World War II World War II The Dilemmas of Neutrality The Roots of War Hitler s War in Europe Trying to Keep Out

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1 1 2 3 World War II The Dilemmas of Neutrality Why were most Americans reluctant to get involved in World War II? Holding the Line How did the Allies fare in 1941 and 1942? Mobilizing for Victory What steps did the U.S. government take to organize the economy for war? World War II The Home Front How did the war affect the everyday lives of Americans? War and Peace How did the Allies win the war? World War II: Origins of World War II Japanese American Internment The End of the War The Dilemmas of Neutrality The Roots of War Hitler s War in Europe Trying to Keep Out Edging toward Intervention The Brink of War December 7, 1941 The Roots of War World War I Treaty of Versailles German sense of betrayal 1

2 German sense of betrayal Japanese imperialism Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere Italian agression Adolph Hitler Axis Powers Hitler s War in Europe Expansion south and east Blitzkrieg Rapid conquest of most of Europe Invasion of Soviet Union 1941 Failed Trying to Keep Out Support for neutrality Experience of World War I Noninterventionists spanned the political spectrum Edging toward Intervention Battle of Britain Cash-and-carry weapons sales Collapse of France and U.S. rearmament Election of 1940 The Brink of War Lend-Lease Act Support for Britain Submarine warfare in North Atlantic Atlantic Charter Events in the Pacific Japanese expansion December 7, 1941 Attack on Pearl Harbor 2

3 Attack on Pearl Harbor Many carriers on patrol Losses not crippling Attacks on Guam, Wake Island, the Philippines Declaration of war Holding the Line Stopping Germany The Survival of Britain Retreat and Stabilization in the Pacific Holding the Line Japan took most of Southeast Asia Allies fared badly initially Stopping Germany Soviet Union held the Eastern Front The Eastern Front and the Battle of Stalingrad Battle of Stalingrad 1942 Soviet victory The Survival of Britain Battle of the Atlantic Provisioning German submarines North Africa Erwin Rommel and Bernard Montgomery Retreat and Stabilization in the Pacific Japanese took the Philippines May 1942 Battles of the Coral Sea and Midway Turning points Stopped Japanese advance across Pacific Mobilizing for Victory 3

4 Organizing the Economy The Enlistment of Science Men and Women in the Military 22 Organizing the Economy Expansion of the federal government War Production Board Office of Price Administration Defense industries to the South and West End of Depression The Enlistment of Science Office of Scientific Research and Development Radar MIT Manhattan Project 1943 detonation Men and Women in the Military Native Americans in the military Code-talkers African Americans in the military Segregation initially Women in the military Some roles in combat zones The Home Front Families in Wartime Women in the Workforce Ethnic Minorities in the War Effort 4

5 Ethnic Minorities in the War Effort Clashing Cultures Internment of Japanese Americans The End of the New Deal Families in Wartime Increase in marriage rate Changes in the draft Latchkey kids Women in the Workforce New opportunities Large proportion of shipbuilders and aviation workers Challenge to gender expectations Ethnic Minorities in the War Effort Latinos Bracero program 1942 Discrimination, but labor needed Native Americans Moved from reservations A. Philip Randolph Negro march on Washington threatened Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC) Clashing Cultures Black and white tensions Harlem Detroit Los Angeles Pachucos Riots Internment of Japanese Americans Executive order 5

6 Executive order Culmination of decades of discrimination Internment camps Korematsu v. United States Japanese Claims Act of The End of the New Deal Programs weakened or ended Election of 1944 Roosevelt elected to fourth term Defeated Thomas Dewey War and Peace Turning the Tide in Europe Operation OVERLORD Victory and Tragedy in Europe The Pacific War Searching for Peace How the Allies Won Turning the Tide in Europe Opening a second front Italy Casablanca Conference 1943 Tehran Conference 1943 The campaign in North Africa The invasion of Italy Soviet advances and the Battle of Kursk Operation OVERLORD Operation OVERLORD Normandy landing, D-Day June 1944 Germans retreated Liberation of Paris August 6

7 Liberation of Paris August Victory and Tragedy in Europe Air strikes on Germany German economy crippled Battle of the Bulge and the collapse of Germany Bombing of Dresden The Holocaust Hitler s final solution The Pacific War Island hopping Process of retaking Pacific islands Attacks on Japanese shipping Bombing of Japan 1944 Iwo Jima and Okinawa taken 1945 Explore World War II in the Pacific on MyHistoryLab Searching for Peace Yalta Conference Stalin in a strong position United Nations Truman and Potsdam Roosevelt died April 1945 Potsdam Conference July 1945 Potsdam Declaration The atomic bomb August Japan bombed How the Allies Won Industrial capacity 7

8 Industrial capacity U.S. outproduced all enemies combined Superior technology The appeal of democracy and freedom 51 Conclusion The United States ended the war as the world s supreme economic power. It suffered the least of all the combatant nations. The United States and the Soviet Union fought together in World War II, but soon found themselves in conflict. 8

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