# Lab Exercise: Antenna Basics

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Experiment Objectives: Lab Exercise: Antenna Basics In this lab you will analyze received radar signals from the P400 to gain an understanding of the basics of electromagnetic antennas. This lab will demonstrate the importance of electromagnetic wave polarization, antenna radiation patterns, and the law of reciprocity. Part 1: Overview 1.1 Introduction Understanding antennas is a key component to understanding electromagnetics and their numerous applications. There are many types of antennas, but all antenna performance can be described by two aspects: its impedance and radiation properties. These properties are dictated by the shape, size, and material of the antenna. The impedance of the antennas determines the amount of energy that is coupled to the antenna from the generator when the antenna is transmitting or, vice-versa, when the antenna is receiving. The simplest case is when the antenna is properly matched, thereby resulting in full transmission. The radiation properties, which are of greater interest for this lab, include the radiation pattern and the polarization of the radiated field. Polarization is a critical aspect of antenna design and usage. In general, electromagnetic waves are time varying electric and magnetic fields that are a function of spatial coordinates and are coupled by Maxwell s equations. A uniform plane wave is characterized by electric and magnetic fields which do not have any components along the direction of propagation and have uniform properties across a plane perpendicular to the direction of propagation. The polarization of a uniform plane wave describes the shape and locus of the tip of the E vector in the plane orthogonal to the direction of propagation, and depends on the relative phase between the field components, Figure 1. In the most general case, a wave is elliptically polarized, meaning that the vector of the E field traces an ellipse as it propagates. The rotation can be either clockwise or counterclockwise depending on the properties of the wave, and dictated by the direction of propagation. In certain cases, the field can simplify to circular or linear polarization. Figure 1: Example of circular polarization In Figure 1, the blue and green lines depict the E x and E y components which are propagating in the z direction. The red line is the combined effect of the E field components, since E x and E y are 90 out-of-phase, the result is circular Lab Instructions: Experiment #6 Page 1

3 1.2 Background The P400 emits an electromagnetic pulse that has a center frequency of 4.3GHz and a bandwidth of 2GHz, Figure 3. The antennas are planar elliptical dipole antennas, which produce a linearly polarized electromagnetic field. The radiation patterns can be found in the Broadspec UWB Antenna data sheet which was included in your Time Domain information packet. This specification sheet will be used for comparison to the experimental data collected. Note that the antennas are omnidirectional in the azimuthal plane, and have greater variability in the elevation plane. Also, note that the radiation patterns are shown for individual frequencies. In the following experiments, the peak received signal will be used to analyze the radiation pattern. Since we are considering the results in the time domain, these measurements will include the entire bandwidth of the P400 excitation. Figure 3: P400 excitation in the time domain (left) and frequency domain (right). Images from Time Domain. Part II: Antenna Experiment 2.1 Required Equipment Hardware: Hardware: Laptop, P400 radar, coax cables, assortment of fixed attenuators, tape measure, string (1 meter), protractor Software: MATLAB, MATLAB scripts (DataAcquistion.m, Initialize.m, getscan.m) Note: In this lab you will be rotating and moving the antennas often, and you should be sure to check that the coaxial connections are still tight after each move. 2.2 Setup: Step 1: Mount the antennas some distance apart, with the flat sides facing each other. The antennas should be level, at the same angle, and orthogonal to the ground. This setup (see Figure 4a) will be referred to as Position 1 and will be the starting point for various data sets. Recall our lab about multipath reflections, and assure that the first received signal will be the direct signal between the two antennas and will not constructively interfere with any reflections. (This can be accomplished by mounting the antennas, for example on tripods or cardboard boxes, such that there are no RF reflectors close to either antenna. In this case a reflector is too close if it closer to either antenna by a distance less than the distance between the two antennas.) Step 2: In Matlab open DataAcquisition.m Lab Instructions: Experiment #6 Page 3

