important theories emerging in the Twentieth Century. The dominated the debate on the private-public divide by showing its use to

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "important theories emerging in the Twentieth Century. The dominated the debate on the private-public divide by showing its use to"

Transcription

1 In contemporary political philosophy feminism is one of the most important theories emerging in the Twentieth Century. The contemporary debate on private-public debate has been greatly impacted by the feminist intervention. The feminists have enlivened and dominated the debate on the private-public divide by showing its use to further, maintain and sustain patriarchal society in its various forms and by various means. Feminism is a theory which critiques the political, social and economic inequality imposed on women on the basis of sex. Feminist philosophy began with the intention of special concern for social and political issues of women. Traditional philosophers like, Aristotle, Rousseau, Kant and Hegel have consistently regarded rationality as the essential human characteristic and argued that woman s capacity for reason is not only different from man but inferior to him as well. Feminists have required deconstructing conceptual dichotomies such as culture/nature, universal/particular, reason/emotion and public/private by associating more highly valued terms with masculinity and less valued 2

2 with femininity. However, there are various feminist approaches in this regard. First, the liberal feminists emphasized biological essentialism that they assume inevitably leads to the basic distinction between the sexes. It is on the basis of this distinction that males are operating in the public world whereas women are confined to the private world. Nevertheless, liberal feminists advocate liberty for women and their social equality with men. Liberal feminists advocate the strategy of legal reforms to improve the status of women should be adopted by those who are concerned for obtaining equal rights and opportunities for women. Secondly, the socialist feminists provide the distinctive perspective on feminist issues. For socialist feminists, the exploitation and oppression of women essentially originate from the capitalist social and political order. The social equality and liberty of women can be achieved only by dismantling the capitalist order which is based on not only exploitation of working class but also enslavement of women. Thirdly, there are radical feminists who have advanced a radical critique not only of patriarchal structures but also of the strategies advanced by liberal feminists. The basic assumption of radical feminists is that women as a sex class are fundamentally oppressed. Radical 3

3 feminists have forcefully brought out that individual liberation and social equality of women demand not only elimination of oppressive patriarchal institutions but also deconstructing of the cultural discourse on which women s suppression as sex class is legitimated and justified. Fourthly, postmodern feminists challenge the notion that there is any objective reality in the world that can be perceived apart from our understanding and interpretation. They have argued that the so-called universal and eternal truths have been advanced throughout history with a view to exploiting women. Postmodern feminists have argued that the notion of universal rational subject is implicitly masculine. Such an account of human rationality and subjectivity entails a pervasive crisis in the modern understanding of human reality. The history of political thought shows that public/private distinction is the first form of liberalism. It concerns the relation between state and civil society, which is first introduced in Locke as the distinction between political and social. This distinction emphasized that society as a basic realm of personal freedom. The second distinction under the Romantic influence is the distinction between social and the personal, which emphasized social conformity of individual. 4

4 The distinction between state and civil society become more prominent in Eighteenth Century. Feminist theorists have been occupied with issues of civil society for the reason that this will build powerful democracies bridging the between the gap between citizens and state. There is requirement for the feminist to tackle the problem of establishing relation of establishing relation between state and society that is gendered in favor of male. The law treats women in the manner in which men see and treat women. Feminists have rejected the traditional notion of separation of public and private spheres. In contemporary feminist theory the fundamental distinction between public and private is understood to be based on subordination and oppression of women. One of the major confrontations of the contemporary feminist theorists is the opposition to restricting of public sphere to men only. Traditional notion of politics is defined as the public sphere of life whereas the private or personal spheres of life are deemed to be non political. Women have always been thought to be naturally lacking the distinctive talent for participating in politics, they are confined only to domestic or private spheres and men are only deemed fit for political or public spheres. Contemporary political thought, distinguishes itself by lying greater significance on demarcating public/private and state and civil society. Male philosophers 5

5 preferred not to interrogate the gender division of labor, they worked with the assumption that domestic roles are naturally and biologically fixed, an assumption leading to claims of women inferiority. One of the main issues then taken up for emancipation of women was their being low-paid or part time workers forcing them into economic dependence. Thus, feminist effort to gain emancipation has sought to remove the distinction between public and private spheres. In contemporary feminist philosophy the feminist intervention has managed to bring into focus the male bias in public and private debates and requires a reorientation to bring about a more sexually equal status to the debate. There is an important Greek view that women are married, they disappear from public life behind the four walls of their home. They devote themselves to the care of their household and family. Many feminists have argued that this is at the root of the cultural devaluation of women in our society. The family is therefore, an important locus of the struggle of gender equality. According to Pateman, the dichotomy between the public and the private is all what feminism deals with. The public and private debate is one of the most significant examples of feminist attack to bring the need to empower women and to give as much freedom as men have. One important devaluation of women s work, particularly in 6

