Excel Introduction

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1 Excel Introduction

2 Table of Contents Introduction... 1 Starting Excel... 1 Layout... 1 Ribbon... 3 Quick Access Toolbar... 3 Mini Toolbar... 4 File tab... 4 Formula Bar... 4 Overview of Workbooks... 5 Creating Workbooks... 5 Closing Workbooks... 5 Opening Workbooks... 6 Working with Worksheets... 7 Selecting Worksheets... 7 Navigating Between Worksheets... 7 Renaming Worksheets... 7 Inserting Worksheets... 8 Deleting Worksheets... 8 Moving Worksheets... 8 Copying Worksheets... 8 Inserting Rows and Columns... 9 Deleting Rows and Columns Changing Row Heights or Column Widths Hiding and Unhiding Rows and Columns Moving Around and Making Selections Moving Around Worksheets Selecting Cells, Rows, and Columns Entering Data Entering Text Entering Numbers Entering Dates and Times Editing Data Replacing Data Deleting Data Moving and Copying Cells Using Paste Special Undoing and Redoing Changes Formatting Cells and Cell Contents... 15

3 Adding Cell Borders Formatting Numbers Positioning Cell Contents Aligning Data Rotating Data Wrapping Data Merging Cells Working with Comments Adding Comments Editing or Deleting Comments Displaying and Hiding Comments Working with Views Switching Views Changing the Zoom Level Freezing Panes Splitting the Workbook Window Changing the Page Layout Changing the Page Margins Changing the Page Orientation Setting a Print Area Adjusting Page Breaks Scaling Worksheets Printing Gridlines Previewing and Print Worksheets... 25

4 Introduction Microsoft Excel is a spreadsheet program that is used to manage, analyse, and present data. It includes many powerful tools that can be used to organize and manipulate large amounts of data, perform complex calculations, create professional-looking charts, enhance the appearance of worksheets, and more. This handout provides an overview of the Excel 2013 user interface and covers how to perform basic tasks such as starting and exiting the program; creating, saving, opening, and closing workbooks; selecting cells; entering and editing data; formatting text and numbers; positioning cell contents; applying cell styles; and getting help. Starting Excel You can start Excel 2013 from the Start menu (in Windows 7) or by double-clicking an existing Excel file. When you start the program without opening a specific file, the Start screen appears, prompting you to open an existing workbook or create a new workbook. To start Excel 2013 from the Start menu: 1. Click the Start button, click All Programs, click Microsoft Office 2013, and then click Excel The Start screen appears (see Figure 1). 2. In the right pane, click Blank workbook. A new, blank workbook opens in the program window. Figure 1: Start screen Layout All the Microsoft Office 2013 programs share a common user interface so you can apply basic techniques that you learn in one program to other programs. The Excel window is easy to navigate and simple to use (see Figure 2 and Table 1). 1

5 Figure 2: Window layout Table 1: Elements Name Title bar Description Appears at the top of the program window and displays the name of the workbook and the program. The buttons on the right side of the Title bar are used to get help; change the display of the Ribbon; and minimize, restore, maximize, and close the program window. Quick Access toolbar Ribbon Formula bar Name box Appears on the left side of the Title bar and contains frequently used commands that are independent of the tab displayed on the Ribbon. Extends across the top of the program window, directly below the Title bar, and consists of a set of tabs, each of which contains groups of related commands. Appears below the Ribbon and displays the data or formula stored in the active cell. It can also be used to enter or edit cell contents. Appears on the left side of the Formula bar and displays the active cell address or the name of the selected cell, range, or object. Workbook window Appears below the Formula bar and displays a portion of the active worksheet. Sheet tab Scroll bars Status bar Each worksheet has a tab that appears below the workbook window and displays the name of the worksheet. Appear along the right side and bottom of the workbook window and enable you to scroll through the worksheet. Appears at the bottom of the program window and displays the status of Excel (such as Ready). The tools on the right side of the Status bar can be used to display the worksheet in a variety of views and to change the zoom level. 2