4 Step 3: Using the provided coaxial cables, attenuators, and transmitgain setting in Initialize.m, determine a combination where the received signal is strong but not clipped. 2.3 Test Procedure: Step 4: Use DataAcquisition.m to record a scan with the current setup at Position 1. Step 5: Next, rotate one of the antennas 90 o, and record a scan. Repeat for 180 o, and 270 o. Save the current data set. How does the signal change? Does this agree with the antenna pattern given on the Broadspec UWB Antenna specifications? Step 6: Start recording a new data set. With the antennas back at Position 1, record a new scan. Step 7: Tie a string around the center of the transmitter, and tie the other end around the receiver. Next, move one of the antennas around the other antenna, and keep the string taunt so that the antenna separation is the same, Figure 4. Both antennas should still be orthogonal to the ground at all positions. Record scans at different positions. How do the results change? Is this expected? (a) (b) (c) Figure 4: Diagrams for Procedure Part 7; (a) Tie a string connecting the antennas at Position 1; (b) Keeping the string taunt, raise the receiver some angle above the transmitter; (c) position the receiver directly above the transmitter Lab Instructions: Experiment #6 Page 4

5 Step 8: Again, start recording a new data set with the antennas back at Position 1. Using a protractor, change the angle of the receiver so that is no longer orthogonal with the ground. Move the antenna in increments of 10 degrees from 0 degrees (orthogonal to the ground) to 90 degrees (parallel with the ground), Figure 5. What changes? Why? Do you need to repeat this experiment for the transmitter, why or why not? 2.4 Lab Report Prepare a Lab report which summarizes your experiment and specifically addresses the questions asked in the experimental procedure. 2.5 References 1. Balanis, Constantine A. Advanced Engineering Electromagnetics. New York: Wiley, Ulaby, Fawwaz. Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics. Prentice Hall, Lab Instructions: Experiment #6 Page 5

### Antenna Deployment Technical Brief

ProCurve Networking Antenna Deployment Technical Brief Introduction... 2 Antenna types... 2 Omni directional antennas... 2 Directional antennas... 2 Diversity antennas... 3 High gain directional antennas...

### Antenna Selection for Optimum Wireless LAN Performance

Antenna Selection for Optimum Wireless LAN Performance Dr. Steven R. Best Cushcraft Corporation 48 Perimeter Road Manchester, NH 03108 (603) 627-7877 PURPOSE Overview of antenna properties and performance

### Antenna Properties and their impact on Wireless System Performance. Dr. Steven R. Best. Cushcraft Corporation 48 Perimeter Road Manchester, NH 03013

Antenna Properties and their impact on Wireless System Performance Dr. Steven R. Best Cushcraft Corporation 48 Perimeter Road Manchester, NH 03013 Phone (603) 627-7877 FAX: (603) 627-1764 Email: sbest@cushcraft.com

### Antenna Glossary Before we talk about specific antennas, there are a few common terms that must be defined and explained:

Antenna Basics Introduction Antennas are a very important component of communication systems. By definition, an antenna is a device used to transform an RF signal, traveling on a conductor, into an electromagnetic

### Avaya WLAN 9100 External Antennas for use with the WAO-9122 Access Point

Avaya WLAN 9100 External Antennas for use with the WAO-9122 Access Point Overview To optimize the overall performance of a WLAN in an outdoor deployment it is important to understand how to maximize coverage

### Antenna Patterns and Their Meaning

Antenna Patterns and Their Meaning Much can be learned about how an antenna performs from its patterns. This paper describes many of the common antenna parameters that can be understood from the patterns.

### ProCurve Networking Antenna Deployment

ProCurve Networking Antenna Deployment Technical Brief Introduction... 2 Antenna types... 2 Omni directional antennas... 2 Directional antennas... 2 Diversity antennas... 3 High gain directional antennas...

### 2.4 GHz Yagi-Uda Antenna

P a g e 1 EE 172 Extra Credit Project 2.4 GHz Yagi-Uda Antenna Created by Mario Delgadillo Maringan Pardamean Panggabean P a g e 2 Abstract This report will define antenna theory and design as it relates

### Selecting Receiving Antennas for Radio Tracking

Selecting Receiving Antennas for Radio Tracking Larry B Kuechle, Advanced Telemetry Systems, Inc. Isanti, Minnesota 55040 lkuechle@atstrack.com The receiving antenna is an integral part of any radio location

