Closing: QUIZ on 2.1 and 2.2

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1 USHC 2.2: Explain how the Monroe Doctrine and the concept of Manifest Destiny affected the United States relationships with foreign powers, including the role of the United States in the Texan Revolution and the Mexican War. Opening: Expansion in Texas Readin Guide Work Period: 2.2 Monroe Doctrine and Manifest Destiny Closing: QUIZ on 2.1 and 2.2

2 Essential Question How did the Monroe Doctrine and Manifest Destiny effect different areas of foreign policy during the 19 th century?

3 European monarchies defeat Napoleon in 1815 Simon Bolivar and Jose San Martin lead the independence movement in the Latin American colonies and overthrow Spain Russian tsar announces in 1821 that his empire extends south into Oregon British fear that the Quadruple Alliance may try to suppress Latin American democracies Sec. Of State John Q. Adams advises that the U.S. issue an independent statement opposing intervention in Latin American European monarchies form the Quadruple Alliance to suppress democratic revolutions Newly independent nations of Latin America gain the sympathy of the American people Britain and U.S. are alarmed at Russian expansionist aims Britain proposes to issue a joint statement with the U.S. against intervention in Latin America U.S. issues the Monroe Doctrine

4 British and U.S. leaders decided they had a common interest in protecting North and South America from the possible aggression of a European power *British initiative-wants to protect their lucrative trade

5 American response Secretary of State John Quincy Adams believed that joint action with Britain would restrict U.S. opportunities for further expansion in the hemisphere If the U.S. acted alone, Britain could be counted upon to stand behind U.S. policy No European power would risk going to war in South America, and if it did, the British navy would surely defeat the aggressor

6 monroe doctrine *Aimed at European Powers who wanted to restore their colonial holdings Also a response to the collapse of the Spanish empire in the Americas and our recent history with Great Britain and France. Keep European monarchies out of the Western Hemisphere. Their government systems are foreign to the U.S.

7 Referred to as America s Self Defense Doctrine. It is a continuation of President Washington s neutrality and isolationist policies. Past problems with Europe led the US to declare the Americas off-limits to Europe US recognized existing European Colonies US will stay out of European affairs Monroe Doctrine US protector of new democracies in the Western Hemisphere No European Colonization in the Americas

8 Western Hemisphere or the Americas.

9 New Latin American countries were formed from successful revolutions. US protector of new democracies in the Western Hemisphere

10 Activity Mini Debate In 1823, President James Monroe, with the help of his advisors, developed the Monroe Doctrine. The Monroe Doctrine said that the US would not allow any European nation to intervene in or colonize countries in the Western Hemisphere in any way at any time for any reason. Do you believe that Monroe had the right to tell other countries to stay out of the Western Hemisphere? Explain.

11 Reasons for Manifest Destiny Changes in the early Antebellum era ( ), encouraged westward expansion in the 1840s Jefferson s Louisiana Purchase doubled the size of the USA Lewis & Clark s exploration confirmed the economic potential of the western territory What changed in the 1840s that encouraged westward expansion?

12 Manifest Destiny In the 1840s, westward expansion Obvious Future led Americans to acquire all lands from the Atlantic to Pacific in a movement called Manifest Destiny Americans flooded into the West for new economic opportunities The U.S. gained Texas, Oregon, California, & other territories through treaty or war

13 When Americans were colonists ( ), the western border was the Appalachian Mountains

14 After the Revolutionary War, the western border of the U.S. was the Mississippi River

15 After Jefferson s Louisiana Purchase in 1803, the western border was the Rocky Mountains

16 By 1850, the western border was the Pacific Ocean from Oregon to California

17 Reasons for Manifest Destiny Americans had a God-given right to all the land of the North American continent. (Other peoples were less favored by divine providence) The growth of King Cotton & commercial farming led to a desire for more western lands Improved transportation such as canals, steamboats, & railroads increased speed & profitability

18 MEXICO CONTROLS TEXAS After 300 years of Spanish rule, Mexican settlers felt at home in Texas territory Mexico won their independence from Spain in 1821 and Texas was theirs Mexican officials offered land to Americans to make the area more stable Americans soon outnumbered Mexicans in Texas trouble started when Mexico outlawed slavery

19 Revolt Tariff on American imports Texas Revolution Texans wanted Salutary Neglect Alamo Pres. Santa Anna lead attack 187 Americans died Texans later defeated Mexican Army

20 Texas Revolution 3. Republic of Texas Separate Country 4. Annexation America absorbed Texas Issue- Slave or non- Slave?

21 Manifest Destiny-Texas In order to avoid controversy over whether TX would be a slave state, Texas remained independent for almost a decade. President James Polk annexed Texas shortly after his election in 1844.

22 Manifest Destiny-Mexican Cession President Polk offered to purchase additional Mexican territory, but was turned down. He sent troops to a region that was disputed between TX and MX, and the Mexicans interpreted this as a hostile act, which led to war. Peace treaty gave US land that includes California, New Mexico and Arizona. This was neither American territory nor unclaimed land.

23

24 Impact of the Mexican War The Mexican War established an adversarial relationship between the US and Mexico that lasted into the 20 th century and may still influence resentments today over illegal immigration.

25 Activity 2-Flow Map Create a flow map of key events from standard 2.1 and 2.2 (use your notes from yesterday!)

26 CLOSING QUIZ TIME! Extra Credit: Analyze the picture on the next slide. (Worth up to 10 points for a well-thought out response)

27 This picture is entitled Manifest Destiny. Explain how the artist uses the objects and people in the picture to encourage people to fulfil their Manifest Destiny.

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