RISK MANAGEMENT AT HERITAGE SITES A CASE STUDY OF THE PETRA WORLD HERITAGE SITE

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1 RISK MANAGEMENT AT HERITAGE SITES A CASE STUDY OF THE PETRA WORLD HERITAGE SITE RISK MANAGEMENT AT HERITAGE SITES A CASE STUDY OF THE PETRA WORLD HERITAGE SITE

2 RISK MANAGEMENT AT HERITAGE SITES: A CASE STUDY OF THE PETRA WORLD HERITAGE SITE Authors from UNESCO Amman Office Anna Paolini Azadeh Vafadari Giorgia Cesaro Authors from Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Mario Santana Quintero Koen Van Balen Ona Vileikis Consultant for the UNESCO Amman Office Leen Fakhoury

3 Published in 2012 by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 7, place de Fontenoy, Paris 07 SP, France and UNESCO Amman Office 247, Queen Rania Al-Abdullah street PO Box Amman Jordan Tel: +962 (6) Fax: +962 (6) UNESCO and Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Faculty of Engineering, Raymond Lemaire International Centre for Conservation, 2012 All rights reserved ISBN The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The ideas and opinions expressed in this publication are those of the authors; they are not necessarily those of UNESCO and do not commit the Organization. Cover photo: Petra, Tomb no. 609 UNESCO Copy editor: Curran Publishing Services Ltd Arabic translation: Lingo Shack Translation Services, Amman Cover design and printed by: Rafidi Print, Amman Printed in Jordan

4 Contents Preface and acknowledgements 5 List of figures and tables 7 List of abbreviations 9 1 Introduction Risk management methodology for heritage sites A risk management methodology for Petra The risk mapping project in Petra 13 2 Risk management at heritage sites What is risk? What is risk management? Approach and methodology Understanding and assessing values Condition assessment Risk management context assessment Risk identification Assessing the impact of the risk Possible mitigation strategies Risk evaluation Implementation of the strategy 42 3 Risk management at the Petra World Heritage site - a case study Historic and geographic context Institutional and management framework Introducing the risk management approach for Petra Mapping boundaries and outlining a buffer zone Introduction Petra Archaeological Park: boundaries and buffer zone, the general context Management and local governance in relation to boundaries and the buffer zone The Petra Archaeological Park boundaries: results of the study 62

5 3.4.5 Buffer zoning scenarios focusing on Um Sayhun/Beidha area Proposals for buffer zoning based on scenario c Application of the risk assessment at Petra Risk assessment application phases Fieldwork workflow Selection of the pilot area for the fieldwork Risk identification approaches in the pilot area Documentation Preliminary value assessment Identification of possible mitigation strategies A heritage information platform and a geographic information system for risk assessment Overall fieldwork conclusion: lessons learned from the pilot area assessment 93 4 Conclusion Desired competences Recommended assessment timeline Monitoring and evalution Information system platform Assessing risk by detecting the rate of deterioration and its relation with the stakeholders and nature of Petra 97 Appendix 1: MEGA-J site and code cards 99 Appendix 2 : MEGA-J monitoring code card with the agents of deterioration 110 Appendix 3: Petra Retrospective Inventory Report (2006) 116 Appendix 4: Example of completed MEGA-J monitoring card 118 Glossary of key terminology 121 References 123 About the authors 127 Arabic version of chapters 1 and 2 (Start from the opposite side of the book)