### Antenna Measurement 1 Antenna Ranges antenna range

Antenna Measurement 1 Antenna Ranges An antenna range is a facility where antenna radiation characteristics are measured. An antenna range includes the following typical components: 1. A substantial space

### A comparison of radio direction-finding technologies. Paul Denisowski, Applications Engineer Rohde & Schwarz

A comparison of radio direction-finding technologies Paul Denisowski, Applications Engineer Rohde & Schwarz Topics General introduction to radiolocation Manual DF techniques Doppler DF Time difference

### San Jose State University. Antenna Project. EE172 Extra Credit Project

San Jose State University Antenna Project EE172 Extra Credit Project Ivan Moon, Teera Songatikamas, and Ryan Wall 12/20/2009 ABSTRACT Two antennas will be designed, constructed, and tested to operate at

### Antenna Basic Concepts

ANTENNA An antenna is a device to transmit and/or receive electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic waves are often referred to as radio waves. Most antennas are resonant devices, which operate efficiently

### Lab Exercise 1: Acoustic Waves

Lab Exercise 1: Acoustic Waves Contents 1-1 PRE-LAB ASSIGNMENT................. 2 1-3.1 Spreading Factor: Spherical Waves........ 2 1-3.2 Interference In 3-D................. 3 1-4 EQUIPMENT........................

### Just a Dipole. Gary Wescom N0GW July 16, 2007

Just a Dipole Gary Wescom N0GW July 16, 2007 Often we will hear people describing their antennas as just a dipole. After all, a coax cable fed, half wavelength dipole is one of the simplest antennas to

### Circular Polarization vs. Linear Polarization

Circular Polarization vs. Linear Polarization Executive Summary The objective of this white paper is to provide a high level analysis of circular and linear polarization, and to alleviate the confusion

### You will need the following pieces of equipment to complete this experiment:

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO FACULTY OF APPLIED SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING The Edward S. Rogers Sr. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering ECE422H1S: RADIO AND MICROWAVE WIRELESS SYSTEMS EXPERIMENT 3:

### 700 and 800 MHz Band Slot Antennas

Low Group Delay, Wide Bandwidth UHF Slot Antennas Omni-directional and Directional Patterns Available Low RFR Models Available Top or Side Mount Models Horizontal, Elliptical, or Circular Polarization

### Antenna Trainer EAN. www.edibon.com. Technical Teaching Equipment INTRODUCTION

Antenna Trainer EAN Technical Teaching Equipment Products Products range Units 3.-Communications INTRODUCTION Antennas are the main element of aerial communications. They are the transition between a transmission

### Omni Antenna vs. Directional Antenna

Omni Antenna vs. Directional Antenna Document ID: 82068 Contents Introduction Prerequisites Requirements Components Used Conventions Basic Definitions and Antenna Concepts Indoor Effects Omni Antenna Pros

### Antenna Considerations. The space available for an antenna The proximity to neighbours The operating frequencies you will use The output power Money

Antennas A good antenna works A bad antenna is a waste of time & money Antenna systems can be very inexpensive and simple They can also be very, very expensive Antenna Considerations The space available

### DESIGNER POLARIZATION

DESIGNER POLARIZATION (for magazine publication) INTRODUCTION istorically, Radar Warning Receivers (RWR) employ cavity backed spiral antennas to detect and classify threats to the aircraft and to determine

### Applications in EMC testing. Outline. Antennas for EMC Testing. Terminology

Antennas for EMC Testing Zhong Chen ETS-Lindgren 1301 Arrow Point Drive Cedar Park, TX 78613 Zhong.Chen@ets-lindgren.com Outline EMC Terms and Definitions Typical EMC Antennas Calibration of EMC Antennas

### This Antenna Basics reference guide includes basic information about antenna types, how antennas work, gain, and some installation examples.

Antenna Basics This Antenna Basics reference guide includes basic information about antenna types, how antennas work, gain, and some installation examples. What Do Antennas Do? Antennas transmit radio

### Understanding Range for RF Devices

Understanding Range for RF Devices October 2012 White Paper Understanding how environmental factors can affect range is one of the key aspects to deploying a radio frequency (RF) solution. This paper will

### Design, Development and Simulation of a 2.4 GHz Yagi Uda Antenna

International Journal of Engineering Science Invention ISSN (Online): 2319 6734, ISSN (Print): 2319 6726 Volume 2 Issue 5 ǁ May. 2013 ǁ PP.31-37 Design, Development and Simulation of a 2.4 GHz Yagi Uda

### EMC STANDARDS STANDARDS AND STANDARD MAKING BODIES. International. International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) http://www.iec.

