TC1 COMPUTER LITERACY Mr. Sencer 10/3/2010

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1 TC1 COMPUTER LITERACY Mr. Sencer 10/3/2010

2 Aim: How can we describe the Internet? How are some ways one can connect to the Internet? Do Now: Read article How Internet Infrastructure Works Answer the following questions: Describe the internet infrastructure Explain how the internet backbone works How fast is the speed of your home internet connection compared to the speed of a backbone connection?

3 How Internet Infrastructure Works by Jeff Tyson One of the greatest things about the Internet is that nobody really owns it. It is a global collection of networks, both big and small. These networks connect together in many different ways to form the single entity that we know as the Internet. In fact, the very name comes from this idea of interconnected networks. Since its beginning in 1969, the Internet has grown from four host computer systems to tens of millions. However, just because nobody owns the Internet, it doesn't mean it is not monitored and maintained in different ways. The Internet Society, a non-profit group established in 1992, oversees the policies and protocols that define how we use and interact with the Internet. The Internet: Computer Network Hierarchy Every computer that is connected to the Internet is part of a network, even the one in your home. For example, you may use a modem and dial a local number to connect to an Internet Service Provider (ISP). At school, you may be part of a local area network (LAN), but you most likely still connect to the Internet using an ISP. When you connect to your ISP, you become part of their network. The ISP may then connect to a larger network and become part of their network. The Internet is simply a network of networks. Most large communications companies have their own dedicated backbones connecting various regions. In each region, the company has a Point of Presence (POP). The POP is a place for local users to access the company's network, often through a local phone number or dedicated line. The amazing thing here is that there is no overall controlling network. Instead, there are several high-level networks connecting to each other through Network Access Points or NAPs. Internet Backbone When you connect to the Internet, your computer becomes part of a network. The National Science Foundation (NSF) created the first high-speed backbone in Called NSFNET, it was a T1 line that connected 170 smaller networks together and operated at Mbps (million bits per second). IBM, MCI and Merit worked with NSF to create the backbone and developed a T3 (45 Mbps) backbone the following year. Backbones are typically fiber optic trunk lines. The trunk line has multiple fiber optic cables combined together to increase the capacity. Fiber optic cables are designated OC for optical carrier, such as OC-3, OC-12 or OC-48. An OC-3 line is capable of transmitting 155 Mbps while an OC-48 can transmit 2,488 Mbps (2.488 Gbps). Compare that to a typical 56K modem transmitting 56,000 bps and you see just how fast a modern backbone is.

4 Today there are many companies that operate their own high-capacity backbones, and all of them interconnect at various NAPs around the world. In this way, everyone on the Internet, no matter where they are and what company they use, is able to talk to everyone else on the planet. The entire Internet is a gigantic, sprawling agreement between companies to intercommunicate freely.

5 Commonly described as the web pages/sites you find on the Web WRONG!!!! What is the Internet really? It is a collection of networks linking millions computers How do you use the Internet? Worldwide it s widely used for research, access to information and instant communications. It s used by more than one billion people

6 World Wide Web a.k.a Web Chat Rooms Instant Messaging VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) Based on this list above how can we define what a service is? What are some other services you may have used that the Internet provides?

7 Internet came out of a networking project by the US Department of Defense in the late 1960s What war was take place during the late 1960s? The goals of this Defense project were to build a network 1. that allowed scientists in different locations to share information and work together on military/scientific projects 2. that could function even if a part of the network was disabled or destroyed (such as part of a nuclear attack) The original name of this network was ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) Became functional in September 1969 and was the first network to link scientists and academic researchers across the United States.

8 Original network consisted of 4 computers University of California in Los Angeles University of California in Santa Barbara Stanford Research Institute University of Utah Each of these computers were considered hosts on this network Host: (server) any computer that provides services/connections to other computers on a network

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10 This idea of connecting networks took off immediately By 1984, ARPANET had more than 1000 individual computers linked as hosts In 1986, National Science Foundation (NSF) connected its networks of 5 supercomputer centers NSFNET to ARPANET creating the modern Internet Using its 5 supercomputers NSFNET handle the communication activity or traffic on the Internet In 1995 it separated NSFNET from ARPANET

11 Today, there are more than 550 million hosts on this network commonly called the Internet The networks that make up the Internet now are local, regional, national and international The internal structure of the Internet is made up of networks owned by Public and Private organizations Government Cable telephone and satellite companies.

12 No single person, company, institution or government controls or owns the Internet. Each organization with a network part of the Internet only is responsible for maintaining its network. There is a body that does oversee some components of the Internet W3C World Wide Web Consortium Oversees research into advancing the Internet Sets standards /guidelines for services on the Internet More than 400 organizations from around the world are members

13 Aim: How can we describe the Internet? How are some ways one can connect to the Internet?

14 The most common connection to the Internet is via high-speed/broadband Internet Service Usually with broadband your computer is connected to the Internet the entire time it s powered on Always On The other connection is via low-speed/dial-up access Slower connection Connect through the phone line where your computer uses its modem to send data and information using a phone line and analog signals

15 Cable Internet Service: access Internet through cable network via cable modem (RoadRunner) DSL (Digital Subscriber Line): access Internet through phone lines (Verizon DSL) Fiber to the Premises (FTTP): access Internet through a fiber-optic cable (FiOS) Fixed Wireless: access Internet through a dish-shaped antenna located on home/business Cellular Radio: access Internet through built-in/addon cellular/wireless modems (AirCard/3G Hotspots) Satellite Internet Service: access Internet via a satellite dish connected to a satellite modem (DirecPC)

16 What does Wi-Fi stand for? Wireless Fidelity but some argue it has no official meaning Wi-Fi uses radio signals to provide high-speed communications to wireless devices Many home users set up Wi-Fi networks to simplify connecting to their networks What is a Hot Spot? Public location that provides wirless internet connections for mobile users and devices Commonly found in airports, hotels, schools and coffee shops Sometimes free, sometimes not

17 Access to the internet usually costs $$$ Companies which provide individuals/organizations access are known as access providers Usually paid providers provide more than just access to the Internet. Examples include news, weather, financial data, games, , and online storage.

18 Three types of access providers exist: ISP (Internet Service Provider) (e.g. AT&T, Earthlink) Provide internet access Can be regional providing service to a specific geographic area, cities and towns across a country OSP (Online Service Provider) (e.g. AOL, MSN) Provide internet access and other member-only features Customized Browsers Specialized version of IM WISP (Wireless Internet Service Provider) Provides wireless Internet access Connect using Wi-Fi, 3G Modems or wireless modems Wireless modems are USB or cards inserted into a slot on computer Typically through a cell phone provider

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20 How do you connect to the internet? Is it broadband? Is your access provider an ISP, OSP or WISP? Are you part of the internet? Is your home computer on the internet? Does this mean you control the internet/responsible for it?

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