6 bearing and rearing children is the idea that it is merely natural, a matter of biological instinct rather than conscious intentions. The thesis is divided into four chapters. The first chapter or the present one is Introduction and as previous pages reveal is a brief historical and conceptual history of feminism. We have tried to sketch the field-situation out of which feminist thought, philosophy and movement have emerged. Feminist thinkers have brought out that subjugation of women is historically, culturally and socially explainable and it is in changing the historical, cultural and social mode of existence that liberation of women can be accomplished. The feminist thinkers reject essentialist philosophy. The essentialist philosophers have always argued that women question falls outside the preview of philosophy. Feminist have argued that such treatment of women question by traditional philosopher is misleading and misguiding. Feminist underlines that the question of liberation of women entail philosophical issues such as gender equality, abolition of patriarchal structure, women exploitation and domination with view to highlighting women issues. The essentialist philosopher cannot demonstrate what is essential or what is accidental, a distinction that is most crucial for carrying out their philosophy, for example, if we assume that being a human is essential and being male or female is accidental, then we will have also to accept 7

7 that being animal is essential and being human is accidental. The socalled universality of essentialists can mask the prejudices, values and interests of a class of gender. Feminist philosophers are seeking to analyze the condition which shape women life and explore cultural understanding of what means to be a woman. The feminist school of thought is a revolt against the separation of the public and the private spheres. The second chapter is State and Civil Society. In the chapter we discuss the difference between the political and the social that is between state and civil society and its implications for feminists. The relationship between state and civil society is a controversial issue in political philosophy. Political philosophers have not discussed this issue in contemporary sense. They are largely inspired by Aristotle s dictum that man is a political animal and women are less rational and inferior therefore they are confined to the domestic or private sphere. Contemporary theorists denied the underlying assumption that only man are capable to participate in public sphere. The third chapter is Personal and the Social. In this chapter we discuss the notion of privacy and go through a thorough discussion of personal and the gender approach. In Contemporary Political Philosophy 8

8 the feminist intervention has managed to bring into focus the male bias in private-public debate and requires a reorientation to bring about a more sexually equal status to the debate. The intervention has shifted the focus, in some quarters to the public-personal where only the personal is private. But later some feminist have claimed that personal is political, in an effort to bring the traditionally interpreted private, which only helps in the subjugation of women, into the public, to expose and get rid of the subjugation of women. The fourth and the final chapter is the Conclusion, where it is concluded that the difference between the private and public sphere needs to be unrestricted for women. However, any privacy has to be understood in its ordinary connotations and originates in genderized manner because of the need to child bearing and rearing and should not be understood beyond this focus. 9

Liberal feminism form of the equality type of feminism:

Liberal feminism form of the equality type of feminism: Liberal feminism form of the equality type of feminism: Liberal feminism is a form of feminism that argues that equality for women can be achieved through legal means and social reform. Liberal feminism

More information

Social & Political Philosophy. Karl Marx (1818-1883) Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844

Social & Political Philosophy. Karl Marx (1818-1883) Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 Marx 1 Karl Marx (1818-1883) Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 Estranged Labor Marx lays out here his theory on the alienation of labor Marx s thesis would advance the view put forth by Rousseau

More information

SAMPLE 1 ASSESSMENT CRITERIA AND LEARNING OUTCOMES

SAMPLE 1 ASSESSMENT CRITERIA AND LEARNING OUTCOMES SAMPLE 1 ASSESSMENT CRITERIA AND LEARNING OUTCOMES Unit Title: Sociology 2. Understand theories associated with major social divisions, inequalities, differences and diversity in contemporary society 2.1

More information

Overview In this lecture we will focus on the difference between sex and gender, and review the emergence of the study of gender as a discipline.

Overview In this lecture we will focus on the difference between sex and gender, and review the emergence of the study of gender as a discipline. 3. Gender Theory Overview In this lecture we will focus on the difference between sex and gender, and review the emergence of the study of gender as a discipline. Objectives By the end of this topic you

More information

For years, scholarly efforts that addressed the role of women in the eighteenthcentury

For years, scholarly efforts that addressed the role of women in the eighteenthcentury Kristen Borges TAH Grant September 22, 2010 Book Review: Norton, Mary Beth. Liberty s Daughters: The Revolutionary Experience of American Women 1750 1800. New York: Cornell University Press, 1980. For

More information

Group Members: Leslie-Ann Bolden, Michela Bowman, Sarah Kaufman, Danielle Jeanne Lindemann Selections from: The Marx-Engels Reader

Group Members: Leslie-Ann Bolden, Michela Bowman, Sarah Kaufman, Danielle Jeanne Lindemann Selections from: The Marx-Engels Reader Group Members: Leslie-Ann Bolden, Michela Bowman, Sarah Kaufman, Danielle Jeanne Lindemann Selections from: The Marx-Engels Reader Karl Marx s broad theoretical and political agenda is based upon a conception

More information

Cultural Anthropology Theories, Perspectives & Methodologies. Different ways of examining and understanding different cultures

Cultural Anthropology Theories, Perspectives & Methodologies. Different ways of examining and understanding different cultures Cultural Anthropology Theories, Perspectives & Methodologies Different ways of examining and understanding different cultures Cultural Materialism Material stuff drives cultural change more than ideas

More information

PUBLIC INTEREST IN POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY. A NECESSARY ETHICAL AND REGULATORY CONCEPT FOR TERRITORIAL PLANNING

PUBLIC INTEREST IN POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY. A NECESSARY ETHICAL AND REGULATORY CONCEPT FOR TERRITORIAL PLANNING Boletín de Public la Asociación interest in de political Geógrafos philosophy. Españoles A necessary N.º 53-2010, ethical págs. and regulatory 381-386 concept for territorial planning I.S.S.N.: 0212-9426

