Name Date Class. The Nature of Force and Motion (pages ) 2. When one object pushes or pulls another object, the first object is

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1 CHAPTER 4 MOTION AND FORCES SECTION 4 1 The Nature of Force and Motion (pages ) This section explains how balanced and unbalanced forces are related to the motion of an object. It also explains Newton s first law of motion. What Is a Force? (pages ) 1. In science, a force is a push or a pull. 2. When one object pushes or pulls another object, the first object is exerting a force on the second object. 3. Circle the letters of the two ways that forces are described. a. direction b. velocity c. strength d. acceleration Unbalanced Forces and Motion (pages ) 4. When two forces act in the same direction, they together. add 5. Adding a force acting in one direction to a force acting in another positive direction is the same as adding a(n) number and negative a(n) number. 6. Look at Figure 1 on page 117. What does the width of the arrows tell you about the forces they represent? The width of each arrow tells you the strength of a force. A wider arrow shows greater force. 7. The overall force on an object after all the forces are added together is net force called the. Science Explorer Grade 7 Guided Reading and Study Workbook 37

2 CHAPTER 4, Motion and Forces (continued) 8. The illustrations to the right represent ways that two forces can combine. Draw lines from the left column to the right column to show the result of each combination. + = + = 0 + = 9. Unbalanced forces can cause an object to do three things. What are they? Start moving, stop moving, or change direction 10. Is the following sentence true or false? Unbalanced forces acting on an true object will change the object s motion. 11. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about unbalanced forces. a. When two forces act in opposite directions, the net force is the difference between the two forces. b. When two forces act in the same direction, the net force is the difference between the two forces. c. When two forces act in opposite directions, the net force is equal to the greater force. d. When two forces act in the same direction, the net force is the sum of the two individual forces. Balanced Forces and Motion (page 118) 12. Equal forces acting on one object in opposite directions are called balanced forces. 38 Guided Reading and Study Workbook Science Explorer Grade 7

3 13. Is the following sentence true or false? Balanced forces acting on an false object will change the object s motion. 14. When you add equal forces exerted in opposite directions, the net force zero is. Newton s First Law of Motion (pages ) 15. Is the following sentence true or false? Once an object is in its natural resting place, it cannot move by itself. 16. Is the following sentence true or false? Galileo suggested that once an object is in motion, no push or pull is needed to keep it moving. 17. What is inertia? Inertia is the tendency of an object to resist change in its motion. true true 18. What is Newton s first law of motion? An object at rest will remain at rest, and an object that is moving at constant velocity will continue moving at constant velocity unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. inertia 19. Newton s first law of motion is also called the law of. 20. What explains why you continue moving forward if you are in a car inertia that suddenly stops? 21. What is mass? Mass is the amount of matter in an object. 22. What is the SI unit of mass? the kilogram, or kg mass 23. The amount of inertia an object has depends on its. 24. How can mass be defined in terms of inertia? Mass can be defined as a measure of the inertia of an object. Science Explorer Grade 7 Guided Reading and Study Workbook 39

4 CHAPTER 4, Motion and Forces (continued) SECTION 4 2 Force, Mass, and Acceleration (pages ) This section explains how force and mass are related to the acceleration of an object. Newton s Second Law of Motion (pages ) 1. What is Newton s second law of motion? The net force acting on an object is equal to the product of its acceleration and its mass. 2. What is the equation that describes the relationship among quantities of force, mass, and acceleration? Force = Mass Acceleration 3. Circle the letters of two answers below that are ways to write units of force. a. m/s 2 b. N c. kg ms 2 d. 1 kg 4. Using Newton s second law, write an equation you can use to find acceleration. Acceleration = Force Mass Changes in Force and Mass (page 126) 5. How does an increase of force affect acceleration? An increase of force increases acceleration. 6. What are two ways you can increase the acceleration of an object? You can increase the force or decrease the mass of the object. 40 Guided Reading and Study Workbook Science Explorer Grade 7