EMC STANDARDS The EMC standards that a particular electronic product must meet depend on the product application (commercial or military) and the country in which the product is to be used. These EMC regulatory

### Measurement of Antenna Radiation Patterns Laboratory Manual

Measurement of Antenna Radiation Patterns Laboratory Manual Written by: Vishal Bhavsar Nicholas Blas Huy Nguyen Under the Guidance of: Professor Alexander Balandin Funding Provided By: TRW Corporation

### CHAPTER 4. Electromagnetic Spectrum

ELEC4504 Avionics Systems 9 CHAPTER 4. Electromagnetic Spectrum 4.1. Electromagnetic (EM) Waves In free space (or the atmosphere) the electric field is perpendicular to the magnetic field and both are

### Directional or Omnidirectional Antenna?

TECHNOTE No. 1 Joe Carr's Radio Tech-Notes Directional or Omnidirectional Antenna? Joseph J. Carr Universal Radio Research 6830 Americana Parkway Reynoldsburg, Ohio 43068 1 Directional or Omnidirectional

### Printed Dipole Array Fed with Parallel Stripline for Ku-band Applications

Printed Dipole Array Fed with Parallel Stripline for Ku-band Applications M. Dogan 1, 3,K. Özsoy 1, 2, and I.Tekin 1, 1 Electronics Engineering, Sabanci University, Istanbul, Turkey 2 Vestek Electronic

### AUTOMATED THREE-ANTENNA POLARIZATION MEASUREMENTS USING DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING

AUTOMATED THREE-ANTENNA POLARIZATION MEASUREMENTS USING DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING John R. Jones and Doren W. Hess Abstract In this paper we present a three-antenna measurement procedure which yields the

### '' EGGBEATER '' ANTENNA VHF/UHF ~ PART 2

'' EGGBEATER '' ANTENNA VHF/UHF ~ PART 2 ON6WG / F5VIF Summary Note : In Part 1, Fig 1 shows a maximum gain of 6.45 dbi. Several design attempts were made using slightly different configurations ( i.e.

### TRIPLE BAND GPS TRAP LOADED INVERTED L ANTENNA ARRAY

TRIPLE BAND GPS TRAP LOADED INVERTED L ANTENNA ARRAY B. Rama Rao, M. A. Smolinski, Cuong C. Quach, E. N. Rosario The MITRE Corporation Bedford, Massachusetts 17-142 E-mail: brrao@mitre.org, FAX: (781)

### Sensor and Simulation Notes. Note 479. October 2003. A Dual-Polarity Impulse Radiating Antenna

Sensor and Simulation Notes Note 479 October 2003 A Dual-Polarity Impulse Radiating Antenna Leland H. Bowen and Everett G. Farr Farr Research, Inc. Dean I. Lawry Air Force Research Laboratory, Directed

### REPORT ITU-R BO.2029. Broadcasting-satellite service earth station antenna pattern measurements and related analyses

Rep. ITU-R BO.229 1 REPORT ITU-R BO.229 Broadcasting-satellite service earth station antenna pattern measurements and related analyses (Question ITU-R 93/11) (22) 1 Introduction Recommendation ITU-R BO.1443

### Various Technics of Liquids and Solids Level Measurements. (Part 3)

(Part 3) In part one of this series of articles, level measurement using a floating system was discusses and the instruments were recommended for each application. In the second part of these articles,

### The VHF / UHF «Eggbeater» Antenna ~ Revisited ~

The VHF / UHF «Eggbeater» Antenna ~ Revisited ~ ON6WG / F5VIF A new simple way to build the Eggbeater Antenna Introduction Previous designs described in «VHF / UHF «Eggbeater» Antenna ~ Part 1» and «VHF

### Physics 25 Exam 3 November 3, 2009

1. A long, straight wire carries a current I. If the magnetic field at a distance d from the wire has magnitude B, what would be the the magnitude of the magnetic field at a distance d/3 from the wire,