6 Ribbon The Ribbon is designed to help you quickly find the commands that you need to complete a task. It consists of a set of task-specific tabs (see Table 2). The standard tabs are visible at all times. Other tabs, known as contextual tabs, appear only when you create or select certain types of objects (such as images or charts). These tabs are indicated by coloured headers and contain commands that are specific to working with the selected object. You can collapse the Ribbon by clicking the Collapse the Ribbon button on the right side of the Ribbon (see Figure 3) or by double-clicking the current tab. When the Ribbon is collapsed, only the tab names are visible. You can expand the Ribbon by double-clicking any tab. Figure 3: Collapse ribbon button Table 2: Ribbon Tabs Name File Home Insert Page Layout Formulas Data Review View Description Displays the Backstage view which contains commands related to managing files and customizing the program. Contains the most frequently used commands. The Home tab is active by default. Contains commands related to all the items that you can insert into a worksheet. Contains commands that affect the overall appearance and layout of a worksheet. Contains commands used to insert formulas, define names, and audit formulas. Contains commands used to manage data and import or connect to external data. Contains commands used to check spelling, track changes, add comments, and protect worksheets. Contains commands related to changing the view and other aspects of the display. Quick Access Toolbar The Quick Access toolbar provides one-click access to commonly used commands and options. By default, it is located on the left side of the Title bar and displays the Save, Undo, and Redo buttons (see Figure 4). You can change the location of the Quick Access toolbar as well as customize it to include commands that you use frequently. Figure 4: Quick Access Toolbar To add a command to the Quick Access toolbar: On the Ribbon, right-click the command that you want to add, and then click Add to Quick Access Toolbar on the shortcut menu. To remove a command from the Quick Access toolbar: On the Quick Access toolbar, right-click the command that you want to remove, and then click Remove from Quick Access Toolbar on the shortcut menu. NOTE: Clicking the arrow on the right side of the Quick Access toolbar displays a menu which includes additional commands and options that can be used to customize the toolbar. A check mark next to an item indicates that the item is selected. 3

7 Mini Toolbar The Mini toolbar provides quick access to frequently used commands and appears whenever you right-click a cell or an object (see Figure 5). Figure 5: Mini Toolbar File tab The File tab is used to display the view which contains all the commands related to managing files and customizing the program. It provides an easy way to create, open, save, print, share, export, and close files; view and update file properties; set permissions; set program options; and more. Commands available are organised into pages which you can display by clicking the page tabs in the left pane. Figure 6: Info Page of the Backstage View Formula Bar The Formula bar displays the contents of the active cell and can be used to enter or edit cell contents. The Formula bar contains three buttons (see Figure 7). The Insert Function button is always available, but the other two buttons are active only while you are entering or editing data in a cell. Clicking the Cancel button cancels the changes you make in the cell, which is the same as pressing the Esc key. Clicking the Enter button completes the changes you make in the cell, which is the same as pressing the Enter key. Clicking the Insert Function button opens a dialog box that helps you construct formulas. Figure 7: Formula Bar 4

8 Overview of Workbooks An Excel file is called a workbook. Each new workbook contains one blank worksheet (see Figure 8). You can add additional worksheets or delete existing worksheets as needed. By default, a new workbook is named Book1 and the worksheet it contains is named Sheet1. Each worksheet consists of rows (numbered 1 through 1,048,576) and columns (labelled A through XFD). The box formed by the intersection of a row and a column is called a cell. Cells are used to store data. Each cell is identified by its address which consists of its column letter and row number (e.g., cell A1 is the cell in the first column and first row). A group of cells is called a range. A range is identified by the addresses of the cells in the upper-left and lower-right comers of the selected block of cells, separated by a colon (e.g., A1:C10). Only one cell can be active at a time. The active cell has a green border around it and its address appears in the Name box on the left side of the Formula bar. The row and column headers of the active cell appear in a different colour to make it easier to identify. Figure 8: Worksheet layout Creating Workbooks When you start Excel and click Blank workbook on the Start screen, a new workbook opens in the program window, ready for you to enter your data. You can also create a new workbook while Excel is running. Each new workbook displays a default name (such as Book1, Book2, and so on) until you save it with a more meaningful name. To create a new workbook: Click the File tab > New > Blank workbook. NOTE: You can also create a new workbook by pressing Ctrl+N. Closing Workbooks When you finish working on a workbook, you can close it, but keep the program window open to work on more workbooks. If the workbook contains any unsaved changes, you will be prompted to save the changes before closing it. To close a workbook without exiting Excel: Click the File tab, and then click Close. Or, press Ctrl+W. 5

9 Opening Workbooks You can locate and open an existing workbook from the Start screen when Excel 2013 starts or from the Open page of the File tab. The Start screen and the Open page also display a list of recently used workbooks which you can quickly open by clicking them. Each workbook opens in its own window, making it easier to work on two workbooks at once. To open a workbook: Click the File tab, and then click Open. Or, press Ctrl+O. The page displays a list of recently used workbooks in the right pane. If the workbook you want is in the Recent Workbooks list, click its name to open it. OR Click Computer in the centre pane, and then click the Browse button or a recent folder in the right pane (see Figure 9). In the Open dialog box, locate and select the file that you want to open, and then click the Open button. Figure 9: Open Page NOTE: When you open a workbook created with earlier versions of Excel, the workbook opens in compatibility mode (indicated on the Title bar) with some of the new features of Excel 2013 disabled. You can easily convert the workbook to the Excel 2013 file format by clicking the Convert button on the Info page of the File tab (see Figure 10). Figure 10: Convert Button on the Info Page 6