5 7. How does an increase of mass affect acceleration? An increase of mass decreases the acceleration when forces remain the same. 8. Is the following sentence true or false? One way to increase the force used to pull a wagon is to decrease the mass in the wagon. true SECTION 4 3 Friction and Gravity (pages ) This section describes the effects of friction on surfaces that rub against each other. It also describes how gravity acts between objects in the universe. Friction (pages ) 1. Is the following sentence true or false? When two surfaces rub together, the irregularities of one surface get caught on those of the other surface. true 2. What is friction? Friction is the force that one surface exerts on another when the two rub against each other. 3. Friction acts in a direction opposite to the object s direction of motion. 4. The strength of the force of friction depends on what two factors? The types of surfaces involved and how hard the surfaces push together 5. How is friction useful in helping you walk? Friction acts between the soles of your shoes and the floor. Without friction, your shoes would only slide across the floor, and you would never move forward. Science Explorer Grade 7 Guided Reading and Study Workbook 41

6 CHAPTER 4, Motion and Forces (continued) 6. How does friction help an automobile move? An automobile moves because of rolling friction between its tires and the road. 7. Complete the following table about the different kinds of friction. Kinds of Friction Kind of Friction Friction Occurs When... Fluid friction Sliding friction Rolling friction An object moves through a fluid Solid surfaces slide over each other An object rolls over a surface 8. Which kind of friction requires more force to overcome, rolling friction sliding friction or sliding friction? 9. What kind of friction occurs when moving parts have ball bearings? rolling friction 10. How does oil between machine parts reduce friction? The oil keeps the machine parts from making direct contact, and there is fluid friction between the parts instead of sliding friction. Gravity (pages ) gravity 11. The force that pulls objects toward Earth is called. 12. When is an object said to be in free fall? An object is in free fall when the only force acting on the falling object is gravity. 13. Near the surface of Earth, what is the acceleration of an object due to 9.8 m/s the force of gravity? 2 projectile 14. An object that is thrown is called a(n). 42 Guided Reading and Study Workbook Science Explorer Grade 7

7 15. Is the following sentence true or false? An object that is dropped will hit the ground before an object that is thrown horizontally. 16. Objects falling through air experience a type of fluid friction called air resistance. 17. Is the following sentence true or false? The greater the surface area of an object, the greater the air resistance. 18. On the diagram below, draw arrows that show the forces acting on the falling acorn. Label each arrow with the name of the force. true false Gravity Air resistance terminal velocity 19. The greatest velocity a falling object reaches is called. 20. What is weight? Weight is the force of gravity on a person or object at the surface of a planet. 21. How is weight different than mass? Weight is a measure of the force of gravity on an object, while mass is a measure of the amount of matter in an object. newtons 22. Weight is usually measured in. Science Explorer Grade 7 Guided Reading and Study Workbook 43

8 CHAPTER 4, Motion and Forces (continued) Universal Gravitation (pages ) 23. Is the following sentence true or false? The force that makes an apple fall to the ground is the same force that keeps Earth orbiting the sun. true 24. What does the universal law of gravitation state? The force of gravity acts between all objects in the universe. 25. Is the following sentence true or false? On the moon, your mass would false be less than it is on Earth. 26. The force of attraction between two objects varies with what two factors? Mass and the distance between the objects SECTION 4 4 Action and Reaction (pages ) This section explains Newton s third law of motion. It also explains the law of conservation of momentum. Newton s Third Law of Motion (pages ) 1. What is Newton s third law of motion? If one object exerts a force on another object, then the second object exerts a force of equal strength in the opposite direction on the first object. 2. What did Newton call the force exerted by the first object on a second action force object? 44 Guided Reading and Study Workbook Science Explorer Grade 7

9 3. What did Newton call the force exerted by the second object back on the first object? reaction force 4. The action and reaction forces in any situation will always be equal opposite and. 5. Complete the flowchart below, which describes how a squid moves through water. Newton s Squid A squid expels water out its back end. This is the action force. The water expelled out of the back end of the squid pushes back, exerting an equal and opposite force on the squid. This is the reaction force. ahead The squid moves water as a result of the reaction force. through the 6. Explain why the equal action and reaction forces do not cancel each other when one person hits a ball. Forces can be added together only if they are acting on the same object. When one person hits a ball, the action force is exerted on the ball, while the equal reaction force is exerted back on the person. Therefore, the equal forces in this situation cannot be added together and do not cancel each other. Science Explorer Grade 7 Guided Reading and Study Workbook 45

