Causes of WWII 1. List three of the causes of World War II that we discussed in class. a.

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1 Unit 14 Quiz : World War II Fill in the blanks. NOTE: Not all blanks from the notes are on this quiz. You may use words once, more than once, or not at all. Causes of WWII 1. List three of the causes of World War II that we discussed in class. a. b. c. The European Theatre Adolf Hitler Battle of Britain Battle of the Bulge Benito Mussolini Germany Ireland Joseph Stalin loss mainland Europe Poland revenge surrender two- front Winston Churchill won Woodrow Wilson 2. During the 1930 s, under, Germany began to expand its rule over surrounding lands. Italy, ruled by, expanded its territory, and aligned with 3. World War II started when Hitler s Germany invaded in Shortly after, the Soviet Union invaded as well. 4. In 1940, Hitler invaded and took over France. As, he forced France to surrender in the same railroad car where Germany surrendered in Had he have been alive, which U.S. president would have told France, I told you so. 6. After the fall of France, Germany and its allies were firmly in control of most of 7. Because of these advantages, Hitler attacked Britain from the air in This was the first major campaign to be fought entirely in the air. Hitler bombed both military and civilian targets with the hopes of forcing the British to surrender. 8. The British the Battle of Britain, making it Hitler s first in the war. 9. In summer of 1941, Hitler invaded the Soviet Union, an ally and opened a war.

2 aggression Asia Bermuda Caribbean Central Powers coal democratic ideals economic food Franklin D. Roosevelt garden hose Harry S. Truman Internationalist Isolationist Italy Japan lend- lease military mobilized neutral oil Pacific social steel surrender threat The Pacific Theatre 10. After industrializing, Japan sought to become the dominant and power in East Asia. 11. Much like in Europe, Japan fought a series of wars of imperialism seeking to take control of and the. 12. To stop Japanese expansion, the United States, along with other nations issued a(n) and embargo against Japan. Japan viewed this as a(n) and as an act of and prepared for war. The U.S. before After WWI, most Americans became again. They wanted to avoid another war. 14. As Germany and Japan expanded, the U.S. continued to take an isolationist position, though President grew increasingly concerned with the situation in Europe. 15. In 1941, after the Battle of Britain, recognizing that the goal of fascism was to destroy and that American security depended upon Great Britain acting as a buffer, Congress passed the Act where the president could lend or lease war supplies should they be vital to U.S. defense. FDR compared it to lending a to a next- door neighbor whose house is on fire. In return, the U.S. received military bases in and the 16. Together these acts made the U.S. much less and increasingly drew the U.S. towards the war. President Franklin D. Roosevelt kept isolationists happy by officially staying out of the war, but U.S. defense industry and the to prepare for a future war. The Sides (not in word bank) List the Allied Powers List the Axis Powers

3 American Pacific Fleet Atlantic China Defeat Hitler First defensive European colonies Germany Great Britain Guam Hawaii Indonesia Infamy island hopping Pacific Pearl Harbor Soviet oil fields Soviet Union submarine warfare Two- front United States Versailles World History The U.S. enters the war 17. Without warning, on December 7, 1941, Japan attacked the U.S. Naval base located at in the territory of, killing over 2,400 Americans and destroying much of the 18. The next day, FDR addressed Congress stating calling the day, a date which will live in 19. The debate about neutrality in the U.S. was over: After the U.S. declared war on Japan, declared war on the U.S. in keeping with its promise with Japan. Allied Strategy 20. The Allies took a strategy of because they believed that Germany posed a greater and more immediate threat than Japan. 21. The United States would rapidly mobilize and send most of its troops and supplies to support in their fight against Germany on the Atlantic coast. 22. The (having earlier been attacked by Hitler in violation of the non- aggression pact) would fight Germany from the east. Germany would have the disadvantage of fighting a war. 23. In the Pacific, the United States would use to prevent and turn back Japanese expansion while starving them of resources. The U.S. would take over islands closer and closer to Japan to launch a series of air and submarine attacks. In doing so, the U.S. would protect itself and Axis Strategy 24. Germany wanted to defeat rapidly through bombing and before the manpower and industrial strength of the would turn the tide of the war. 25. Germany wanted to take control of to supply the war effort. 26. Japan hoped to make quick gains in the They quickly attacked the Philippines and and planned to attack Hawaii and Australia. They hoped the U.S would accept Japanese predominance in Southeast Asia rather than fight a costly war.