10 Working with Worksheets A worksheet, also known as a sheet, is where you enter data in Excel. A workbook can contain one or more worksheets. Each worksheet has a tab located at the bottom of the workbook window. The active worksheet is the one that is currently displayed (see Figure 31). Figure 11: Sheet tabs Selecting Worksheets In order to work with a worksheet, you must first select (or activate) it. When you want to work with more than one worksheet at a time, you can select multiple adjacent or nonadjacent worksheets. When multiple worksheets are selected, the word [Group] appears in the Title bar at the top of the program window. To select a worksheet: 1. Click the tab of the worksheet that you want to select. To select multiple worksheets: 1. Click the tab of the first worksheet that you want to select a. To select adjacent sheets hold down the Shift key, and then click the tab of the last worksheet that you want to select. b. To select random sheets hold down the CTRL key and click the tabs required. NOTE: To cancel the selection of multiple worksheets, click the tab of any unselected worksheet, or right-click the tab of any selected worksheet, and then click Ungroup Sheets on the shortcut menu. Navigating Between Worksheets If a workbook contains many worksheets, all the sheet tabs may not be visible. You can use the tab scrolling buttons located at the bottom of the workbook window to display hidden sheet tabs (see Figure 32). These buttons become available only when there are more sheet tabs than can fit in the tab area. Click the Previous button or Next button to scroll one sheet at a time. Hold down the Ctrl key and click the Previous button to scroll to the first sheet. Hold down the Ctrl key and click the Next button to scroll to the last sheet. Figure 12: Sheet scrolling buttons NOTE: When you right-click any of the tab scrolling buttons, a box opens and displays a list of all the worksheets in the workbook. You can activate a worksheet by selecting it, and then clicking the OK button. Renaming Worksheets Each worksheet has a name that appears on its tab at the bottom of the workbook window. By default, the worksheets are named Sheet, followed by a number (Sheet1, Sheet2, etc.). You can replace the default worksheet names with descriptive names to help you easily locate data in a workbook. To rename a worksheet: 2. Double-click the tab of the worksheet that you want to rename. Or, right-click the sheet tab, and then click Rename on the shortcut menu. The worksheet name is selected on the tab. 3. Type a new name, and then press the Enter key. The sheet tab size adjusts to fit the name. 7

11 NOTE: Worksheet names cannot exceed 31 characters and cannot be blank. Each worksheet name in a workbook must be unique. Inserting Worksheets By default, each new workbook contains one worksheet. You can insert additional worksheets as needed. To insert a worksheet: 1. Click the tab of the worksheet to the left of which you want to insert a new worksheet. 2. Click the New sheet button located on the right side of the last visible tab (see Figure 33). This inserts a new worksheet to the right of the active sheet. Figure 13: New sheet button Deleting Worksheets If you no longer need a worksheet, you can delete it from the workbook. Deleting a worksheet cannot be undone. To delete a worksheet, right-click the sheet tab, and then click Delete on the shortcut menu. Moving Worksheets You can move a worksheet to another location in a workbook. This allows you to reorganize the worksheets in a workbook. For example, you might want to arrange worksheets in chronological order or in order of importance, or you might want to group similar worksheets together. To move a worksheet, click and hold the mouse button on a worksheet tab and drag the tab to the desired location. As you drag, the mouse pointer changes to a small sheet and a small black arrow indicates where the worksheet will be moved too when you release the mouse button (see Figure 34). Figure 14: Move sheet icon Copying Worksheets You can make a copy of a worksheet in a workbook. This is useful if you need to create a new worksheet that is similar to an existing worksheet in the workbook. When you copy a worksheet, the new copy is given the name of the original worksheet followed by a sequential number in parentheses. For example, making a copy of Sheet1 results in a new worksheet named Sheet1 (2). To copy a worksheet: 1. Right click the tab of the worksheet that you want to copy, and then click Move or Copy on the shortcut menu. The Move or Copy dialog box opens (see Figure 35). 2. In the Before sheet box, click the name of the worksheet to the left of which you want the selected worksheet to be copied. 3. Select the Create a copy check box. 4. Click the OK button. 8

12 Figure 15: Move or Copy Dialog Box NOTE: You can also copy a worksheet by holding down the Ctrl key and dragging its tab to the desired location. As you drag, the mouse pointer changes to a small sheet with a plus sign on it and a small black arrow indicates where the worksheet will be copied when you release the mouse button (see Figure 36 and Figure 37). Figure 16: Copying a Worksheet Figure 17: Copied WorksheetWorking with Rows and Columns Although the number of rows and columns in a worksheet is fixed, you can still insert rows and columns if you need to make room for additional data, or delete rows and columns if the data they contain is no longer needed. These operations do not change the total number of rows and columns in the worksheet. You can also resize or hide rows and columns to meet your needs. The Cells group on the Home tab of the Ribbon contains commands that can be used to easily insert, delete, or format rows and columns (see Figure 25). Figure 18: Cell options Inserting Rows and Columns You can insert rows and columns into a worksheet to add empty space or additional data. Rows are inserted above the selected row; columns are inserted to the left of the selected column. To insert a row or column: 1. Select the row below or column left of where you want to insert a new row. 2. On the Home tab, in the Cells group, click the top Insert icon or right click on the selected row or column and select Insert (see Figure 26). 9