10 CHAPTER 4, Motion and Forces (continued) Momentum (page 137) 7. The product of an object s mass and velocity is its momentum. 8. What is the equation you use to determine the momentum of an object? Momentum = Mass Velocity 9. What is the unit of measurement for momentum? kilogram-meters per second, kg m/s Conservation of Momentum (pages ) 10. What does the law of conservation of momentum state? The total momentum of the objects that interact does not change. 11. Suppose a train car moving down a track at 10 m/s hits another train car that is not moving. Explain how momentum is conserved after the collision. The result of the collision is that the first train car stops and the second train car moves forward at 10 m/s. In that case, the momentum of the first train car is transferred to the second train car. Reading Skill Practice A flowchart can help you remember the order in which a series of events occurs. Create a flowchart that describes how momentum is conserved when a moving train car collides with another moving train car. See your textbook on page 138. The first step in the flowchart will be this: One train car moves down a track at 10 m/s. The last step in the flowchart will be this: Momentum is conserved. Do your work on a separate sheet of paper. For more information about flowcharts, see page 661 in the Skills Handbook of your textbook. Students flowcharts will vary. A typical flowchart might include these steps: One train car moves down a track at 10 m/s. The first train car collides with another train car, which is moving in the same direction at 5 m/s. During the collision, the first train car slows down to 5 m/s, and the second train car speeds up to 10 m/s. Momentum is conserved. 46 Guided Reading and Study Workbook Science Explorer Grade 7

11 SECTION 4 5 Forces in Fluids (pages ) This section explains what causes pressure in fluids. It also explains Pascal s principle and Bernoulli s principle. What Is Pressure? (pages ) 1. What do snowshoes do that makes it easier for the person wearing them to travel in deep snow? Snowshoes distribute a person s weight over the large area of the snowshoes, resulting in less downward pressure on the snow compared to regular shoes. With less downward pressure, the person doesn t sink into the snow. 2. Is the following sentence true or false? Force and pressure are the same false thing. 3. What is pressure equal to? The force exerted on a surface divided by the total area over which the force is exerted 4. Circle the letter of the term that is an SI unit of pressure. a. newton b. liter c. weight d. pascal 5. Circle the letter of the two answers below that are equal to each other. a. 1 Pa b. 1 N/cm 2 c. 1 N/m 2 d. 1 N 6. Is the following sentence true or false? You can produce a lower false pressure by decreasing the area a force acts on. Science Explorer Grade 7 Guided Reading and Study Workbook 47

12 CHAPTER 4, Motion and Forces (continued) Fluid Pressure (page 142) 7. A substance that can flow easily is a(n) fluid. 8. Circle the letter of each of the following that are fluids. a. helium gas b. liquid water c. ice d. air 9. Describe how molecules move in fluids. In fluids, molecules are constantly moving in all directions. They are constantly colliding with each other and with surfaces around them. 10. What causes the pressure exerted by a fluid? All of the forces exerted by the individual molecules in a fluid add together to make up the pressure exerted by the fluid. 11. The pressure exerted by a fluid is the total force exerted by the fluid area divided by the over which the force is exerted. Pascal s Principle (page 143) 12. What happens to the pressure in a bottle of water if you press the stopper at the top down farther? The pressure in the water increases everywhere in the bottle. 13. What is the relationship known as Pascal s principle? When force is applied to a confined fluid, an increase in pressure is transmitted equally to all parts of the fluid. Equilibrium in a Volcano (page 144) 14. Is the following sentence true or false? A volcano that is in equilibrium false erupts. 48 Guided Reading and Study Workbook Science Explorer Grade 7

13 Force Pumps and Blood Flow (page 144) 15. What does a force pump do? It causes a fluid to move from one place to another by increasing the pressure in the fluid. 16. Describe the heart in terms of force pumps. The heart is a force pump. First, the heart pumps blood to the lungs. Then the blood returns to the heart and is pumped to the rest of the body. Using Pascal s Principle (page 145) 17. Suppose you push down on a small piston that is connected to a confined fluid, and another piston with the same area is connected by a U-shaped tube to the confined fluid. How much fluid pressure will the second piston experience compared to the first? Both pistons will experience the same fluid pressure. 18. In a hydraulic system, how is the force applied on a small surface area multiplied? The increase in pressure on a small surface area is transmitted to another part of a confined fluid, which pushes on a larger surface area. Pascal s Principle in Nature (page 148) 19. The tube feet of a sea star take advantage of what principle to move Pascal s principle around? 20. When a sea star contracts different muscles, it changes the pressure in the fluid of its tube foot. 21. The pressure a sea star exerts on the fluid in its system causes the tube foot to either push down or pull up on its sucker. Science Explorer Grade 7 Guided Reading and Study Workbook 49