4 atomic bomb Bataan Death March D- Day defeat Eisenhower El Alamein Europe expansion Geneva Convention Hiroshima invasion island hopping Iwo Jima Middle Eastern Oil Midway Miriacle of Midway Nagasaki Okinawa Operation Overlord Operation Undertaker Pacific Soviet Union Stalingrad suicide Tokyo unconditional surrender Western Europe Some Major Battles 27. This battle over control of the Suez Canal blocked the Axis from gaining access to, and ended the possibility of invading the from the south. 28. Hitler ordered his army to invade this industrial Soviet city at any cost. Despite hundreds of thousands of causalities, the Soviet Union claimed victory and Germany was pushed back. This marked the end of for Germany and turned the tide against Hitler in the east. 29. Despite being badly outnumbered, the Americans won the and forced Japan into retreat. This battle secured Hawaii from attack and started a series of Island Hopping victories for the U.S. It marked the end of for Japan in the Pacific. 30. On June 4, 1944, in, Allied troops led by future president invaded the rocky cliffs of northern France. This opened a second front in the war against Nazi Germany and began the liberation of 31. and These American victories in the campaign against Japan pushed Japan back towards their mainland. Both sides experienced massive causalities. These battles convinced the U.S. to avoid of mainland Japan. Many Japanese committed rather than surrender. 32. The - President Truman saw the potential death toll of invading Japan as too high. The Japanese refused to surrender and President Truman ordered the dropping of an atomic bomb on and After these cities were destroyed and thousands of civilians were killed, Japan accepted an Fighting Styles 33. After WWI, the was signed to set standards of treating prisoners of war to be followed by all nations. Generally speaking, treatment of POWs followed these guidelines more closely in than in the 34. In the Philippines, the, the Japanese disregard human rights in treating American POWs.

5 African Americans appeal Christians Congress east Geneva Trials genocide individual responsibility Israel Jews Mexican Americans military authority Muslims Navajo Indians Nisei regiments Nuremberg Trials Slavs Tuskegee Airmen Undesirables Minority Participation in WWII 35. generally served in non- combat roles in segregated military units, but fought for the right to serve in combat. In contrast, who served were not segregated. 36. The African American served in Europe with distinction. 37. Asian American units such as the earned a high number of decorations. 38. The used their language as a secret communication code that the Japanese could not break. The Holocaust 39. In the liberation of Europe, the Allies found clear evidence of, the systematic and purposeful destruction of a racial, political, religious, or cultural group. 40. The Holocaust killed over 20 million people including, Poles, Slavs, Gypsies, and that included homosexuals, the mentally ill, and political dissidents. 41. Following the war, the found Nazi leaders and others responsible for war crimes and sentenced many to death on the basis that is higher than military orders. 42. The Holocaust increased demands for a Jewish state, Japanese Internment 43. Japanese Internment was a government program that detained Japanese Americans against their will (mostly on the coast) on the basis of their national origin. Americans believed that these citizens were spying for Japan. 44. Executive Order 9066 (and others) by President FDR allowed the military to declare areas military zones and to remove anyone they wished. The upheld the government s right to do this. Years later, a was issued and financial payment made to survivors.

6 14 Points African Americans airplanes Asians cars conservation consumer discrimination equality French income taxes integrating Marshall Plan media morale production propaganda punishing rationing retooled Rosie the Riveter savings bonds selective service Soviet Union stereotypical tanks United States Versailles war bonds war effort white men women The Media 45. The U.S. Office of War Information was responsible for controlling information about the war effort, a form of It also produced public morale and war awareness campaigns to keep Americans focused on the 46. The U.S. also worked with the entertainment industry to produce movies, plays, and shows to increase public support for the war effort. American media portrayed the enemy in ways. 47. American propaganda was designed to support war goals that included (rationing), boosting, increasing, and other purposes. Mobilization 48. The U.S. worked closely with private businesses to allocate resources effectively to support the war effort. Businesses from peacetime consumption of goods to wartime production. (Ex. to ) 49. was a process where the government intentionally prevented goods from reaching the market so that they could be used in the war effort. campaigns were designed to convince Americans that it was their patriotic duty to conserve. 50. Fighting a war was very expensive. To pay for the war, the government raised and sold 51. The was used to provide personnel for the military. 52. Because so many entered the military and the demand for labor was so high, that government, military, and private business opened employment opportunities for and Women typically worked in non- combat roles. 53. Women were shown replacing men in the workforce; the most famous of these characters was (shown on a propaganda poster in class). 54. moved to cities to take factory jobs to support the war. They campaigned for victory against the Axis and for at home. Lasting Impacts 55. Europeans did not want to make the same mistakes as WWI. The treaty would focus on rather than Axis counties. 56. The U.S. invested extensively in Europe through the 57. Relations between the and rapidly cooled, beginning the Cold War.

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