Contraception Methods (Birth Control)

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1 Contraception Methods (Birth Control) Chemical Methods of Contraception Type Description Effectiveness Effects Spermicidal Foams, Jellies, Creams Must be inserted deep in the vagina and must be used every time intercourse occurs. May provide some protection against STI. I t acts as a physical barrier and contain a sperm-killing chemical. 78 Drug store, May cause Norplant Implant Six tiny hormone filled rods are placed under the skin of the upper arm. The hormones keep the body from releasing an egg, keep the lining of the uterus from thickening, and cause cervical mucus to thicken, blocking sperm. Cost is high at first, but is effective for 5 years. Once removed, fertility is restored. > 99 See a Gynecologist or family planning clinic minutes of minor surgery. Irregular periods. Vaginal Suppositories A spermicide in solid form that melts at body temperature. It must be inserted deep into the vagina and must be used every time intercourse occurs. May provide some protection against STI. 78 Drug store, May cause

2 Pill A pill composed of synthetic hormones that stop the ovary from releasing an egg. Do not use someone else s pills. Normal menstrual cycles still occur. Helps to regulate periods and can reduce some PMS symptoms. Must be taken every day. 99 See a doctor. Must have a prescription. Nausea, breast tenderness, weight gain, dangerous to use if over 35 and a smoker. Mechanical Methods of Contraception Type Description Effectiveness Effects Condom Placed over an erect penis. It prevents semen from entering the vagina. The rim of the condom must be held after intercourse so that the condom does not slip off as the penis is withdrawn. If treated with nonoxynol-9 offers some protection against STD s 85 Drug store, Slight possibility of breakage or leakage. Diaphragm Large rubber cap which covers cervix. Must be used with spermicide. Can be inserted up to two hours before intercourse, but must be left in place for up to six hours afterwards. 85 See a gynecologist or a family planning clinic for fitting and directions for use. Can be awkward to insert and

3 Type Description Effectiveness Cervical Cap Small rubber cap that covers the cervix. Must be used with spermicide. Can be inserted up to two hours before intercourse, but must be left in place for six hours afterwards. 85 See a gynecologist or family planning clinic for fitting and directions for use. Can be awkward to insert and I.U.D Intrauterine device that is thought to somehow interfere with the sperm s ability to reach the egg or with a fertilized egg s ability to implant. 97 Inserted by a gynecologist. Once inserted may prevent pregnancy for several years. Can cause increased bleeding and cramps. Not recommended for women who have not had families. Pelvic inflammatory disease ( PID) Contraceptive Sponge A sperm barrier treated with spermicide. The sponge physically stops the sperm and chemical kills them. It can be difficult to 85 Drug store, The chemicals may cause

4 Other Methods of Contraception Type Description Effectiveness Withdrawal The penis is pulled out of the vagina prior to ejaculation. Ejaculation occurs outside of the vagina. Very risky method because even if a tiny drop of semen comes in contact with the vaginal fluid, pregnancy can occur. 75 N/A None Rhythm Intercourse is avoided during ovulation. It is difficult to determine when ovulation occurs. Therefore, this is a risky method of birth control, especially for teenagers. 75 Keep track of menstrual cycle on a calendar or see a gynecologist or family planning clinic for advice. Observation of body signs, temperature and mucus. None Abstinence No intercourse. This is the only 100 effective method of birth control. 100 N/A N/A

5 Permanent Methods of Contraception Type Description Effectiveness Tubal Ligation The fallopian tubes are cut and tied or clamped. The egg cannot be fertilized by the sperm. Ovulation and menstrual still occur. 99 See a gynecologist. This procedure usually requires general anesthesia and a brief hospital stay. Initial discomfort. Pain in the shoulder area as CO2, used to make viewing the organs easier, sleeps upwards. The CO2 will be absorbed into the blood stream. Vasectomy The vas deferens is cut and tied. No sperm is in the semen. The operation takes usually minutes and is performed by a urologist. 99 See a urologist Initial discomfort at the site of the surgery.

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