Texas becomes a state 1845, Texas became a state (slavery legal there) Mexico still viewed Texas as their property Texas and Mexico could not agree of what the border between them was

26 War with Mexico President Polk ordered General Zachary Taylor to station his 3500 men on the disputed border with Mexico at the Rio Grand River April 1846, Mexico crosses border and kills an American patrol May 1846, US army invades Mexico

27 US easily captures and controls New Mexico and California Battle of Buena Vista, Santa Anna s Mexican army (15,000) vs American Army (4800)- US wins and controls Northern Mexico General Winfield Scott (US) captures Mexico City in Sept 1847 and the war ends

28 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) Officially ends the war with Mexico Set Rio Grande River as border with Mexico, set Texas as a part of the USA, gave up land that was ½ size of Mexico

29 California Gold Rush 49ers-went to CA looking for gold, starting in 1849 Gold discovered by James Marshall Thousands (250,000) moved to CA in search of fortune (gold rush)

30 10% of those coming to CA were Chinese in 1851 Very dangerous routes to get to CA for the gold seekers

31 CA becomes a state CA admitted as a state in 1850 No slavery in CA Passed tax for anyone not American who wanted to mine gold Forced many into cities and out of mining Chinese owned so many businesses in San Francisco at the time that it became known as Chinatown

32 , San Francisco population grew from ,000 b/c of its use as a port city CA admission as a free state tipped balance to more free states than slave states which causes a lot of fear and conflict

33 Gadsden Purchase (1854) Last major addition to USA (lower 48 states) Bought land from Mexico

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