13 Figure 19: Insert options Deleting Rows and Columns You can delete rows and columns from a worksheet to close up empty space or remove unwanted data. Before deleting a row or column, you should make sure that it does not contain any data you want to keep. To delete a row or column: 1. Select the row or column that you want to delete. 2. On the Home tab, in the Cells group, click the top Delete icon, or right click on the selected row or column and select Delete (see Figure 27). Figure 20: Delete option Changing Row Heights or Column Widths Excel automatically adjusts row heights to accommodate the tallest entry in the row. You can, however, manually increase or decrease row heights or column widths as needed. The default row height is 15 points and column with is 72 points. You can specify a row height of 0 to 409 points and a column width of 0 to 255 characters. If you set a row/column height to 0 points it is hidden. To change a row height or column width: 1. Select the row or column that you want to resize. 2. On the Home tab, in the Cells group, click the Format button, and then click Row Height or Column Width (see Figure 28). Or, right-click the row or column header, and then click Row Height/Column Width on the shortcut menu. 3. In the Height dialog box, type a value in the Row height box, and then click the OK button. Figure 21: Row/column options NOTE: You can also resize a row/column by dragging the bottom edge/right edge of the row/column header down/right to increase or up/left to decrease (see Figure 29). Double-clicking the header changes the row height to automatically fit its contents. 10

14 Figure 22: Drag height indicator Hiding and Unhiding Rows and Columns You can hide rows and columns within a worksheet. Any data or calculations in hidden rows and columns are still available through references; they are simply hidden from view. When you need the data, you can unhide rows and columns. Hidden rows and columns do not appear in a printout. To hide a row or column: 1. Right click on the row or column header that you want to hide. 2. Select Hide (see Figure 30). NOTE: To unhide a row or column select the row above and below or column left and right of the hidden row/column. Right click and select Unhide. Figure 23: Hide/Unhide option Moving Around and Making Selections This section covers how to perform basic tasks such as moving around worksheets and selecting cells, rows, and columns. Moving Around Worksheets There are various ways to navigate through a worksheet. Using the mouse and the scroll bars, you can scroll through the worksheet in any direction. Using the keyboard, you can move from cell to cell, move up or down one page at a time, or move to the first or last used cell in the worksheet (see Table 3). You can also navigate to a specific cell in the worksheet by entering its address in the Name box. NOTE: Scrolling with the mouse does not change the location of the active cell. To change the active cell, you must click a new cell after scrolling. Table 3: Navigation Keyboard Shortcuts Key Action Down arrow or Enter Moves the active cell one cell down. Up arrow or Shift+Enter Moves the active cell one cell up. Right arrow or Tab Moves the active cell one cell to the right. Left arrow or Shift+Tab Moves the active cell one cell to the left. Page Down Moves the active cell down one page. Page Up Moves the active cell up one page. Alt+Page Down Moves the active cell right one page. Alt+Page Up Moves the active cell left one page. Ctrl+Home Moves the active cell to cell A 1. Ctrl+End Moves the active cell to the last used cell in the worksheet. 11

15 Selecting Cells, Rows, and Columns In order to work with a cell, you must first select it. When you want to work with more than one cell at a time, you can quickly select ranges, rows, columns, or the entire worksheet. To select a single cell: Click the desired cell (see Figure 11). Figure 24: Active Cell To select a range of cells: 1. Click the first cell that you want to include in the range, hold down the Shift key, and then click the last cell in the range (see Figure 12). Or, drag from the first cell in the range to the last cell. NOTE: When a range is selected, every cell in the range is highlighted, except for the active cell. You can deselect a range by pressing any arrow key or by clicking any cell in the worksheet. To select random cells: 2. Select the first cell or range, hold down the Ctrl key, and then select the other cells (see Figure 13). Figure 25: Selected Range Figure 26: Selected Nonadjacent Ranges To select a single row or column: 3. Click the header of the row or column (Letter or number) that you want to select (see Figure 14 and Figure 15). NOTE: When a row or column is selected, every cell in the row or column is highlighted, except for the active cell. You can deselect a row or column by pressing any arrow key or by clicking any cell in the worksheet. 12

16 Figure 27: Selected Row Figure 28: Selected Column To select multiple rows or columns: 1. Click the header of the first row or column that you want to select, hold down the Shift key, and then click the header of the last row or column. Or, drag across the headers of the rows or columns that you want to select. Or, hold down the Ctrl key, and then click the headers of the rows or columns that you want to select. To select all cells in a worksheet: 4. Click the Select All button in the upper-left comer of the worksheet between A and 1. Or, press Ctrl+A. Entering Data You can add data by entering it directly in a cell or by using the Formula bar. A cell can contain a maximum of 32,767 characters and can hold any of three basic types of data: text, numbers, or formulas. NOTE: If you make a mistake while entering data, simply press the Backspace key to delete all or a portion of your entry and enter the correct data. Entering Text You can enter text in a worksheet to serve as labels for values, headings for columns, or instructions about the worksheet. Text is defined as any combination of letters and numbers. Text automatically aligns to the left in a cell. If you enter text that is longer than its column's current width, the excess characters appear in the next cell to the right, as long as that cell is empty. If the adjacent cell is not empty, the long text entry appears truncated. The characters are not actually deleted and will appear if the width of the column is adjusted to accommodate the long text entry. NOTE: To enter a line break in a cell, press Alt+Enter. Entering Numbers Numeric entries contain only numbers and are automatically aligned to the right in a cell. Numbers can exist as independent values, or they can be used in formulas to calculate other values. You can enter numbers in multiple ways (such as 5, 5.15, -10, 20% or $20.99). NOTE: A number that does not fit within a column is displayed as a series of pound signs (#####). To accommodate the number, increase the column width. 13