6 Preface and acknowledgements This publication and development of a risk management methodology is the result of the Risk Mapping Project in Petra, a project of the UNESCO Amman Office in partnership with the Raymond Lemaire International Centre for Conservation (RLICC) at the Katholieke Universiteit (KU) Leuven in Belgium and in cooperation with the Petra Development and Tourism Regional Authority (PDTRA) and the Department of Antiquities of Jordan (DoA). This collaborative project started in February 2011 for a period of fifteen months in response to the increasing risks for loss of heritage values at the site and a need for their assessment and proposing responses to reduce their impact. Petra Archaeological Park (PAP), the most significant World Heritage site in Jordan, with its unique landscape, monuments and natural gorges, is a fragile property. Further to its inherent fragile characteristics, Petra is endangered by natural and human-made threats and impacts. Lack of an implemented management plan coupled with no clear property boundaries and an absence of buffer zones as recommended by the World Heritage Committee, and weak visitor management strategies, result in major gaps in the management of the property and increasing risks to the site. Accordingly, risk assessment and research to better address the challenges of the management of Petra World Heritage site have been identified as the most appropriate tools for mitigation of risks and protection of the values of the property. This publication examines a systematic approach in order to identify threats, their causes, and understand and assess their effects, and proposes ways to choose responses and mitigation strategies in order to reduce the impact of threats. The realization of this project and the publication of this book would not have been possible without the generous support of the Annenberg Foundation. UNESCO wishes to express deep appreciation for this support. UNESCO Amman Office would also like to acknowledge and thank the continuous support of the PDTRA, Dr Emad Hijazeen, Commissioner of the PAP, Eng. Tahani Al Salhi, Director of the Cultural Resource Management unit at the PAP. We would also like to thank the rest of the PAP staff for their continuous coordination and for making this possible, as well as the DoA for applying the risk management methodology in the pilot area of Petra during the second phase of fieldwork. The outcomes of this pilot testing were crucial in the improvement of the study. This publication presents a risk management methodology to be used as a systematic tool for the better management of heritage sites. The methodology developed incorporates similar approaches used by the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property (ICCROM), and the Canadian Conservation Institute (CCI)-Institute for Cultural Heritage of the Netherlands (ICN), which are embodied in the 5

7 Australian/New Zealand Standard for Risk Management. The authors wish to thank and acknowledge the cooperation with ICCROM, CCI-ICN and their courses in preventive conservation and risk reduction. Also, we would like to thank Dr Robert Waller of the Canadian Museum of Nature whose risk analysis model for cultural properties and museums has been an essential reference for the development of the methodology. For the Petra case study the authors have utilized a variety of research and scientific documents, including published and unpublished sources, master plans, scientific articles, legal documents and planning regulations for the areas surrounding the PAP, supported by meetings and workshops. Furthermore, stakeholders, local authorities, national and international experts have been extensively involved in various meetings, workshops and field activities. To assess categories of threats and disturbances affecting the monuments under analysis, the Middle Eastern Geodatabase for Antiquities Jordan (MEGA J) defined the categories that have been used. The authors would like to thank the DoA, the Getty Conservation Institute, and the World Monument Fund, for developing such a system and supporting its use. Embarking on this work has also been a unique opportunity to contribute to the capacitybuilding of Jordanian experts in the fields of risk assessment, condition survey and preventive conservation, as well as to contribute to the protection of the uniqueness of Petra. We wish also to thank the local community in Petra for their support and hospitability. During the fieldwork application and testing of the methodology, two workshops were organized. The hard work and important contribution of the RLICC class of 2011 students, and the coordinative efforts of RLICC staff are gratefully acknowledged. We are also grateful to The World Heritage Centre Publication Unit, which without, this publication would have not been possible. Finally, we would like to thank all those individuals and institutions that in one way or another helped with the completion of this publication. 6

8 Figures and tables Figures Figure 1 Managing change at heritage sites Figure 2 A risk management approach Figure 3 Levels of detail for risk assessment Figure 4 Risk assessment timeline example Figure 5 Risks and agents of deterioration potentially affecting the integrity of heritage sites Figure 6 Threats and disturbances from MEGA J linked to agents of deterioration Figure 7 The ranges of frequency and severity of the types of risk 1, 2 and 3 Figure 8 Magnitude of risks Figure 9 Table A - probability Figure 10 Table B - degree of loss of significance and integrity Figure 11 Table C - area affected Figure 12 Table of magnitude Figure 13 Risk mitigation strategy and methods of control applied at different levels of control Figure 14 Steps to prepare the reports Figure 15 Map of Jordan Figure 16 Governance time line in Petra Figure 17 Flow chart of governmental sectors responsible for the management of PAP Figure 18 Plans and strategies for Petra Figure 19 Map of Petra park, as produced for the Master Plan of 1968 Figure 20 Boundary map submitted with nomination dossier in 1985 Figure 21 Petra Archaeological Park (PAP) boundaries delineated in 1993 Figure 22 Petra National Park (PNP) boundaries and buffer zone as demarcated by the Ministry of Agriculture Figure 23 The zoning and buffer zone proposal in the UNESCO Management Plan 1994 Figure 24 The priority area and communities surrounding the PAP: proposed zoning Figure 25 The PAP boundary polygon as mapped in 2011 and the existing PDTRA boundary polygon Figure 26 Representation of defined areas for boundary study Figure 27 The urban development of Um Sayhun in relation to the PAP and Wadi Musa town Figure 28 Plot parcellation and type of ownership Figure 29 Field work areas for May 2011 workshop (based on satellite image) 7