More information

Cultural Analysis of Sport in the US

Cultural Analysis of Sport in the US Cultural Analysis of Sport in the US Using Social Theories: How Can They Help Us Study Sports in Society? Week I KIN 507 Spring, 2008 Daniel Frankl, Ph.D. Professor of Kinesiology California State University,

More information

Empowerment of women

Empowerment of women STV004 Tutor: Catarina Kinnvall Department of Political Science Empowerment of women Postcolonial feminist theory challenging mainstream feminist perspectives Elin Lundén Abstract The idea of empowering

More information

Simone de Beauvoir: women as the other. Written by Administrator Friday, 07 May 2010 02:18 - Last Updated Friday, 07 May 2010 02:20

Simone de Beauvoir: women as the other. Written by Administrator Friday, 07 May 2010 02:18 - Last Updated Friday, 07 May 2010 02:20 Simone de Beauvor was a French philosopher, novelist, and essayist, the lifelong companion of Jean-Paul Sartre. Beauvoir s two volume treatise. The Second Sex is among the most widely read feminist work.

More information

Feminism and the Same-sex Marriage Debate. Author: Feargha Ní Bhroin

Feminism and the Same-sex Marriage Debate. Author: Feargha Ní Bhroin Feminism and the Same-sex Marriage Debate Author: Feargha Ní Bhroin April 2009 This paper surveys some of the major arguments within the feminist movement in the debate on same-sex marriage. It asserts

More information

My Philosophical Beliefs Related to Adult Teaching and Learning. Becky Smeltzer

My Philosophical Beliefs Related to Adult Teaching and Learning. Becky Smeltzer My Philosophical Beliefs Related to Adult Teaching and Learning Becky Smeltzer Growing up in the 1950s and 1960s, my formal learning experiences were first influenced by the liberal philosophy of education.

More information

Last May, philosopher Thomas Nagel reviewed a book by Michael Sandel titled

Last May, philosopher Thomas Nagel reviewed a book by Michael Sandel titled Fourth Quarter, 2006 Vol. 29, No. 4 Editor s Watch Sandel and Nagel on Abortion Last May, philosopher Thomas Nagel reviewed a book by Michael Sandel titled Public Philosophy in The New York Review of Books.

More information

dynamic gender perspective gender focus a hundred cards three different colors black blue markers first write individually as a concept 6 meters

dynamic gender perspective gender focus a hundred cards three different colors black blue markers first write individually as a concept 6 meters by cecilia garcía This edition of Guidelines for Debate aims to define what gender perspective is and to provide guidance for its incorporation in the development of public programs and policies. To this

More information

Women s Political Participation: Issues and Challenges*

Women s Political Participation: Issues and Challenges* 3 November 2005 United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women (DAW) Expert Group Meeting Enhancing Participation of Women in Development through an Enabling Environment for Achieving Gender Equality

More information

Social Inequality and Stratification. What are critical theories of inequality? Learning targets:

Social Inequality and Stratification. What are critical theories of inequality? Learning targets: Social Inequality and Stratification What are critical theories of inequality? Learning targets: Critical Theory refers to writing in a Marxist tradition Critical theories refer to any types of writing

More information

Gender Politics in Caryl Churchill s Cloud Nine

Gender Politics in Caryl Churchill s Cloud Nine 203 P a g e Gender Politics in Caryl Churchill s Cloud Nine *Sanjoy Kr. Seal Gender is to be distinguished from essential conceptions of sexual IDENTITY or SUBJECTIVITY founded on a natural core of biological

More information

Women and Industrialization

Women and Industrialization Women and Industrialization Katie Stoneburner Dr. Marc Angelos HIST 206 Women in European History 14 April 2005 Stoneburner 2 Throughout history women have not been thought of as doing actual work. When

More information

Descartes Handout #2. Meditation II and III

Descartes Handout #2. Meditation II and III Descartes Handout #2 Meditation II and III I. Meditation II: The Cogito and Certainty A. I think, therefore I am cogito ergo sum In Meditation II Descartes proposes a truth that cannot be undermined by

More information

SENSUS COMMUNIS AND THE PUBLIC Jacob Lund

SENSUS COMMUNIS AND THE PUBLIC Jacob Lund SENSUS COMMUNIS AND THE PUBLIC Jacob Lund Drawing upon the analyses of French philosopher and art theorist Yves Michaud and the Belgian art theorist Thierry de Duve, this article is an investigation of

More information

complete and, since what is presented in a tragedy imitates reality, the reality itself offers a display of such actions. The language in tragedy is

complete and, since what is presented in a tragedy imitates reality, the reality itself offers a display of such actions. The language in tragedy is Essay no. 46 A tragedy, then, is the imitation of a noble and complete action, having a certain magnitude, made in a language spiced up by diverse kinds of embellishments brought in separately in the parts

More information

Baby Boomers: Discontinuing Damaging Family Legacies. upbringing and the traditional portrait of the 1950 s family. According to sociologist Robert

Baby Boomers: Discontinuing Damaging Family Legacies. upbringing and the traditional portrait of the 1950 s family. According to sociologist Robert Wilm 1 Baby Boomers: Discontinuing Damaging Family Legacies Many members of the Baby Boom generation maintain a certain nostalgia for their upbringing and the traditional portrait of the 1950 s family.