17 Entering Dates and Times Excel treats dates and times as special types of numeric values. To enter a date: 5. Type the month, day, and year, with each number separated by a forward slash (/) or a hyphen (-), and then press the Enter key. To enter a time: 6. Type the hour, a colon (:), and the minutes, press the Spacebar, type a for A.M. or p for P.M., and then press the Enter key or type the time in 24hr format. (13:00 for 1:00pm) Editing Data If a cell contains a long entry and you only want to change a few characters, it is faster to edit the data than to retype the entire entry. You can edit the contents of a cell directly in the cell or by using the Formula bar. To edit data: Double-click the cell that contains the data you want to edit. The cursor (a blinking vertical line) appears in the cell in the location that you double-clicked. To insert characters, click where you want to make changes, and then type the new characters. NOTE: You can also move the cursor by pressing the Home, End, or arrow keys. To delete characters, click where you want to make changes, and then press the Backspace or Delete key. NOTE: Pressing the Backspace key deletes the character to the left of the cursor; pressing the Delete key deletes the character to the right of the cursor. When you are finished, press the Enter key. NOTE: If you are editing data and decide not to keep your edits, press the Esc key to return the cell to its previous state. Replacing Data You can replace the entire contents of a cell with new data. Any formatting applied to the cell remains in place and is applied to the new data. To replace data: Select the cell that contains the data you want to replace. Type the new data, and then press the Enter key. Deleting Data You can delete the entire contents of a cell if the data is no longer needed. Deleting data does not remove any formatting applied to the cell. To delete data: Select the cell that contains the data you want to delete, and then press the Delete key. Moving and Copying Cells When editing a worksheet, you may want to duplicate a cell in another location or remove (cut) a cell from its original location and place it in a new location. A copied cell can be pasted multiple times; a cut cell can be pasted only once. To move or copy a cell: 1. Select the cell that you want to move or copy and do one of the following: a. To move the cell, right click and select Cut or, press Ctrl+X on the keyboard. 14

18 b. To copy the cell, right click and select Copy or, press Ctrl+C. 2. Select the cell where you want to paste the cut or copied cell. a. Right click and select Paste or, press Ctrl+V. NOTE: When you cut or copy cells, a marquee (scrolling dotted line) appears around the cells. You can remove the marquee by pressing the Esc key. Using Paste Special The Paste Special command is a very useful editing feature. It allows you to control which aspect of the copied cell to paste into the target cell. For example, you can choose to paste only the copied cell's formula, only the result of the formula, only the cell's formatting, etc. You must copy to use the Paste Special command; when you cut, the Paste Special command is not available. To use the Paste Special command: 1. Select the cell that want to copy and copy as above. 2. Right click the cell where you want to paste and select the desired option from the menu (see Figure 16). NOTE: Pointing to an icon on the Paste menu displays its name in a ScreenTip. You can access more options by going to the Paste Special and expanding the side options. Figure 29: Paste Menu Undoing and Redoing Changes Whenever you make a mistake, you can easily reverse it with the Undo command. After you have undone one or more actions, the Redo command becomes available and allows you to restore the undone actions. To undo an action: 7. On the Quick Access toolbar, click the Undo button. Or, press Ctrl+Z. To redo an action: 8. On the Quick Access toolbar, click the Redo button. Or, press Ctrl+Y. Formatting Cells and Cell Contents Excel includes a number of features that can be used to easily format a worksheet. Formatting enhances the appearance of a worksheet and makes it look professional. You can format cells and cell contents by changing the font, font size, font style, and font colour, as well as adding cell borders and changing the background colour of cells (see Figure 17). Since formatting is attached to the cell and not to the entry, you can format a cell before or after you enter the data. Figure 30: Font options NOTE: The default font in new Excel workbooks is Calibri; the default font size is 11 points. 15