### Experiment 8: Undriven & Driven RLC Circuits

Experiment 8: Undriven & Driven RLC Circuits Answer these questions on a separate sheet of paper and turn them in before the lab 1. RLC Circuits Consider the circuit at left, consisting of an AC function

### Chapter 1 ANTENNA FUNDAMENTALS. Paul Wade W1GHZ (ex-n1bwt) 1994,1997,1998 ANTENNA BASICS

Chapter 1 ANTENNA FUNDAMENTALS Paul Wade W1GHZ (ex-n1bwt) 1994,1997,1998 Introduction Antenna gain is essential for microwave communication since it helps both transmitting and receiving, it is doubly

### Wireless Power Transmission Using Magnetic Resonance

Wireless Power Transmission Using Magnetic Resonance By: Lucas Jorgensen and Adam Culberson In conjunction with Professor Derin Sherman Introduction We experimented with wireless power transmission. Using

### Maximizing Throughput and Coverage for Wi Fi and Cellular

Maximizing Throughput and Coverage for Wi Fi and Cellular A White Paper Prepared by Sebastian Rowson, Ph.D. Chief Scientist, Ethertronics, Inc. www.ethertronics.com March 2012 Introduction Ask consumers

### Antennas 101 The Basics. Ward Silver NØAX

Antennas 101 The Basics Ward Silver NØAX The Basics - 1 Antennas radiate (or receive) because electrons are accelerated (or are caused to accelerate) in the antenna s elements Radio or electromagnetic

### G(θ) = max{g 1 (θ), G 2 (θ)}

Rec. ITU-R F.1336 1 RECOMMENDATION ITU-R F.1336* Rec. ITU-R F.1336 REFERENCE RADIATION PATTERNS OF OMNIDIRECTIONAL AND OTHER ANTENNAS IN POINT-TO-MULTIPOINT SYSTEMS FOR USE IN SHARING STUDIES (Question

### Flexible PCB Antenna with Cable Integration Application Note Version 2

Flexible PCB Antenna with Cable Integration Application Note Version 2 CONTENTS 1. BASICS 2. APPLICATIONS 3. SIZE 4. SHAPE 5. GROUND PLANE SIZE 6. IMPEDANCE 7. BANDWIDTH 8. VSWR 9. GAIN 10. EFFICIENCY

### 6 J - vector electric current density (A/m2 )

Determination of Antenna Radiation Fields Using Potential Functions Sources of Antenna Radiation Fields 6 J - vector electric current density (A/m2 ) M - vector magnetic current density (V/m 2 ) Some problems

### Lecture 13 Electromagnetic Waves Ch. 33

Lecture 13 Electromagnetic Waves Ch. 33 Cartoon Opening Demo Topics Electromagnetic waves Traveling E/M wave - Induced electric and induced magnetic amplitudes Plane waves and spherical waves Energy transport

### Synthetic Sensing: Proximity / Distance Sensors

Synthetic Sensing: Proximity / Distance Sensors MediaRobotics Lab, February 2010 Proximity detection is dependent on the object of interest. One size does not fit all For non-contact distance measurement,

### Lesson 3 DIRECT AND ALTERNATING CURRENTS. Task. The skills and knowledge taught in this lesson are common to all missile repairer tasks.

Lesson 3 DIRECT AND ALTERNATING CURRENTS Task. The skills and knowledge taught in this lesson are common to all missile repairer tasks. Objectives. When you have completed this lesson, you should be able

### Date: Deflection of an Electron in a Magnetic Field

Name: Partners: Date: Deflection of an Electron in a Magnetic Field Purpose In this lab, we use a Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) to measure the effects of an electric and magnetic field on the motion of a charged

### The purposes of this experiment are to test Faraday's Law qualitatively and to test Lenz's Law.

260 17-1 I. THEORY EXPERIMENT 17 QUALITATIVE STUDY OF INDUCED EMF Along the extended central axis of a bar magnet, the magnetic field vector B r, on the side nearer the North pole, points away from this