9 Figure 30 Figure 31 Figure 32 Figure 33 Figure 34 Figure 35 Figure 36 Figure 37 Risk management fieldwork wrap-up The boundaries of the Temple of Winged Lions Plan of the Turkmaniyya tomb The boundaries of the Basin Petra s OUV and aspects related to the statement of significance and integrity Pie chart of identified threats for the Monastery trail An example of the use of a probability and effect matrix at PAP Attributes table and disturbances/threats layers for the Basin area Tables Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4 Table 5 Table 6 Matrix of priority based on level of risk magnitude and level of uncertainty Building regulations for lands outside the municipal and village regulation Value assessment results for PAP boundary sectors Overview of the component groups and their sub-components Risk magnitude calculation and comparison table Matrix of priority based on level of risk magnitude and level of uncertainty 8

10 Abbreviations CAD CCI DoA GCI GIS GNPSS ICCROM ICN IUCN JADIS MAB MEGA-J MoTA OUV PA P PDTRA PRA PRC PRPC RLICC USNPS WHC WMF computer aided-design Canadian Conservation Institute Department of Antiquities of Jordan Getty Conservation Institute geographic information systems global network positioning satellite systems International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property Institute for Cultural Heritage of the Netherlands International Union for the Conservation of Nature Jordan Antiquities Database and Information System UNESCO Man and the Biosphere programme Middle Eastern Geodatabase for Antiquities Jordan Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities of Jordan outstanding universal value Petra Archaeological Park Petra Development and Tourism Regional Authority Petra Regional Authority Petra Regional Council Petra Regional Planning Council Raymond Lemaire International Centre for Conservation United States National Parks Service UNESCO World Heritage Centre/Committee World Monuments Fund 9

11 1. Introduction 1.1 Risk management methodology for heritage sites A large number of significant heritage sites around the world are fragile properties, and they are faced with different challenges. Cultural heritage is always under pressure from a variety of risks. Natural disasters, development, tourism, pollution, inappropriate site management, looting and conflict are just some examples of the risks faced by these sites. Risks to heritage sites are dependent on the nature, specific characteristics, inherent vulnerability and geographical environment of the site. From another perspective they are dependent on the nature of the external threats affecting the heritage itself. The threats can be either natural or anthropogenic: that is, human-made. Natural risks can be divided into two categories: catastrophic and sudden occurrences, such as a flood or an earthquake, which have an immediate impact on heritage sites, and continuous threats with cumulative and slow effects, such as erosion and material decay. Anthropogenic risks result from a number of different human activities, including development in general and tourism in particular, and inappropriate management, lack of maintenance and neglect. The site s vulnerability depends on the environmental, economic, social and political context. The vulnerability of heritage sites increases when there are no maintenance approaches, there is inappropriate excavation and/or restoration, the site is affected by uncontrolled development and urbanization, there is a loss of local and traditional knowledge, and there is a lack of management systems for the site. In order to reduce the risks, it is recommended to develop an institutional approach and define a strategy collaboratively with local authorities and staff. It is also recommended to plan appropriate training for different target groups for the methodology to be successful. It is suggested that guidelines, guiding principles and standards are produced for risk assessment and ultimately risk management. Risk management needs to be an integral part of conservation practices and conservation and management plans. When (or if) the threats and causes of deterioration are identified, assessed and prioritized through a management planning process, their effects can be minimized or mitigated. When such an approach is defined, institutionalized and implemented, the values and integrity of sites can better be protected. The aim of Risk Management at Heritage Sites: A Case Study of the Petra World Heritage Site is to outline how to design a risk management methodology that will enable the systematic identification of disturbances and threats to a site, assessing their impact and the vulnerability of the monuments and other features of the site. The heritage at risk could be prioritized based on an assessment of its importance or significance, and the magnitude of risk. This would then enable site managers and concerned authorities to plan more in-depth assessment for the most significant monuments or areas at risk. This process provides a framework for deciding on appropriate mitigation strategies, based on cost-benefit analysis. 10

