Types of Compounds. Types of Covalent Compounds. Practice! Naming Covalent Compounds. Greek Prefixes. Nomenclature

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1 Types of Nomenclature Ionic - electrons are transferred from the metal to the nonmetal. Covalent Compound - electrons are shared between 2 nonmetals. Types of Covalent Identify the following as ionic or covalent: 1. NaCl 2. H 2 O 3. CCl 4 4. LiF 5. NO 2 6. MgO Ionic Covalent Covalent Ionic Covalent Ionic Polar covalent - electrons are shared unequally (one element has a stronger pull on the electrons than the other) Nonpolar covalent - electrons are shared equally Both are named the same way! Naming Covalent Greek Prefixes Count the number of atoms present of each nonmetal. Assign a greek prefix for that number of atoms. 1 - Mono 2 - Di 3 - Tri 4 - Tetra 5 - Penta 6 - Hexa 7 - Hepta 8 - Octa 9 - Nona 10 - Deca 1

2 Naming Covalent Ex: N 2 O 5 Name --> Dinitrogen Pentaoxide Note: When the first atom only has one atom present, you do not use the mono prefix. Ex: CO 2 Name --> Carbon Dioxide (not monocarbon dioxide) Writing formulas for Covalent The greek prefix indicates how many atoms of each element are present. Ex: sulfur hexafluoride SF 6 Is it possible for a compound to have both ionic and covalent bonds? 1. CO 2. SF 4 3. NO 2 Write the formulas: 1. Sulfur trioxide 2. Nitrogen trifluoride 3. Carbon tetrachloride Carbon monoxide Sulfur tetrafluoride Nitrogen dioxide SO 3 NF 3 CCl 4 YES! Mg(NO 3 ) 2 ionic covalent (It s ionic, with a covalent piece) Types of Ionic Binary (2 element) Ionic Metal + nonmetal Ternary (3 + element) Ionic Metal + polyatomic ion Binary Ionic with Transition Metals Transition metal + nonmetal Ternary Ionic with Transition Metals Transition Metal + polyatomic ion Naming Binary Ionic Name the cation (metal ion.) Name the anion (nonmetal ion.) Ex: NaCl Metal ion = sodium Nonmetal ion = chloride You try: LiCl MgO 2

3 Writing formulas for Binary Ionic Determine the (charge) for each ion Determining Charge Alkali Metals (group 1) --> +1 Alkaline Earth Metals (group 2) --> +2 Transition Metals --> exceptions B group (group 13 or IIIB) - exceptions C group (group 14 or IVB) - exceptions N group (group 15 or VB) --> -3 O group (group 16 or VIB) --> -2 Halogens (group 17 or VIIB) --> -1 Noble Gases (group 18 or VIIIB) --> 0 (N/A) Writing formulas for Binary Ionic Determine charge. Ex: magnesium chloride Mg --> +2 Cl --> -1 Cheat: use the cross over trick the charge of metal becomes the subscript of the nonmetal. the charge of the nonmetal becomes the subscript of the metal. Writing formulas for Binary Ionic Mg +2 Cl -1 Only the number crosses, not the + or - Don t write a 1 MgCl 2 Write formulas for the following: MgBr 2 CaS KCl Magnesium bromide Calcium sulfide Potassium chloride CaCl 2 KF Li 2 O Calcium chloride Potassium fluoride Lithium oxide 3

4 Answers MgBr 2 CaS KCl Calcium chloride Potassium fluoride Lithium oxide Naming Ternary Ionic Name the cation (metal ion) Name the anion (polyatomic anion) Ex: Na 2 SO 4 Metal --> sodium Polyatomic ion --> sulfate Name --> sodium sulfate You try: LiNO 3 Mg 3 (PO 4 ) 2 Writing formulas for Ternary Ionic Determine the charge of the metal. Write the formula for the polyatomic ion. Cross over. Ex: lithium phosphite Li +1 (PO 3 ) -3 Li 3 PO 3 Write the formula for the following: 1. Sodium nitrate NaNO 3 2. Magnesium sulfate MgSO 4 3. Potassium perchlorate KClO 4 1. KNO 2 Potassium nitrite 2. CaSO 4 Calcium sulfate 3. LiNO 3 Lithium nitrate Determining charges of atoms from a formula Oxidation number = charge are neutral, so the + charges have to equal the charges Ex: CuS S (group 16) -2 No subscripts, so we know the charges cancelled each other out So, Cu +2 Naming Binary Ionic with Transition Metals Identify the transition metal in the formula. Determine the charge of the transition metal. Name the transition metal. Use a roman numeral to note the charge of the transition metal. Name the nonmetal ion. 4

5 Naming Binary Ionic with Transition Metals Ex: FeCl 2 What is the transition metal? Fe What is the charge of the t.metal? +2 What is the nonmetal ion? Cl Name: Iron (II) chloride You try: CuCl Cr 2 O 3 Writing formulas for Binary Ionic with Transition Metals The roman numeral in the compound name gives the charge of the metal ion. Determine the metal ion. Determine the nonmetal ion. Cross over. Ex: Iron (III) fluoride Metal --> Fe Metal ox. Number --> +3 Nonmetal --> F-1 Formula --> FeF 3 1. CrCl 3 2. CuF 2 3. CuF Write the formula : 1. Iron (II) sulfide 2. Iron (III) sulfide 3. Copper (II) oxide Chromium (III) chloride Copper (II) fluoride Copper (I) fluoride FeS Fe 2 S 3 CuO Naming Ternary Ionic with Transition Metals Determine charge of transition metal. Determine name of polyatomic ion. Name transition metal ion. Roman Numeral indicates the charge on the transition metal Name the polyatomic ion. Ex: Cu(NO 3 ) 2 is named Copper (II) nitrate Writing formulas for Ternary Ionic with Transition Metals Determine charge of transition metal. Write formula for polyatomic ion. Cross over. Ex: chromium (II) phosphate Cr +2 (PO 4 ) -3 Cr 3 (PO 4 ) 2 1. CuSO 4 2. FePO 4 3. Cr(NO 3 ) 3 Write the formula: 1. Iron (II) nitrate 2. Copper (I) nitrate 3. Copper (II) perchlorate Copper (II) sulfate Iron (III) phosphate Chromium (III) nitrate Fe(NO 3 ) 2 CuNO 3 Cu(ClO 4 ) 2 5

6 Ternary Ionic with 2 Polyatomic Ions There is one polyatomic cation: NH 4 +1 It s name is ammonium. 6

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