### Technician Licensing Class

Technician Licensing Class Antennas Presented by Amateur Radio Technician Class Element 2 Course Presentation ELEMENT 2 SUB-ELEMENTS (Groupings) About Ham Radio Call Signs Control Mind the Rules Tech Frequencies

### HALF-WAVE PARABOLIC REFLECTOR ANTENNA OPTIMIZATION

HALF-WAVE PARABOLIC REFLECTOR ANTENNA OPTIMIZATION Parker Singletary, Carson Smith Advisor: Dr. Gregory J. Mazzaro Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering The Citadel, The Military College of South

### Diffraction and Young s Single Slit Experiment

Diffraction and Young s Single Slit Experiment Developers AB Overby Objectives Preparation Background The objectives of this experiment are to observe Fraunhofer, or far-field, diffraction through a single

### INTERFERENCE OF SOUND WAVES

1/2016 Sound 1/8 INTERFERENCE OF SOUND WAVES PURPOSE: To measure the wavelength, frequency, and propagation speed of ultrasonic sound waves and to observe interference phenomena with ultrasonic sound waves.

### Maximizing Range. Contents. Application Note. XST-AN010a June 2012. Abstract...1 RF Communication Systems...1 Installing an RF System...

Maximizing Range Contents Abstract...1 RF Communication Systems...1 Installing an RF System...5 Application Note XST-AN010a June 2012 Website: Email: www.digi.com rf-experts@digi.com Abstract This document

### is the power reference: Specifically, power in db is represented by the following equation, where P0 P db = 10 log 10

RF Basics - Part 1 This is the first article in the multi-part series on RF Basics. We start the series by reviewing some basic RF concepts: Decibels (db), Antenna Gain, Free-space RF Propagation, RF Attenuation,

### Internal GPS Active Patch Antenna Application Note

Internal GPS Active Patch Antenna Application Note APN-13-8-002/A Page 1 of 14 1. BASICS 2. APPLICATIONS 3. SIZE 4. SHAPE 5. GROUND PLANE 6. IMPEDANCE 7. BANDWIDTH 8. VSWR 9. LINK BUDGET 10. GAIN 11. NOISE

### Radio Physics for Wireless Devices and Networking. The Radio Physics of WiFi. By Ron Vigneri

Radio Physics for Wireless Devices and Networking By Ron Vigneri The Radio Physics of WiFi The standard for wireless LANs (WLANs) was completed in 1997 with the release of the IEEE 802.11 specification

Wave propagation channel simulation by satellite-to-indoor radio link LÓRÁNT FARKAS, LAJOS NAGY, ANDREA FARKASVÖLGYI Department of Infocommunication and Electromagnetic Theory, Budapest University of Technology

### ABHELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY

Basic of Propagation Theory S-72.333 Physical Layer Methods in Wireless Communication Systems Fabio Belloni Helsinki University of Technology Signal Processing Laboratory fbelloni@wooster.hut.fi 23 November

### Magnetic Field of a Circular Coil Lab 12

HB 11-26-07 Magnetic Field of a Circular Coil Lab 12 1 Magnetic Field of a Circular Coil Lab 12 Equipment- coil apparatus, BK Precision 2120B oscilloscope, Fluke multimeter, Wavetek FG3C function generator,

### 1.7 Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates

56 CHAPTER 1. VECTORS AND THE GEOMETRY OF SPACE 1.7 Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates 1.7.1 Review: Polar Coordinates The polar coordinate system is a two-dimensional coordinate system in which the

### 7.4 Slotted-cylinder antennas

7.4 Slotted-cylinder antennas As illustrated in Figure 7-3, a slot in an infinite plane is equivalent to a dipole of the same dimensions. In practice, a sheet much bigger than the slot is a nearly infinite

### Microwave Measurements with Network Analyzer Design of RFID Antenna. In the Course Circuit Theory By: Johan Sidén

Microwave Measurements with Network Analyzer Design of RFID Antenna In the Course Circuit Theory By: By: 1(9) In this laboratory work you will show your classmates that you can get the best resonance on

### CABLES CABLES. Application note. Link Budget

CABLES CABLES radiating Link Budget 3. 1. LINK BUDGET The basic elements to calculate a link budget can be illustrated by considering the example shown in Figure 4. It involves a GSM 900 radio coverage