12 The publication is intended primarily to support site managers and their teams, as well as authorities and agencies responsible for the management of both Petra and other heritage sites, to assess, monitor and reduce risks to their sites. Second, it can assist researchers, stakeholders and other professionals in contributing to the preservation of sites. Some of the threats could be reduced and mitigated through planning legislation, delineation of property boundaries, outlining guidelines and regulations for land use, and defining a buffer zone, and these aspects are explored through the Petra case study. The publication also suggests how the risk management process could be integrated into the overall management planning process. It is designed to help put in place a more systematic approach to conservation and management planning. The different steps presented and the emphasis on the need for planning, prevention and monitoring are at the root of all heritage conservation and management planning approaches. The risk management model presented here also involves a specific method that will allow for a more systematic path to the maintenance and preservation of sites. If the causes of risks are identified, their possible impact assessed, and responses are planned to minimize their impact, risks can be managed - if not eliminated - and ultimately better results can be achieved. Our extensive review of the existing literature has revealed that there is a vast number of publications about the identification of risk categories and the nature of risks at heritage sites. Furthermore, many studies have been carried out on the management and prevention of disasters. Some disasters are unavoidable and can lead to considerable destruction, but other potential disasters, can be avoided with careful planning thus their impact can be mitigated. The increasingly frequent and extreme natural events such as floods, mudslides and earthquakes, plus fire and other threats, are a major source of harm to the integrity of our heritage. The Heritage Resource Manual on Managing Disaster Risks for World Heritage (UNESCO WHC, 2010b) and Risk Preparedness: A Management Manual for World Heritage (Stovel, 1998) are only two examples of disaster risk management studies with the aim of raising awareness among site managers and local communities of the challenges faced by heritage sites. Although it is acknowledged that disaster risk management is a very important topic in managing risk at heritage sites, this publication intends to provide a systematic approach for heritage managers to assess and eventually manage all different kinds of risk, not only disastrous ones. The methodology proposed takes into consideration natural and anthropogenic risks that operate on all timescales from the sudden and catastrophic to the slow and cumulative. 11

13 RISK MANAGEMENT AT HERITAGE SITES: A CASE STUDY OF THE PETRA WORLD HERITAGE SITE The publication has been prepared by a group of cultural heritage experts and professionals, and the approach to risk is a cultural heritage safety approach. While many aspects of this proposal are focused on the safety of heritage, the aim has been where possible to take a holistic approach and take into consideration risks to visitors and the landscape as part of the process. The book is structured in two main sections. The first section is the theoretical part where the risk methodology is described and its steps are outlined. The second section is a case study presenting the application of the methodology at Petra World Heritage Park in Jordan. Because of time and resource constraints the risk assessment part of the methodology could be applied to only a selected pilot area of the Petra World Heritage site. However developing this methodology, and partially testing it at the PAP, is intended as the first tranche of a bigger set of objectives: testing and applying the methodology at the level of PAP as a whole as well as at other heritage sites, relying on the capabilities of different experts, and trying to refine the methodology during the process. It is recognized that the proposed approach applies a numerically based model, and that training is required before it can be used successfully. The fieldwork of applying the methodology to Petra as will be explained at the case study section was preceded by lectures and training sessions for the fieldwork team. These included both training in the proposed fieldwork methodology and background lectures from relevant experts on Petra. However, it should be acknowledged that two days of training is not really enough to enable a novice to master this kind of methodology. Ideally a well-structured and more extended period of training should be provided for the fieldwork teams, managers and their staff, to enable participants to grasp the theoretical approach and application, and in addition to have a better overview of the complex risks and related assessments proposed in the methodology. 1.2 A risk management methodology for Petra A World Heritage site since 1985 and the most visited archaeological site in Jordan, Petra is currently threatened by risks of many different kinds and at a number of levels. Because both natural and anthropogenic impacts are progressively threatening its integrity, and it is very fragile, Petra appeared on four consecutive World Monuments Fund lists of the most endangered sites in the world (in 1996, 1998, 2000 and 2002). As well as the increased level of external threats - both natural and anthropogenic - affecting the property, there are two factors that increase Petra s inherent vulnerability. First, the monuments are sculpted from sandstone, a relatively fragile rock that is subject to natural erosion through water and wind action. And second, the development of tourism and an interest in Jordan s heritage has led to an increased number of visitors, touristic development and related human activities on site, and this too leads to wear and deterioration. In recent 12

