Electrical Communications. Transmitting Digital Signals

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1 Electrical Communications Electrical signals on wires Loss, noise added, reflections, interference IMPORTANT: Digital information is transformed into electrical signals in order to be transmitted!!! Example: MODEM (Modulator/Demodulator) Allows us to transmit digital signals over analog channels Noise in the analog channel may cause the value of one or more bits to change -> errors! There exist ways to detect that there has been a bit error in the communication. Transmitting Digital Signals Telegraph: it is digital by nature Dot = 0; Dash = 1. E.g.: = Telephone: made to transmit analog signals! Modem: a tool to transmit digital signals over the telephone network To transmit the data: DAC (digital-to-analog converter) To receive the data: ADC (analog-to-digital converter) 1

2 Modems Two-way communication: needs two modems Each modem contains circuitry to encode outgoing data and decode incoming data Half-duplex communication: Only one party can talk at a time Similar to walkie-talkie Full-duplex communication: Both parties can talk at the same time Like the telephone Modems use full-duplex communication Modems (cont d) Modems contain complex circuitry to: Modulate/demodulate the analog signal Allows for the transmission of moderately high bit-rate through the telephone line Compress the data Reduces the amount of bits that must be transmitted Detect bit errors due to transmission Achievable bit rate Kb/s 2

3 Connecting Computers with Devices Standard: defines the details of a particular communication technology RS-232 is a standard for serial communications between digital devices It s fully duplex Kb/s Can only connect one device with another device! So if you want to connect a PC to many devices, you need as many cables coming out of your PC. USB and FireWire USB (Universal Serial Bus) Can connect many devices through a USB hub Bitrates: 12 Mb/s (USB 1.1) to 480 Mb/s (USB 2.0) Provides power to small devices (e.g., mice) Firewire (IEEE 1394) Can connect many devices through a FireWire hub Bitrates: up to 400 Mb/s Very popular for video cameras and storage systems, also to connect two devices (without a PC) Can provide power to small devices (e.g., video cameras) 3

4 Why Broadband? RS-232, USB, Firewire, all have constraints on the maximum length of the wire Also, if you need to connect to outside your house, you cannot just extend a wire to anywhere you want! We already know a solution: modem Uses the POTS network However, modems provide insufficient bitrate Also, when using the modem, you cannot use the telephone for voice communication! Broadband Connection Types Services available to private users for connecting to the Internet: Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) Cable Modem Satellite Systems 4

5 ISDN ISDN provides for communication of digitized voice and data to subscribers over the conventional local loop (i.e., using the same wiring as for analog telephone) In the Basic Rate Interface (BRI), ISDN offers three separate digital channels (B, B and D - usually written 2B+D) All on the same wire! (Multiplexing) Businesses can use the Primary Rate Interface (PRI: 23B+D) Requires higher capacity lines than local loop! ISDN (cont d) The two B channels are intended to carry digital voice, data, or digital streams Bitrate of each B-channel: 64 kb/s (overall, 128 kb/s) The D channel is used as a control channel E.g., to make request services which are then supplied over the B channels, or to carry caller ID information Bitrate of D channel: 16 kb/s 5

6 ISDN (cont d) To connect your computer to ISDN, a user needs a special network termination device (NT1) in his/her premises Sometimes the NT1 devices is wrongly called an ISDN modem A modem converts a digital signal to an analog signal; ISDN is inherently digital, so no such conversion is necessary Need to dial a number to start a connection ISDN (cont d) ISDN was initiated in 1984, and was available in the USA in the early 90s It was an attempt to replace the analog phone system with a digital voice+data system It never really succeeded Currently, ISDN is obsolete, because it offers a limited bitrate at a fairly high price Still a possibility for Internet connection where other forms of broadband are not available 6

7 ADSL ADSL is a technology that allows for the transmission of high bit-rates over the local loop It does not require any changes in the wiring In addition, it does not preempt the local loop A user can use the telephone for analog voice communication and at the same time transmit data or stream a video It requires a splitter and a ADSL modem The splitter separates the voice/fax signals from the data stream Connection from PC to ADSL modem: typically USB ADSL scheme 7

8 ADSL (cont d) To achieve high bitrate transmission, ADSL must use sophisticated technology It is adaptive : ADSL modems at the two ends probe the line between them to find its characteristics, and then agree to communicate using techniques that are optimal for that line Depending on the characteristics of the wiring, different bit-rates can be achieved If a house is too far form the End office (switching center), ADSL is not available ADSL (cont d) ADSL is asymmetric: it provides a higher bitrate downstream than upstream Downstream: 32 kb/s to 6.4 Mb/s (more typically, 1.5 Mb/s) Upstream: 32 to 640 kb/s (more typically, 256 kb/s) Asymmetry is OK when high bitrate data is transmitted to the user E.g.: Video-On-Demand, Internet radio In some cases, symmetric communication is preferable E.g.: Videoconferences 8

9 Cable Modems CATV (Community Antenna TV, or cable TV) uses coax cable (less susceptible to interference) 1-Km coax cable can accommodate bitrates of 1-2 Gb/s! Only one cable is used for a neighborhood Different TV channels are multiplexed on it Cable systems are designed to carry many more television signals than currently available There is unused capacity that can be used for data communication! >80% of US homes are already reached by CATV Cable Modems (cont d) User can connect using a cable modem A splitter separates the TV and the data signals Problem: all users in the neighborhood share the same available capacity in the same cable! If all users in the neighborhood transmit data at the same time, the available bitrate is reduced E.g., if there are 50 Mb/s available, and 100 users in the neighborhood use it simultaneously, each user has only 0.5 Mb/s 9

10 Cable Modems (cont d) Coax cables from several neighborhoods connect to a concentrator The concentrator uses high capacity fiber optics cables to connect to the head end, which is connected to the Internet Communication is asymmetric Originally, CATV was designed only for downstream communication! Available bitrates: Downstream: 1.5 to 2 Mb/s Upstream: 128 kb/s Satellite Systems Digital communication satellites were deployed by telecommunication companies as an alternative to terrestrial lines They can now be used as local loop technology (e.g., DirectTV) Advantages: Can reach arbitrary geographic locations Does not require wiring Has high bandwidth Perfect for broadcasting (can reach many users at once) 10

11 Satellite Systems (cont d) Disadvantages: It s a shared medium (the bitrate depends on the number of simultaneous users) Delay (latency) can be relatively high (<1s) Not ideal for playing twitch-games You have to put a dish on your roof! Initially, uplink was not provided Needed to use a separate phone line to uplink information Nowadays it is a two-way system 11

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