19 Adding Cell Borders You can add borders to any or all sides of a single cell or range. Excel includes several predefined border styles that you can use. To add cell borders: 1. Select the cell to which you want to add borders. 2. On the Home tab, in the Font group, click the Borders button to apply the most recently used border, or click the Borders arrow and select a different border from the menu (see Figure 18). NOTE: You can remove all borders from a selected cell by clicking the Borders arrow, and then clicking No Border on the menu. Figure 31: Borders Menu Formatting Numbers You can apply number formats to cells containing numbers to better reflect the type of data they represent. For example, you can display a numeric value as a percentage, currency, date or time, etc. The Number group on the Home tab of the Ribbon contains the most commonly used commands for formatting numbers (see Figure 19). Figure 32: Number options NOTE: Formatting does not change the actual value stored in a cell. The actual value is used in calculations and is displayed in the Formula bar when the cell is selected. To format numbers: 1. Select the cell that you want to format. 2. On the Home tab, in the Number group, do one of the following (see Figure 19): a. Click the Accounting Number Format button to display the number with a dollar sign, comma separators, and two decimal places. You can also select a different currency symbol by clicking the arrow and selecting the desired symbol from the menu. 16

20 b. Click the Percent Style button to convert the number to a percentage and display it with a percent sign and no decimal places. This will times the cell by 100 to create a percent. c. Click the Comma Style button to display the number with comma separators and two decimal places. NOTE: You can access additional number formats by clicking the Number Format arrow and selecting the desired option from the menu (see Figure 20). Figure 33: Number format menu To change the number of decimal places: 1. Select the cell that you want to format. 2. On the Home tab, in the Number group, do one of the following (see Figure 19): a. Click the Increase Decimal button to increase the number of decimal places. b. Click the Decrease Decimal button to decrease the number of decimal places. Positioning Cell Contents You can change the alignment, indentation, and orientation of cell contents, wrap the contents within a cell, and merge cells. The Alignment group on the Home tab of the Ribbon contains the most commonly used commands for positioning cell contents (see Figure 21). Figure 34: Alignment options Aligning Data By default, Excel aligns numbers to the right and text to the left, and all cells use bottom alignment. The Alignment group on the Home tab of the Ribbon includes six alignment buttons that can be used to change the horizontal and vertical alignment of cell contents. 17

21 The Align Left button aligns the cell contents with the left edge of the cell. The Centre button centres the cell contents horizontally within the cell. The Align Right button aligns the cell contents with the right edge of the cell. The Top Align button aligns the cell contents with the top edge of the cell. The Middle Align button centres the cell contents vertically within the cell. The Bottom Align button aligns the cell contents with the bottom edge of the cell. Rotating Data You can rotate data clockwise, counter clockwise, or vertically within a cell. This is often used to label narrow columns or to add visual impact to a worksheet. To rotate data: 1. Select the cell that contains the data you want to rotate. 2. On the Home tab, in the Alignment group, click the Orientation button and select the desired option from the menu (see Figure 22). The row height automatically adjusts to fit the rotated data (see Figure 23). Figure 35: Rotate options Figure 36: Rotated display NOTE: You can restore the data to its default orientation by clicking the Orientation button and selecting the currently selected orientation. Wrapping Data Wrapping displays data on multiple lines within a cell. The number of wrapped lines depends on the width of the column and the length of the data. To wrap data: Select the cell that contains the data you want to wrap. On the Home tab, in the Alignment group, click the Wrap Text button I 1. The row height automatically adjusts to fit the wrapped data. NOTE: You can restore the data to its original format by clicking the Wrap Text button again. Merging Cells Merging combines two or more adjacent cells into one larger cell. This is a great way to create labels that span several columns. NOTE: If the cells you intend to merge have data in more than one cell, only the data in the upperleft cell remains after you merge the cells. To merge cells: 1. Select the cells that you want to merge. 18

22 2. On the Home tab, in the Alignment group, click the Merge & Center button to merge the selected cells into one cell and centre the data, or click the Merge & Center arrow and select one of the following options (see Figure 24): a. Merge Across: Merges each row of the selected cells into a larger cell. b. Merge Cells: Merges the selected cells into one cell. Figure 37: Merge & Center Menu NOTE: You can split a merged cell by clicking the Merge & Center arrow, and then clicking Unmerge Cells on the menu. Working with Comments Some cells in a worksheet may contain data that requires an explanation or special attention. Comments provide a way to attach this type of information to individual cells without cluttering the worksheet. You can use the commands in the Comments group on the Review tab of the Ribbon to add, edit, and delete comments, navigate between comments, and display or hide comments (see Figure 38) or by right clicking the cell and selecting the comment option. Figure 38: Comments Group on the Review Tab Adding Comments You can add a comment to any cell in a worksheet. Excel labels each new comment by using a name that is specified in the Excel Options dialog box. To add a comment: 1. Select the cell to which you want to add a comment. 2. On the Review tab, in the Comments group, click the New Comment button or, right-click the cell, and then click Insert Comment on the shortcut menu. 3. Type the comment in the Comment box (see Figure 39). 4. When finished, click any cell in the worksheet to hide the comment. A red triangle appears in the upper-right comer of the cell to indicate that it contains a comment. Figure 39: Comment box Editing or Deleting Comments You can easily edit or delete comments if you need to make any changes or no longer require them. 19