More information

Black Feminist Thought 1. Black Feminist Thought: Understanding the Intersection of Sexism and Racism

Black Feminist Thought 1. Black Feminist Thought: Understanding the Intersection of Sexism and Racism Black Feminist Thought 1 Black Feminist Thought: Understanding the Intersection of Sexism and Racism Is there a common woman s nature? Elizabeth Spelman: The Inessential Woman "Inessential" is meant to

More information

Chapter 12 Applied Economic Theory

Chapter 12 Applied Economic Theory Chapter 12 Applied Economic Theory Chapter Outline I. Introduction A. Definitions 1. Economy derivation from Greek term meaning skilled in household management 2. Current definitions include study of the

More information

The Dawn of Panda Diplomacy and the Nationalist Regime, 1928 1949

The Dawn of Panda Diplomacy and the Nationalist Regime, 1928 1949 The Dawn of Panda Diplomacy and the Nationalist Regime, 1928 1949 IENAGA Masaki The idea that pandas are the national symbol of China is no more than a historically invented notion. However, even within

More information

Farzad Family Law Scholarship 2014

Farzad Family Law Scholarship 2014 Farzad Family Law Scholarship 2014 Should the right to marry for same-sex couples become a federal constitutional right by amendment to the United States Constitution or remain a State issue? The United

More information

The Power of the Bible

The Power of the Bible The Power of the Bible By Rev. Mona West, Ph.D. The Bible is a powerful book. What is more important to realize is that interpretations of the Bible are just as powerful. New Testament scholar, Mary Ann

More information

LGBT Adoptions in the US & South Africa Samantha Moore

LGBT Adoptions in the US & South Africa Samantha Moore LGBT Adoptions in the US & South Africa Samantha Introduction Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender, most commonly referred to as LGBT, have become a subject of controversy over the past decade. LGBT

More information

John Locke ( )

John Locke ( ) John Locke (1632-1704) Locke could conceivably be considered the greatest English philosopher; he was certainly one of the most influential. He made major contributions to philosophy in the areas of consciousness

More information

Men in Charge? Gender Equality and Children s Rights in Contemporary Families

Men in Charge? Gender Equality and Children s Rights in Contemporary Families International Day of Families 2015 Observance Men in Charge? Gender Equality and Children s Rights in Contemporary Families Background Note Gender equality and children s rights in family laws Fair legal

More information

Hegemony, subalternity and subjectivity

Hegemony, subalternity and subjectivity 1 di 5 13/07/2007 18.23 Hegemony, subalternity and subjectivity Kylie Smith Many words have been written about the concept of hegemony as Gramsci developed it in the Prison Notebooks, and many of these

More information

Mill s Liberal Feminism: Its Legacy and Current Criticism

Mill s Liberal Feminism: Its Legacy and Current Criticism Prolegomena 5 (2) 2006: 179 191 Mill s Liberal Feminism: Its Legacy and Current Criticism MARIANA SZAPUOVÁ Comenius University in Bratislava Faculty of Arts Department of Philosophy and the History of

More information

The IBIS Education for Change strategy states the overall objective

The IBIS Education for Change strategy states the overall objective CONCEPT PAPER: YOUTH EDUCATION & TRAINING 1 Concept Paper youth education & training Photo: Ricardo Ramirez The IBIS Education for Change strategy states the overall objective of IBIS work with education

More information

AU-7056 B.A.LLB. (First Semester) Examination -2014 Political Science I (Concept, Theories and Ideology) Model Answer

AU-7056 B.A.LLB. (First Semester) Examination -2014 Political Science I (Concept, Theories and Ideology) Model Answer AU-7056 B.A.LLB. (First Semester) Examination -2014 Political Science I (Concept, Theories and Ideology) Model Answer Prepared by: Shamshad Ansari (Asst. Professor) Choose the correct answer:- SECTION-

More information

Chapter 2 The Ethical Basis of Law and Business Management

Chapter 2 The Ethical Basis of Law and Business Management Chapter 2 The Ethical Basis of Law and Business Management Business owners and managers traditionally have had to ensure that their profitmaking activities did not exceed the ethical boundaries established

More information

Marx and the Postmodernism Debates: An Agenda for Critical Theory. By Lorraine Y. Landry. Westport, CN: Praeger Publishers, Pp. xiii+232.

Marx and the Postmodernism Debates: An Agenda for Critical Theory. By Lorraine Y. Landry. Westport, CN: Praeger Publishers, Pp. xiii+232. Marx and the Postmodernism Debates: An Agenda for Critical Theory. By Lorraine Y. Landry. Westport, CN: Praeger Publishers, 2000. Pp. xiii+232. Review by: Brian Lloyd Azcona University of New Orleans In

More information

POLITICAL SCIENCE. Department of Law and Politics. BACHELOR OF ARTS (General) POLITICAL SCIENCE. Please refer to the general regulations

POLITICAL SCIENCE. Department of Law and Politics. BACHELOR OF ARTS (General) POLITICAL SCIENCE. Please refer to the general regulations FACULTY PROFESSOR(S) R. M. Myers, B.A. (Hons), M. A., Ph.D. (Toronto) ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR(S) D. A. Jackson, B.A. (Hons), M.A. (Toronto) ASSISTANT PROFESSOR(S) N. Cruickshank, B.A. (Hons), M.A. (Wilfrid

More information

Sexual Orientation. p Sexual Orientation. By Joan Buccigrossi and Delyte Frost wetware, Inc. Rochester, NY.