14 years, the number of visitors per month has considerably exceeded the advisory carrying capacity of the site as defined in the 1994 UNESCO Management Plan. As well as the number of visitors, there is insufficient regulation of their movements. Visitors uncontrolled access compounds the risks to the monuments. There has not as yet been an adequate assessment of the value of the individual monuments and archeological areas, and no appropriate mitigation strategies have been developed. The lack of technically mapped and visualized boundaries, and the absence of a clear strategy for a defined buffer zone or zoning regulation of the property, represent further threats to the site integrity. This is in large part because the site was entered in the World Heritage List at an early stage of its development, when no clear requirements were set for the outline of property boundaries and the definition of a buffer zone. The Retrospective Inventory process is aimed at identifying gaps and omissions in nomination files of sites that were inscribed early on in the World heritage List (UNESCO WHC, 2004), but as yet only scattered efforts have been made to provide the property with boundaries, to date no delineation has been carried out for the buffer zone, and no clear frameworks have been enforced for the right of use of lands by local tribes and communities. To address these issues, several agreements and strategies have been developed and proposed for the management of the property. However, because of insufficient funding and/or the lack of long-term planning and initiatives, none of the management and tourism strategies drafted for the PAP have been adopted officially and implemented in their totality. Only limited measures have been put into effect. To deal properly with these phenomena, a number of activities could be developed, such as the design of a baseline map for the property, and setting up adequate management regulations that aim to improve site conservation, manage tourism sustainably, and strengthen the involvement of the local community. These issues of an unimplemented management plan, insufficient visitor management strategies and a lack of a clear on-the-ground definition of property boundaries, can be identified as major gaps in the management of the property, and they also result in increasing risk to the site. A systematic and comprehensive method for the management and conservation of the property is needed. The first steps to take towards the better preservation and systematic conservation of the property as a whole, and protection of its values and integrities, are to start from research in the field of risk management and carry out the identification, mapping and monitoring of risks. 1.3 The risk mapping project in Petra Given the diversity of problems faced by the PAP, it is appropriate and recommended to develop and implement a common strategy in order to provide solutions at different levels. Risk assessment and research in the field of risk management in Petra have been identified 13