### Periodic Wave Phenomena

Name: Periodic Wave Phenomena 1. The diagram shows radar waves being emitted from a stationary police car and reflected by a moving car back to the police car. The difference in apparent frequency between

### Troubleshooting Problems Affecting Radio Frequency Communication

Troubleshooting Problems Affecting Radio Frequency Communication Document ID: 8630 Refer to the Cisco Wireless Downloads (registered customers only) page in order to get Cisco Aironet drivers, firmware

### Efficient 2 meter Disguise Antenna Made From a TV Satellite Dish

Efficient 2 meter Disguise Antenna Made From a TV Satellite Dish This horizontal slot antenna, cut into the reflector of a TV dish, is both the master of disguise and high in performance. By John Portune

### Antenna Diversity in Wireless Local Area Network Devices

Antenna Diversity in Wireless Local Area Network Devices Frank M. Caimi, Ph.D. Kerry L. Greer Jason M. Hendler January 2002 Introduction Antenna diversity has been used in wireless communication systems

### Correlation between OATS, Fully Anechoic Room and GTEM Radiated Emissions

Correlation between OATS, Fully Anechoic Room and GTEM Radiated Emissions Stephen Clay Introduction: Just a few words about myself. My name is Steve Clay and I work for Nokia Mobile Phones, and it is my

### This paper will explain some of the more important factors on how UTP wires work; specifically it will cover the following:

UTP Technology In the late 1970s, unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cabling originated in the computer industry as a means of transmitting digital data over computer networks. This cable was designed to be

### What is RFID? Lisa Petrini

What is RFID? Lisa Petrini A Tool Real-time Information Monitor Assets Remove Human Interaction Serialize Data What is in it for my organization? Reduced Costs Improved Quality Improved Customer Satisfaction

### Experiment 5. Lasers and laser mode structure

Northeastern University, PHYS5318 Spring 2014, 1 1. Introduction Experiment 5. Lasers and laser mode structure The laser is a very important optical tool that has found widespread use in science and industry,

### ISS Minimalist Antenna

ISS Minimalist Antenna The purpose of this project was to develop an antenna suggestion that would allow for a simple to duplicate, affordable antenna solution for reasonable access to signals transmitted

### EMC Standards: Standards of good EMC engineering

Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) IEEE Definition Origin, control, and measurement of electromagnetic effects on electronic and biologic systems. IEEE EMC Society Areas of Interest EMC Standards: Standards

### PHYS 222 Spring 2012 Final Exam. Closed books, notes, etc. No electronic device except a calculator.

PHYS 222 Spring 2012 Final Exam Closed books, notes, etc. No electronic device except a calculator. NAME: (all questions with equal weight) 1. If the distance between two point charges is tripled, the

### Review Paper for Broadband CPW-Fed T-Shape Slot Antenna

Review Paper for Broadband CPW-Fed T-Shape Slot Antenna Shahpure Sana 1, Bharate Rajashri 2, Prof. Jadhav D.A. 3 1,2 BE, Dept. of E&TC, Brahmdevdada Mane Institute of Technology, Dist. Solapur (Maharashtra)

### Indoor Path Loss. Contents. Application Note. XST-AN005a-Indoor June Link Margin...2. Indoor Communications...4. Situational Analysis...

Indoor Path Loss Contents Link Margin...2 Indoor Communications...4 Situational Analysis...5 Conclusion...6 Application Note XST-AN005a-Indoor June 2012 Website: Email: www.digi.com rf-experts@digi.com

### How Reed Switches are used with a Permanent Magnet

How Reed Switches are used with a Permanent Magnet Using Reed Switches in a sensing environment, one generally uses a magnet for actuation. It is important to understand this interaction clearly for proper

### Internal GPS Active Patch Antenna Application Note

Internal GPS Active Patch Antenna Application Note APN-13-8-002/B/JC Page 1 of 17 1. BASICS 2. APPLICATIONS 3. SIZE 4. SHAPE 5. GROUND PLANE 6. IMPEDANCE 7. BANDWIDTH 8. VSWR 9. LINK BUDGET 10. GAIN 11.