Sexual Orientation. p Sexual Orientation. By Joan Buccigrossi and Delyte Frost wetware, Inc. Rochester, NY. Sexual Orientation In inclusive organizations, individuals who are gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender are able to be themselves, without fear of discrimination or recrimination. They bring their full

More information

Women and the Criminal Justice System

Women and the Criminal Justice System SECOND EDITION Women and the Criminal Justice System Katherine Stuart van Wormer University of Northern Iowa Clemens Bartollas University of Northern Iowa Boston New York San Francisco Mexico City Montreal

More information

Chapter 15. Social Contract. 15.1 Homework. 15.2 Introduction. Readings EMP 10, RTD 6, SLB 15. Study Questions :

Chapter 15. Social Contract. 15.1 Homework. 15.2 Introduction. Readings EMP 10, RTD 6, SLB 15. Study Questions : Chapter 15 Social Contract 15.1 Homework Readings EMP 10, RTD 6, SLB 15 Study Questions : 1. What would be our lives in a state of nature according to Hobbes? 2. What are the four basic facts about the

More information

Business. Democratic Socialism. Sponsoring Faculty Member: Professor Cindi Bearden. Levi Evans

Business. Democratic Socialism. Sponsoring Faculty Member: Professor Cindi Bearden. Levi Evans Business Levi Evans Democratic Socialism Sponsoring Faculty Member: Professor Cindi Bearden Levi Evans Democratic presidential primary candidate, Bernie Sanders, wants America to adopt the political and

More information

Constitutional Design

Constitutional Design Constitutional Design Q.1) Explain the following terms:- a) Preamble: It is an introductory statement in a constitution which states the reasons and guiding values of the constitution. b) Clause: Clause

More information

1/10. Descartes 2: The Cogito and the Mind

1/10. Descartes 2: The Cogito and the Mind 1/10 Descartes 2: The Cogito and the Mind Recap: last week we undertook to follow Descartes path of radical doubt in order to attempt to discover what, if anything, can be known for certain. This path

More information

The Role of Critical Race Theory in Higher Education. Payne Hiraldo

The Role of Critical Race Theory in Higher Education. Payne Hiraldo Hiraldo 53 The Role of Critical Race Theory in Higher Education Payne Hiraldo Despite the substantial impact race has in generating inequities in society and educational institutions, race continues to

More information

Review of Women Engineers in Turkey: Gender, Technology, Education and Professional Life. Author: Berna Zengin.

Review of Women Engineers in Turkey: Gender, Technology, Education and Professional Life. Author: Berna Zengin. http://genderandset.open.ac.uk Review of Women Engineers in Turkey: Gender, Technology, Education and Professional Life. Author: Berna Zengin. Reviewed by: Selda Koydemir, Chemnitz University of Technology,

More information

The Kantian Paradox. Raivydas Simenas Creighton University

The Kantian Paradox. Raivydas Simenas Creighton University The Kantian Paradox Raivydas Simenas Creighton University a) Introduction The success of Western cultural, political and especially economical development during the last two centuries not surprisingly

More information

ANNEX 6: CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORKS FOR GENDER ANALYSIS AND PLANNING

ANNEX 6: CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORKS FOR GENDER ANALYSIS AND PLANNING ANNEX 6: CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORKS FOR GENDER ANALYSIS AND PLANNING SUMMARY OF THE FRAMEWORKS 1 : The Harvard Analytical Framework; The Moser Framework; and The Women s Empowerment Framework. THE HARVARD ANALYTICAL

More information

Chapter 26 Karl Marx: Historical Materialism

Chapter 26 Karl Marx: Historical Materialism Chapter 26 Karl Marx: Historical Materialism Key Words: Marxism, Communism, class differences, base structure, super structure, labour, production, mode of production, means of production, revolution,

More information

Political Science Courses

Political Science Courses Political Science Courses CPO 2002 INTRODUCTION TO COMPARATIVE POLITICS (3) Introduction to politics in different states; comparison and analysis of representative European and non-western political systems.

More information

Gender in the Armed Forces Lessons from Norway

Gender in the Armed Forces Lessons from Norway Gender in the Armed Forces Lessons from Norway Anita Schjølset, PhD aschjolset.mil@gmail.com Former gender advisor at the Norwegian Command and Staff College Talk prepared for the Gender in Peacebuilding

More information

HIV/AIDS and Women in Japan in Statistics

HIV/AIDS and Women in Japan in Statistics HIV/AIDS and Women in Japan in Statistics Nozomi Mizushima The delay in the development of research, prevention, and care work with regard to women and HIV/AIDS has been cited as a global phenomenon. There

More information

Two Views of the Social Contract

Two Views of the Social Contract NAME: Global History III Enlightenment Two Views of the Social Contract In the 1600s, two English thinkers, Thomas Hobbes and John Locke, set forth ideas that were to become key to the Enlightenment. Both

More information

Descartes Meditations Module 3 AQA. Meditation I Things which can be called into Doubt

Descartes Meditations Module 3 AQA. Meditation I Things which can be called into Doubt Descartes Meditations Module 3 AQA Meditation I Things which can be called into Doubt Descartes rejects all his beliefs about the external world because they are doubtful and he wants to find a foundation

More information

What Is Gender-Based Violence?