15 RISK MANAGEMENT AT HERITAGE SITES: A CASE STUDY OF THE PETRA WORLD HERITAGE SITE as the most appropriate tools for mitigation of risks and protection of the values of the property. At the same time, the risk assessment when integrated into the existing plan for the management and conservation of the property, will take care of cross-referencing various stand-alone plans for the property. The development of a risk management methodology is considered a preliminary step to feed into an overall management plan for a property (UNESCO WHC, 2011b). This approach was welcomed by the local authorities, recognizing the gap in the management of the site and the urgent need to address it. From this perspective, the UNESCO Office in Amman carried out a project for the identification and assessment of risks at the PAP and partnered with the Raymond Lemaire International Centre for Conservation (RLICC) at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (KU Leuven), Petra Development and Tourism Regional Authority (PDTRA) and the Department of Antiquities of Jordan (DoA) to carry out this project. The project consists of different phases with three main objectives: technical field mapping of the boundaries of the World Heritage site outline of guidelines and usage regulations for a proposed buffer zone definition of risk criteria and risk categories and delineation of a proposal for a risk management strategy. A risk management methodology was proposed, to be used as a tool to contribute to the conservation, management and preservation of heritage sites, and it was employed to outline a risk management strategy for Petra. The publication of this book is an important result. It is an indication of how this project has sought to achieve its goal of providing a framework in which the risk, impact, vulnerability and rate of deterioration of the heritage site are consistently identified and monitored. As a first stage, bibliographic research was carried out to identify the systematic approaches that have been developed for the assessment and management of risks, and select a basis for developing a risk management methodology. The draft methodology was reviewed by the authorities responsible for the management of Petra and national and international experts in the field of heritage conservation during several meetings and round-table discussions. Comments and remarks were added to the methodology, and ultimately the revised document was endorsed by the PAP authority at a validation workshop. The validated methodology was then applied to the pilot area in Petra during two weeks of fieldwork in autumn 2011 in order to evaluate its effectiveness and relevance. The risk assessment approach presented in this document is mainly based on two concepts developed for assessing and reducing risks to collections and artefacts, the Cultural Property Risk Analysis Model: Development and Application to Preventive Conservation at the Canadian Museum of Nature by Waller (2003), and a similar approach proposed in the Risk 14

16 Management Australian/New Zealand Standard (2004) and adopted by the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property (ICCROM) and and the Canadian Conservation Institute (CCI) Institute for Cultural Heritage of the Netherlands (ICN), for their courses in preventive conservation and risk reduction to collections. These approaches have been adapted and enhanced to be applied to Petra and possibly to other similar heritage environments. In terms of documentation methodology, the Middle Eastern Geodatabase for Antiquities - Jordan (MEGA-Jordan), a hybrid geographic information system (GIS) and database, and Jordanís national inventory and management system, was used as a tool in the fieldwork in order to provide geographic data (maps) and to map monuments under assessment with their exact coordinates. 1 1 More information on MEGA J can be found at 15

17 2. Risk management at heritage sites 2.1 What is risk? Risk is defined as the probability that a certain kind of damage will be realized (Ball and Watt, 2001). Risks are the result of natural or human-made threats. Natural risks include both the catastrophic and sudden, such as a flood or an earthquake, and continuous, cumulative and slow processes such as erosion. Anthropogenic risks are the result of different human activities, which include development in general and tourism in particular, inappropriate management, and the lack of maintenance and neglect. Risks to heritage sites are also dependent on the specific characteristics of each site and its inherent vulnerability. 2.2 What is risk management? Risk management is the process of identifying, assessing and analysing expected and possible damage - in this context, to heritage sites - and of developing mitigation strategies in order to reduce the risk of damage. Decision-makers in many fields use this approach in order to reduce losses. An alternative way of saying this is that risk management is the decision-making process following a risk assessment (Ball and Watt, 2001). It is the process that involves managing losses and impacts (on the significance of a historic site) in order to minimize them and to reach a balance between opportunities gained and lost. The adoption and application of the risk management approach by the organizations and institutions involved in the management of heritage sites will provide them with a well-organized tool to assist them in their conservation and management planning decisions. Planning is the key element for decision-making in this process. As shown in Figure 1, the protection and conservation of heritage sites for future generations involves making good decisions as the result of careful planning (Demas, 2002). This process makes it possible to prevent changes, or if this is not practicable slow the impact, if they might affect the significance and integrity of the monuments and therefore the experience of visitors at heritage sites. 16