### Tuning a Monopole Antenna Using a Network Analyzer

11/21/11 Tuning a Monopole Antenna Using a Network Analyzer Chris Leonard Executive Summary: When designing a monopole antenna it is important to know at which frequency the antenna will be operating at.

### ELECTRIC FIELD LINES AND EQUIPOTENTIAL SURFACES

ELECTRIC FIELD LINES AND EQUIPOTENTIAL SURFACES The purpose of this lab session is to experimentally investigate the relation between electric field lines of force and equipotential surfaces in two dimensions.

### Magnetic Fields and Their Effects

Name Date Time to Complete h m Partner Course/ Section / Grade Magnetic Fields and Their Effects This experiment is intended to give you some hands-on experience with the effects of, and in some cases

### Pillbox Antenna for 5.6 GHz Band Dragoslav Dobričić, YU1AW dragan@antennex.com

Pillbox Antenna for 5.6 GHz Band Dragoslav Dobričić, YU1AW dragan@antennex.com Introduction The pillbox or cheese antenna is made of two parallel plates which are connected to the narrow strip of parabolic

### Electromagnetic radiation exposure: assessment against ACA mandated limits

Electromagnetic radiation exposure: assessment against ACA mandated limits General radio services (operating above 0 MHz) (Edition May 0) Disclaimer Unless otherwise specified, the information contained

### ANTENNAS APPLICATIONS FOR RF MODULE

ANTENNAS APPLICATIONS FOR RF MODULE Introduction: There seems to be little information on compact antenna design for the low power wireless field. Good antenna design is required to realize good range

### An equivalent circuit of a loop antenna.

3.2.1. Circuit Modeling: Loop Impedance A loop antenna can be represented by a lumped circuit when its dimension is small with respect to a wavelength. In this representation, the circuit parameters (generally

### 4.4 WAVE CHARACTERISTICS 4.5 WAVE PROPERTIES HW/Study Packet

4.4 WAVE CHARACTERISTICS 4.5 WAVE PROPERTIES HW/Study Packet Required: READ Hamper pp 115-134 SL/HL Supplemental: Cutnell and Johnson, pp 473-477, 507-513 Tsokos, pp 216-242 REMEMBER TO. Work through all

### LTE enodeb Installation and Maintenance Tests

Application Note LTE enodeb Installation and Maintenance Tests Introduction The Long-Term Evolution (LTE) specifications are defined by the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), which is part of

### AN INTRODUCTION TO TELEMETRY PART 1: TELEMETRY BASICS

AN INTRODUCTION TO TELEMETRY PART 1: TELEMETRY BASICS Telemetry is defined as the sensing and measuring of information at some remote location and then transmitting that information to a central or host

### Mode Patterns of Parallel plates &Rectangular wave guides Mr.K.Chandrashekhar, Dr.Girish V Attimarad

International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research Volume 3, Issue 8, August-2012 1 Mode Patterns of Parallel plates &Rectangular wave guides Mr.K.Chandrashekhar, Dr.Girish V Attimarad Abstract-Parallel

### Interference. Physics 102 Workshop #3. General Instructions

Interference Physics 102 Workshop #3 Name: Lab Partner(s): Instructor: Time of Workshop: General Instructions Workshop exercises are to be carried out in groups of three. One report per group is due by

### 5. ANTENNA TYPES. Figure 5. The vertical dipole and its electromagnetic equivalent, the vertical monopole

Antennas can be classified in several ways. One way is the frequency band of operation. Others include physical structure and electrical/electromagnetic design. The antennas commonly used for LMR both

### Microwave Antennas and Radar. Maria Leonora Guico Tcom 126 2 nd Sem Lecture 8

Microwave Antennas and Radar Maria Leonora Guico Tcom 126 2 nd Sem Lecture 8 G P P directional isotropic Antenna Basics Isotropic Dipole High gain directional 0 db i 2.2 db i 14 db i Antenna performance

### Module 6 : Wave Guides. Lecture 41 : Transverse Electric and Magnetic Mode. Objectives. In this course you will learn the following

Objectives In this course you will learn the following Important features of Transverse Electric Waves. Fields for Transverse Magnetic (TM) Mode. Important features for Transverse Magnetic (TM) Mode. Important