What Is Gender-Based Violence? What Is Gender-Based Violence? Running Time: 3 hours Materials: Flipchart and flipchart stand/chalkboard, markers; Handout: Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women Target Audience: can

More information

Student Performance Q&A:

Student Performance Q&A: Student Performance Q&A: 2011 AP English Language and Composition Free-Response Questions The following comments on the 2011 free-response questions for AP English Language and Composition were written

More information

AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES

AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES An Introduction to Sociological Theories 1 1 AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES Introduction Humans are social beings. Whether we like it or not, nearly everything we do in our lives takes place

More information

Women s Rights and Role in Islam DePaul Law School, March 7, 2005. Asma Barlas

Women s Rights and Role in Islam DePaul Law School, March 7, 2005. Asma Barlas Women s Rights and Role in Islam DePaul Law School, March 7, 2005 Asma Barlas I would like to thank the Muslim Law Students Association, specially Asif Sayani and Amany Ezeldin, for inviting me to speak

More information

more specific models is needed here. Finally, three emphases are highlighted for future research: participation in voluntary work must be placed in a

more specific models is needed here. Finally, three emphases are highlighted for future research: participation in voluntary work must be placed in a SUMMARY This third part of the series 'Civil society and voluntary work' presents secondary analyses of a number of Dutch and international databases. This makes it possible, following the theoretical

More information

Horizontal and vertical segmentation indicates whether the traditional distribution of people across the labour market has started to change.

Horizontal and vertical segmentation indicates whether the traditional distribution of people across the labour market has started to change. There are several factors which make EEO (Equal Employment Opportunities) both an interesting and a difficult topic. There are many different concepts and these concepts are often used in different ways

More information

Plan for Masters Degree in Social Work

Plan for Masters Degree in Social Work Plan for Masters Degree in Social Work 009 1- General Rules and Conditions: A- This plan conforms to the regulations of programs of graduate studies. B-. Areas of specialty accepted for admission according

More information

Introduction. Hegel s Trinitarian Claim

Introduction. Hegel s Trinitarian Claim Hegel s Trinitarian Claim G. W. F. Hegel is one of the greatest thinkers of the Greek-Western trinitarian tradition. He said that the theologians of his day had effective ly abandoned the doctrine of the

More information

REVIEW of Marxian Political Economy: Theory, History and Contemporary Relevance

REVIEW of Marxian Political Economy: Theory, History and Contemporary Relevance REVIEW of Marxian Political Economy: Theory, History and Contemporary Relevance by Bob Milward. London: Macmillan. 2000. 219 pages. by Fred Moseley, Mount Holyoke College This book is intended as a textbook

More information

Baldry, C., P. Bain, P. Taylor, J. Hyman, D. Scholarios, A. Marks, A. Watson, K. Gilbert, G.

Baldry, C., P. Bain, P. Taylor, J. Hyman, D. Scholarios, A. Marks, A. Watson, K. Gilbert, G. Baldry, C., P. Bain, P. Taylor, J. Hyman, D. Scholarios, A. Marks, A. Watson, K. Gilbert, G. Gall and D. Bunzel The Meaning of Work in the New Economy. Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan 2007.

More information

Solidarity-Based Cooperation Networks

Solidarity-Based Cooperation Networks Solidarity-Based Cooperation Networks Euclides André Mance IFiL, Curitiba, 11/2002 Definition The concept of network is specific to the Complexity theory, with notions that are also taken from cybernetics,

More information

Gender Based Violence

Gender Based Violence Gender Based Violence Background and problem statement Background Gender-based violence (GBV) is violence that is directed against a person on the basis of gender (European Institute for Gender Equality,

More information

RADICAL FEMINISM S OPPOSITION TO LIBERTY

RADICAL FEMINISM S OPPOSITION TO LIBERTY Vol 6 The Western Australian Jurist 259 RADICAL FEMINISM S OPPOSITION TO LIBERTY BIANCA L TALBOT * I INTRODUCTION The radical feminist, Kelly Weisberg, stated that the rule of law is too patriarchal and

More information

Who is the superior?

Who is the superior? Worksheet 1: Who is the superior? Aim: Boys have an opportunity to realize the differences in evaluating attributes connected with female and male roles. Boys know traditional gender roles and stereotypes

More information

GENDER BASED VIOLENCE AT THE WORKPLACE

GENDER BASED VIOLENCE AT THE WORKPLACE GENDER BASED VIOLENCE AT THE WORKPLACE By MILIMO KAPOMBE UNIVERSITY OF ZAMBIA AND ALLIED WORKERS UNION (UNZAAWU) INTRODUCTION Greetings to everyone who have made it to AFRECON 2015 in Botswana. My names

More information

Effects of Workplace Composition. on Annual Wage of the Standard Employees in Japan. Yumiko Murao

Effects of Workplace Composition. on Annual Wage of the Standard Employees in Japan. Yumiko Murao Effects of Workplace Composition on Annual Wage of the Standard Employees in Japan Yumiko Murao Toyo University 1. Introduction 1.1 Previous research In the labour market, various kinds of social resources

More information

Chapter 2:Sociology s Family Tree: Theories and Theorists

Chapter 2:Sociology s Family Tree: Theories and Theorists Chapter 2:Sociology s Family Tree: Theories and Theorists 1 What is a Theory? A set of assumptions that attempts to provide a plausible explanation of cause-and-effect (causal) relationships among a group

More information

Are Skill Selective Immigration Policies Just?