23 To edit a comment, right-click the cell, and then click Edit Comment on the shortcut menu. When finished, click any cell in the worksheet to hide the comment. To delete a comment, right-clicking the cell, and then clicking Delete Comment on the shortcut menu. Displaying and Hiding Comments By default, comments are hidden and appear only when you position the mouse pointer over a commented cell. If needed, you can display comments at all times regardless of where the mouse pointer is located. You can display or hide comments individually or all at once. To display or hide a comment: 1. Select the cell that contains the comment you want to display or hide. 2. On the Review tab, click the Show/Hide Comment button or right click and select Show/Hide Comment. NOTE: You can also click the Show All Comments button in the Comments group to display or hide all the comments in the worksheet. Working with Views Excel provides several ways in which you can view worksheets and workbooks. You can use the commands on the View tab of the Ribbon to switch to different views, change a worksheet 's zoom level, split the workbook window into panes, freeze panes, switch between open workbooks, and display multiple workbooks on the screen (see Figure 40). Figure 40: View tab Switching Views Excel offers a variety of viewing options that change how a worksheet is displayed on the screen. These views can be useful for performing various tasks (see Table 4). Table 4: Workbook Views Name Normal Page Break Preview Page Layout Custom Views Description This is the default view. If you switch to another view and return to Normal view, Excel displays page breaks. Displays a preview of where pages will break when the worksheet is printed. Use this view to easily adjust page breaks. Displays the worksheet as it will appear when printed. Use this view to see where pages begin and end, and to add headers and footers. Allows you to save the current display and print settings as a custom view that you can quickly apply in the future. To switch views: 1. On the View tab, in the Workbook Views group, click the desired view button. Or, click the view button located on the right side of the Status bar (see Figure 41). Figure 41: View status bar 20

24 Changing the Zoom Level You can zoom in to make a worksheet easier to read or zoom out to see more of the worksheet. Changing the zoom level does not affect the appearance of the printed worksheet; it only affects how the worksheet appears on the screen. You can also adjust the zoom level by using the Zoom controls on the right side of the Status bar (see Figure 42). You can drag the Zoom slider left to zoom out or right to zoom in, or click the + button or - button on either side of the slider. Figure 42: Zoom status bar Freezing Panes Freezing panes is a useful technique for keeping an area of a worksheet visible while you scroll to another area of the worksheet. You can choose to freeze just the top row, just the left column, or multiple rows and columns of a worksheet. Excel displays dark grey lines to indicate frozen rows and columns (see Figure 43). NOTE: You can freeze only rows at the top and columns on the left side of the worksheet; you cannot freeze rows and columns in the middle of the worksheet. Figure 43: Frozen Rows and Columns To freeze panes: 2. Select the cell below the row and to the right of the column that you want to freeze. 3. On the View tab, click the Freeze Panes button, and then click Freeze Panes (see Figure 44). NOTE: If any rows or columns in a worksheet are frozen, the Freeze Panes option changes to Unfreeze Panes. You can unfreeze panes by clicking the Freeze Panes button, and then clicking Unfreeze Panes. Figure 44: Freeze Panes Menu 21

25 Splitting the Workbook Window You can split the workbook window into two or four resizable panes, all with independent scroll bars. This allows you to view different parts of a worksheet at the same time. To split the workbook window: 1. Select the cell where you want to split the workbook window. 2. On the View tab, in the Window group, click the Split button. Split bars appear in the workbook window (see Figure 45). NOTE: To split the workbook window into two panes instead of four, select the first cell in the row or column where you want to create the split. Figure 45: Workbook Window with Four Panes NOTE: You can resize the panes by dragging the split bars. You can remove the panes by clicking the Split button again or by double-clicking the split bars that divide the panes. Changing the Page Layout The commands used to define the layout of a printed page are available on the Page Layout tab of the Ribbon (see Figure 46). They can be used to change the page margins and orientation, set a print area, control page breaks, adjust the scale, and specify whether or not to print gridlines. Figure 46: Page Layout tab NOTE: You can also adjust page layout settings using the Print page of the File tab. This allows you to immediately see the results in the preview pane. Changing the Page Margins Margins define the printed area on a page. They control the amount of blank space between the printed data and the top, bottom, left, and right edges of the page. You can change the page margins by selecting one of the pre-set margin settings or by setting custom margins. To change the page margins: 1. Select the worksheet for which you want to change the margins. 2. On the Page Layout tab, in the Page Setup group, click the Margins button and select the desired margin setting from the menu (see Figure 47). 3. If the margins are not what you want then click Custom Margins at the bottom of the Margins menu. 4. In the Page Setup dialog box, on the Margins tab, enter the desired values in the Top, Bottom, Left, and Right boxes, and then click the OK button. 22