18 2 Risk management at heritage sites Figure 1 Managing change at heritage sites A planning process makes it possible to sort through the multiple layers on which heritage is evaluated and the variety of issues facing heritage sites, to set priorities, to explain and to justify decisions, and finally to ensure that the results of decisions are sustainable. As was stated by Demas (2002), in brief this process is an opportunity to bring together different actors and stakeholders related to the heritage site to assess its significance and condition, and establish management priorities to protect the site for future generations. It has increasingly become clear that heritage gains meaning and will only survive if there is carrying capacity and the means for stakeholders to take on this responsibility. In order for managers and authorities to plan more in-depth assessment for highly significant monuments or areas at risk, a risk assessment carried out in the context of the site could be a tool for prioritizing monuments at risk. Based on these priorities, decisions could be made by identifying appropriate mitigation strategies and evaluating their costs and benefits. Hence, a risk management strategy could provide a decision-making tool for the reduction of possible damage and the better conservation of the property. Such a strategy, when it becomes part of the overall management and conservation plan for a heritage site, can also assist site managers in the effective use of their resources. 17

19 RISK MANAGEMENT AT HERITAGE SITES: A CASE STUDY OF THE PETRA WORLD HERITAGE SITE 2.3 Approach and methodology As mentioned before, this risk management proposal is based on two approaches for assessing and reducing risks to collections and artefacts, Waller s Cultural Property Risk Analysis Model (2003) and the Risk Management Australian / New Zealand Standard (Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand,2004), as applied by CCI ICN and ICCROM. These approaches have been enhanced here so they can be applied to heritage sites in order to develop and provide a systematic tool to identify, assess and manage risks. The risk management methodology is an integral part of the management plan, with the aims of improving site conservation and tourism management, and strengthening the involvement of the local community. In this proposal the systematic application of the risk management process (Figure 2) includes six steps: 1) Defining the context and scope, including a documentation review as well as a values, condition and management context assessment. 2) Identifying the risks. 3) Assessing the impact of each risk. 4) Identifying possible mitigation strategies. 5) Evaluating risks and mitigation strategies based on cost benefit analysis. 6) Implementation of the strategies (preventively or actively) to treat risks. There are also two permanent components of the risk management process: monitoring, and communication and consultation with the different stakeholders. Looking at different management plans based on the Burra Charter, and in particular the Demas Management Planning Chart (2002), we identified two further elements of the planning process which are also necessary in the risk management process: the assessment of values, and a condition assessment of the site. These are sometimes underestimated, but they are also necessary steps to be taken before starting the core part of risk assessment process. These are basic elements that help to identify the condition of integrity of the heritage site. Success in assessing and evaluating the risks will be based on the capacity to understand and recognize both the values and the actual condition of the site, its site elements 2 and features. It should be noted that condition assessment is not necessarily a step to be taken before the risk assessment, as it could be done at the same time as the risk assessment. This will be made clearer in the Petra case study section. 2 For the definition of sites and site elements in this publication please refer to the glossary on pages 120 and

20 2 Risk management at heritage sites Figure 2 A risk management approach UNESCO 2.4 Understanding and assessing values Heritage, whether it is cultural, natural or a cultural landscape, is so regarded because of the value that people - stakeholders or interest groups 3 - give to an object, place or landscape. In order to find the best way to protect heritage, it is important to know what that value represents, and who the stakeholders are who invest the heritage with this added value. The assessment of heritage values has become an essential part of heritage preservation in practice. A number of documents exemplify this: for example, the Nara Document on Authenticity (1994) highlighting the importance of cultural and social values and tangible and intangible heritage; the Declaration of Saint Antonio (1996) stressing the role of the social value of the site, not just the material fabric, and the connection between cultural identity and authenticity; and the ICOMOS Burra Charter (1999) defining cultural significance and its importance in managing and conserving heritage. Moreover, the values and participation of stakeholders are placed at the centre of the planning and decision-making process, as proposed by Demas (2002), Mason and Avrami (2000) and Sullivan (1997). Based on these planning and decisionmaking processes, after the collection of information, a necessary step in the assessment stage is to understand and establish the values associated with the site. These values are the ones that will need to be known and preserved by all 3 The terms stakeholders and interest groups have the same meaning here: an individual or a group of people who have interests in the protection of a site (regardless of whether or not they own the site) and its development, preservation and interpretation. 19

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