Are Skill Selective Immigration Policies Just? Are Skill Selective Immigration Policies Just? Douglas MacKay c 2014 Douglas MacKay Are Skill Selective Immigration Policies Just? Many high income countries have skill selective immigration policies,

More information

Characteristics of African American Families

Characteristics of African American Families Characteristics of African American Families Based on the Work of Oscar Barbarin, PhD Professor University of North Carolina School of Social Work Presentation developed by Jenny Nicholson, MSW student

More information

Program Level Learning Outcomes for the Department of Philosophy Page 1

Program Level Learning Outcomes for the Department of Philosophy Page 1 Page 1 PHILOSOPHY General Major I. Depth and Breadth of Knowledge. A. Will be able to recall what a worldview is and recognize that we all possess one. B. Should recognize that philosophy is most broadly

More information

In this paper I seek to articulate the potential basis for a philosophy of poetry,

In this paper I seek to articulate the potential basis for a philosophy of poetry, What is the Poetic Experience? An Argument in the Philosophy of Poetry Introduction In this paper I seek to articulate the potential basis for a philosophy of poetry, placing it on a par with other philosophies,

More information

A History of Multicultural Education in the USA: Origins, Approaches, and Misconceptions Rasit Celik [1]

A History of Multicultural Education in the USA: Origins, Approaches, and Misconceptions Rasit Celik [1] A History of Multicultural Education in the USA: Origins, Approaches, and Misconceptions Rasit Celik [1] [1] Philosophy of Education School of Education Indiana University ABSTRACT Multicultural education

More information

Hollywood, Superheroes and IR: The Crisis of Security Concepts and Why Metropolis and Gotham Are Not Lost Yet

Hollywood, Superheroes and IR: The Crisis of Security Concepts and Why Metropolis and Gotham Are Not Lost Yet Hollywood, Superheroes and IR: The Crisis of Security Concepts and Why Metropolis and Gotham Are Not Lost Yet - Julian Schmid, University of Vienna Film in international politics Whether and how popular

More information

Honours programme in Philosophy

Honours programme in Philosophy Honours programme in Philosophy Honours Programme in Philosophy The Honours Programme in Philosophy offers students a broad and in-depth introduction to the main areas of Western philosophy and the philosophy

More information

Being a Female Engineering Student: Lessons from the Industrial Engineering

Being a Female Engineering Student: Lessons from the Industrial Engineering Being a Female Engineering Student: Lessons from the Industrial Engineering Celina P. Leão 1, Carina Pimentel 2, Cristina S. Rodrigues 3 Abstract - The increasing of women engineers participation in a

More information

Violence against women in Egypt 1

Violence against women in Egypt 1 United Nations Statistical Commission ESA/STAT/AC.193/2 United Nations Statistics Division Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía de México November 2009 Meeting of the Friends of the Chair of the

More information

TRINITY EVANGELICAL DIVINITY SCHOOL THE GOAL OF MISSIONS: HUMANIZATION OR SALVATION?

TRINITY EVANGELICAL DIVINITY SCHOOL THE GOAL OF MISSIONS: HUMANIZATION OR SALVATION? TRINITY EVANGELICAL DIVINITY SCHOOL THE GOAL OF MISSIONS: HUMANIZATION OR SALVATION? JOEL JUPP DEERFIELD, IL NOVEMBER 11, 2010 In the context of Christian mission, our goal determines purpose, activity,

More information

Same-Sex Marriage: Breeding Ground for Logical Fallacies

Same-Sex Marriage: Breeding Ground for Logical Fallacies 1 Same-Sex Marriage: Breeding Ground for Logical Fallacies One cannot offer any disagreement that same-sex marriage has gained a great deal of publicity in the recent years. While the issue played a large

More information

Ruled-based Approaches to Ethics: Deontology

Ruled-based Approaches to Ethics: Deontology Ruled-based Approaches to Ethics: Deontology Lawrence M. Hinman, Ph.D. Professor of Philosophy University of San Diego Larry@EthicsMatters.net Updated September 24, 2013 9/24/13 (c) Lawrence M. Hinman

More information

Gender Identity and Expression and Simone de Beauvoir. One is not born, but rather becomes, woman. 1 This is perhaps the line most

Gender Identity and Expression and Simone de Beauvoir. One is not born, but rather becomes, woman. 1 This is perhaps the line most Gender Identity and Expression and Simone de Beauvoir One is not born, but rather becomes, woman. 1 This is perhaps the line most often quoted from Simone de Beauvoir s groundbreaking work The Second Sex,

More information

OBJECTIVE ORIGINS SCIENCE POLICY

OBJECTIVE ORIGINS SCIENCE POLICY PROPOSAL OBJECTIVE ORIGINS SCIENCE POLICY BE IT RESOLVED THAT THE FOLLOWING POLICY IS HEREBY PROPOSED FOR USE WITHIN THE DARBY SCHOOL DISTRICT: Proposal: Objective Origins Science Policy Science is an