26 Figure 47: Margins Menu Changing the Page Orientation In Excel, you can print a worksheet in either portrait or landscape orientation. Portrait orientation (the default) is useful for long worksheets that are not very wide; landscape orientation is useful for worksheets with many columns. Select the worksheet for which you want to change the orientation. On the Page Layout tab, click the Orientation button, and then click Portrait or Landscape. Setting a Print Area By default, Excel prints the entire worksheet. If you frequently print a specific section of a worksheet, you can set a print area that includes just that section. That way, when you print the worksheet, only that section will print. To set a print area: 1. Select the cells that you want to define as the print area. 2. On the Page Layout tab, click the Print Area button, and then click Set Print Area. The print area is outlined with a dark grey line. NOTE: You can clear the print area by clicking the Print Area button, and then clicking Clear Print Area. Adjusting Page Breaks Page breaks are dividers that break a worksheet into separate pages for printing. Excel inserts automatic page breaks based on the paper size, margin settings, and scaling options you set. You can override the automatic page breaks by inserting manual page breaks or by moving existing page breaks to another location in the worksheet. You can also remove manually-inserted page breaks or reset all page breaks back to the default. Although you can work with page breaks in Normal view, the best way to view or adjust all the page breaks in a worksheet is in Page Break Preview view. To insert a page break: 1. In Normal view, select any cell in the row below or in the column to the right of where you want the break to occur. 2. On the Page Layout tab, in the Page Setup group, click the Breaks button, and then click Insert Page Break (see Figure 45). A dark grey line appears in the worksheet indicating the location of the manual page break. 23

27 To remove a page break: 1. In Normal view, select a cell in the row below a horizontal break or in the column to the right of a vertical break. 2. On the Page Layout tab, in the Page Setup group, click the Breaks button, and then click Remove Page Break or Reset All Page Breaks. NOTE: Page breaks inserted automatically by Excel cannot be removed. To move a page break: 1. On the View tab, in the Workbook Views group, click the Page Break Preview button to switch to Page Break Preview view. NOTE: If the Welcome to Page Break Preview dialog box opens, click the OK button. To not see this dialog box every time you switch to Page Break Preview view, select the Do not show this dialog again check box before you click the OK button. 2. Drag the page break (a dashed or solid blue line) to the desired location (see Figure 48 and Figure 49). NOTE: Moving an automatic page break changes it to a manual page break. Figure 48: Automatic Page Break (Dashed Line) Figure 49: Manual Page Break (Solid Line) 3. On the View tab, in the Workbook Views group, click the Normal button to switch back to Normal view. Scaling Worksheets Scaling allows you to adjust the size of a worksheet for printing. By default, Excel prints a worksheet at a scale of 100%. You can change the scale percentage (from 10% through 400%) to fit more or less data on a printed page. You can also adjust the scale by specifying the number of horizontal and vertical pages on which the worksheet should fit. These changes affect only the worksheet's printed appearance, not how it looks on the screen. To change the scale percentage: 1. Select the worksheet that you want to scale. 2. On the Page Layout tab, in the Scale to Fit group, enter the desired percentage in the 3. Scale box (seefigure 50). NOTE: The Width and Height controls must be set to Automatic in order to use this feature. 24

28 Figure 50: Scale to Fit Group To fit a worksheet on a specific number of pages: 1. Select the worksheet that you want to scale. 2. On the Page Layout tab, in the Scale to Fit group, do the following: a. Click the Width arrow and select the number of horizontal pages that the worksheet should take up when printed. b. Click the Height arrow and select the number of vertical pages that the worksheet should take up when printed. NOTE: The Width and Height controls are normally set to Automatic which means that the worksheet prints at full size on as many pages as necessary. Printing Gridlines Gridlines are the light grey lines that appear around cells in a worksheet. By default, gridlines are displayed on the screen, but they are not printed. You can choose to print a worksheet with gridlines the make the data easier to read on a printed page. To print gridlines: Select the worksheet that you want to print with gridlines. On the Page Layout tab, in the Sheet Options group, under Gridlines, select the Print check box. Previewing and Print Worksheets Before printing a worksheet, you can preview it to see how each page will look when printed. When you are ready to print the worksheet, you can quickly print one copy of the entire worksheet using the current printer, or you can change the default print settings before printing it. The Print page of the File tab allows you to preview a worksheet, set print options, and print the worksheet, all from one location (see Figure 51). Figure 51: Print options 25

29 To preview and print a worksheet: 1. Select the worksheet that you want to preview and print. 2. Click the File tab, and then click Print or, press Ctrl+P. The Print page view opens, displaying print settings in the centre pane and a preview of the worksheet in the right pane (see Figure 51 ). 3. To preview the worksheet, in the right pane, do the following: a. To switch pages, click the Next Page button or Previous Page button or enter a specific page number in the Current Page box. b. To view page margins, click the Show Margins button in the bottom right corner. Click the Show Margins button again to hide margins. NOTE: You can change the margins and column widths by dragging the lines and handles. 4. To change the print settings, in the centre pane, do one or more of the following: a. To change the printer, in the Printer section, click the button displaying the name of the default printer and select the desired printer from the list. b. To print multiple copies, type the number of copies you want to print in the Copies box. c. To change other settings (such as page range, collation, orientation, paper size, margins, or scaling), in the Settings section, select the desired options. 5. To print the worksheet, click the Print button. 26

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