14 CHAPTER 4, Motion and Forces (continued) Bernoulli s Principle (pages ) 22. Is the following sentence true or false? The faster a fluid moves, the more pressure the fluid exerts. 23. What does Bernoulli s principle state? false The pressure exerted by a moving stream of fluid is less than the pressure of the surrounding fluid. 24. Is the following sentence true or false? A faster-moving fluid exerts less pressure than a slower-moving fluid. 25. On the illustration of a wing below, draw arrows that show the path of air above and below the wing. true Wing Direction of motion 26. Air that moves over the top of an airplane wing must travel farther than air that moves along the bottom of the wing. As a result, the air moving over the top exerts less moving along the bottom. than the air 27. What is lift? Lift is an upward force on a wing created by a difference in pressure. pressure 28. How do differences in air pressure cause smoke to rise up a chimney? Wind blowing across the top of a chimney lowers the air pressure there. The higher pressure at the bottom then pushes air and smoke up the chimney. 50 Guided Reading and Study Workbook Science Explorer Grade 7

15 WordWise Use the clues to help you find the key terms from Chapter 4 hidden in the puzzle below. The terms may occur vertically, horizontally, or diagonally. force 1. A is a push or pull. 2. The overall force on an object after all forces are added together is called the net force. 3. The tendency of an object to resist change in its motion is called inertia. newton 4. One equals the force required to accelerate 1 kilogram of mass at 1 meter per second per second. 5. The force that one surface exerts on another when the two rub against each friction other is called. 6. When solid surfaces slide over each other, the kind of friction that occurs is sliding friction. 7. A substance that can flow easily is called a(n) fluid. 8. The force that pulls objects toward Earth is gravity. 9. When the only force acting on a falling object is gravity, the object is said to be in free fall. 10. Objects falling through air experience a type of fluid friction called air resistance. 11. The momentum of an object is the product of its mass and velocity. 12. The force exerted on a surface divided by the area over which the force is exerted is called pressure. s q m o m e n t u m m f g i n e r t i a a o r l i o l n g f s r a i q a z y n r w c v p c f r e e i g e i w h t a e w c u p t f l u i d t t i e y c n i r o o i n s l i d i n g n o p r e s s u r e e n Science Explorer Grade 7 Guided Reading and Study Workbook 51

16 CHAPTER 4, Motion and Forces (continued) MathWise For the problems below, show your calculations on another sheet of paper. Write the answers for the problems on the lines below. Newton s Second Law of Motion (pages ) 1. Force = 65 kg 3ms 2 = 2. A 250-kg trailer is being pulled by a truck. The force causes the trailer to accelerate at 4 m/s 2. What is the net force that causes this acceleration? Force = 250 kg 4 m/s 2 = 1,000 N Force = 1,000 N Answer: 195 N Weight and Mass (page 132) 3. Weight = 45 kg 9.8 m/s 2 = 441 N 4. What is the weight of a rock that has a mass of 7 kg? Weight = 7 kg 9.8 m/s 2 = 68.6 N Weight = 68.6 N Answer: Momentum (page 137) 5. Momentum = 5 kg 6.5 m/s = 32.5 kg m/s 6. A baseball (mass = 0.14 kg) travels at 7 m/s, while a basketball (mass = 0.5 kg) moves at 3 m/s. Which has the greater momentum? The baseball s momentum is 0.98 kg m/s, while the basketball s momentum is 1.5 kg m/s. The basketball has the greater momentum. Calculating Pressure (page 141) 20 N 1. Pressure = = 2Pa 10 m 2 2. A force of 25 N is exerted on a surface with an area of 5 m 2. What is the pressure on that area? Pressure = 25 N = 5 Pa 5 m 2 Answer: Pressure = 5 Pa 52 Guided Reading and Study Workbook Science Explorer Grade 7

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