More information

THEORIES OF SOCIOLOGY

THEORIES OF SOCIOLOGY THEORIES OF SOCIOLOGY Creating Sociological Theory Everyone creates theories to help them make sense of what they experience. Common-sense theories Tend to be less systematic Sociological theories: specifically

More information

AP UNITED STATES HISTORY 2015 SCORING GUIDELINES

AP UNITED STATES HISTORY 2015 SCORING GUIDELINES AP UNITED STATES HISTORY 2015 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 3 Evaluate the extent to which the Mexican-American War (1846 1848) marked a turning point in the debate over slavery in the United States, analyzing

More information

Why are there so few women in the tech industry in Oslo, Norway?

Why are there so few women in the tech industry in Oslo, Norway? Why are there so few women in the tech industry in Oslo, Norway? I believe that these kinds of networks, such as Oda- Nettverk and others, give a united strength and community feeling, and there is obviously

More information

Gender Sensitive Data Gathering Methods

Gender Sensitive Data Gathering Methods Gender Sensitive Data Gathering Methods SABINA ANOKYE MENSAH GENDER AND DEVELOPMENT COORDINATOR GRATIS FOUNDATION, TEMA, GHANA sabinamensah@hotmail.com Learning objectives By the end of this lecture, participants:

More information

Aristotle and citizenship: the responsibilities of the citizen in the Politics

Aristotle and citizenship: the responsibilities of the citizen in the Politics artificialhorizon.org Aristotle and citizenship: the responsibilities of the citizen in the Politics RALPH HARRINGTON Aristotle s Politics is an investigation of how people live in political communities.

More information

The Nightcleaners (part one) Rethinking political cinema

The Nightcleaners (part one) Rethinking political cinema JUMP CUT A REVIEW OF CONTEMPORARY MEDIA The Nightcleaners (part one) Rethinking political cinema by Claire Johnston from Jump Cut, no. 12/13, 1976, pp. 55-56 Reprinted from Spare Rib, No. 40, Oct. 1975.

More information

I N F O R M A T I O N B U L L E T I N. Considerations for Sexual Assault Coordination

I N F O R M A T I O N B U L L E T I N. Considerations for Sexual Assault Coordination I N F O R M A T I O N B U L L E T I N Considerations for Sexual Assault Coordination This information bulletin is based on the information available at April 4, 2002. In addition to the sources cited,

More information

Modern Political Thought

Modern Political Thought Professor Andrew Poe MW 10-11:20 in Webster 217 Office Hours: Wednesdays, 3-5PM in 202 Clark House Email: apoe@amherst.edu Phone: 413.542.5459 Political Science 335 Modern Political Thought -Introduction-

More information

Chapter Five Socialization. Human Development: Biology and Society. Social Isolation

Chapter Five Socialization. Human Development: Biology and Society. Social Isolation Chapter Five Socialization Socialization is the lifelong process of social interaction through which individuals acquire a self-identify and the physical, mental, and social skills needed for survival

More information

Mark Scheme (Results) Summer 2010

Mark Scheme (Results) Summer 2010 Mark Scheme (Results) Summer 2010 GCE GCE Government & Politics (6GP04) Paper 4B Edexcel Limited. Registered in England and Wales No. 4496750 Registered Office: One90 High Holborn, London WC1V 7BH Edexcel

More information

Chapter 3. Doing Cultural Anthropology

Chapter 3. Doing Cultural Anthropology Chapter 3 Doing Cultural Anthropology Chapter Outline Ethnography and Fieldwork Ethnography in Historical Perspective Changing Directions in Ethnography Ethnographic Data and Cross Cultural Comparisons

More information

1. As wrong do so because they re seen as morally wrong

1. As wrong do so because they re seen as morally wrong April 8, 2004 DIVORCE I Read: Coontz: Putting Divorce in Perspective. 97-108 Hackstaff: Divorce Culture: A Quest for Relational Equality in Marriage Lawson and Thompson: Divorce and Fatherhood Mason, Harrison-Jay,

More information

Position Paper: IBIS and Rights Based Approaches Approved by the Board of IBIS 18.12.07

Position Paper: IBIS and Rights Based Approaches Approved by the Board of IBIS 18.12.07 Position Paper: IBIS and Rights Based Approaches Approved by the Board of IBIS 18.12.07 1. Introduction Through Vision 2012, IBIS works to promote human rights and a Rights Based Approach to development.

More information

19th Century Feminist View of Contraception and Motherhood in Kate Chopin s The. Awakening

19th Century Feminist View of Contraception and Motherhood in Kate Chopin s The. Awakening Cooper 1 Caroline Cooper ENGL 305 Professor Pennington November 23, 2014 19th Century Feminist View of Contraception and Motherhood in Kate Chopin s The Awakening In America during the Nineteenth-century

More information

Chapter 12: Gender and Sexuality

Chapter 12: Gender and Sexuality Chapter 12: Gender and Sexuality Objective s for Today s Class: The difference between sex and gender Influences on gender Gender roles and stereotypes WHAT DO WE MEAN BY GENDER? Sex: Designates the biological

More information