CONTRACEPTION INFORMATION PACKET

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1 CONTRACEPTION INFORMATION PACKET "Birth control, also known as contraception, is designed to prevent pregnancy. Birth control methods may work in a number of different ways. These include: * Blocking sperm from getting to the eggs - condoms and diaphragms work this way * Keeping the woman's ovaries from releasing eggs that could be fertilized - birth control pills work this way * Preventing fertilized egg from attaching to the lining of the uterus - intrauterine devices (IUDs) work this way * Sterilization, which permanently prevents a woman from getting pregnant or a man from being able to get a woman pregnant (Tubal Ligation & Vasectomy) Resources: mayoclinic.com plannedparenthood.org familydoctor.org fda.gov 4woman.gov coolnurse.com Your choice of birth control should depend on several factors. These include your health, frequency of sexual activity, number of sexual partners and desire to have children in the future. Your health care provider can help you select the best form of birth control for you." Sources: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development & NATURAL TYPE DESCRIPTION: WHAT IS IT? HOW DOES IT WORK? EFFECTIVENESS RATE RANGE ADVANTAGES + DISADVANTAGES - COST $ Abstinence Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM) Fertility Awareness- Based Methods (FAM s) Completely refraining from sexually activity, specifically vaginal sex (sexual intercourse) Continuous breast-feeding (after baby is born), which helps delay ovulation (without ovulation pregnancy cannot take place). Amenorrhea means that there is an absence of the menses (period). The mother must breastfeed almost exclusively day and night on demand by the infant. The baby is less than 6 months old. This is also referred to as Natural Family Planning, which is a way for females to discover which days during her menstrual cycle she is or is not likely to get pregnant. The days she is likely to get pregnant are called fertile days. Basically the couple keeps track of the changes that occur in the female s body during the menstrual cycle. To avoid getting pregnant, the woman her partner should avoid sexual intercourse during her fertile days, unless her partner uses another method. Cervical Mucous, Rhythm/Calendar, Standard Days, & Symptothermal are several different methods that fit into this category. The only 100% method! 1. Protects against both Pregnancy & STI s 2. Is endorsed by many religious groups 3. Safe No or hormonal complications 4. Free 98%-99.1% 1. Easy to use 2. Begins immediately after birth (postpartum) 3. No supplies required 4. Does not interfere with intercourse 5. No side-effects 6. Has health benefits for mother and infant 7. Builds on established cultural and religious practices 75%-98% ( the specific method, abstaining from sexual intercourse during fertile days, & user error) 1. There are no side-effects 2. It can be used in combination with other methods 3. This method is often acceptable to couples who choose not to use other birth control methods for religious, cultural, health, or other reasons 4. Helps couples become more intimate 1. May be difficult for some people, as it requires self-control & self-discipline 2. Women and men often end their abstinence without being prepared to protect themselves against pregnancy or infection. 1. Not an option for women who do not breastfeed 2. Breastfeeding pattern my be difficult to maintain 3. No protection against STI s 4. Another method is required after 6 months 5. Baby shouldn t take a bottle or pacifier 6. Mothers shouldn t be away from their infant from more than 3 hours 1. Low rates of effectiveness when not used correctly 2. The woman s cycle must be regular and/or the couple must have a clear understanding of how to count the days 3. Couples must be able to abstain during fertile days 4. Couples must be comfortable enough to closely monitor the woman s body 5. Does not offer STI protection Free (no cost) Breastfeeding is free, but people might need to take classes that teach the technique (cost varies) $10-12 for Basal Body Temperature (BBT) thermometers Couples will probably have to take a class to learn FAM techniques (fees will vary)

2 BARRIER Cervical Cap (FemCap) Female Condom (FC or FC2) Male Condom Diaphragm A latex, thimble-shaped device that is inserted into the vagina and fits snugly over the cervix. Suction keeps the cap in place. It provides a barrier to block sperm from entering the uterus and prevents fertilization. It should be used with spermicidal jellies or creams that kill sperm It is polyurethane sheath or pouch about 17 cm (6.5 inches) in length. At each end there is a flexible ring. At the closed end of the sheath, the flexible ring is inserted into the vagina to hold it in place, and covers the cervix. The open end stays outside the vagina and partly covers the labia. It is meant to prevent the sharing or semen and blood. A sheath that is rolled over the penis to prevent semen from entering the vagina. They can be made of latex, polyurethane, or lambskin. They must be disposed of after each use. Most have a reservoir at the tip, which is used to collect sperm during ejaculation. They can also protect against sharing saliva and blood. Lubrications may be used during sexual activity to help prevent them from tearing. Some even come with a spermicidal agent. A thin rubber dome with a springy and flexible rim. It is inserted into the vagina, fits over the cervix, and is held in place by vaginal muscles. It holds spermicide in place over the cervix. They consist or coil, flat, or arcing spring types. 84%-91% (never given 68%-74% (after given 1. The cap can be left in place for up to 48 hours 2. Easy to carry around, comfortable 3. Does not alter the menstrual cycle Does not affect future fertility 4. May help females get to know their body better 5. Reusable and relatively inexpensive 6. Requires less spermicide than a diaphragm 79%-95% 1. Both STI & pregnancy prevention 2. Can be used by any woman who can use a tampon 3. Does not reduce a male partner s stimulation 4. Available without prescription 5. No hormonal side-effects 6. Can be used by people with latex sensitivities 7. Does not effect future fertility 85%-98% 1. Both STI & pregnancy prevention 2. They may help the male last longer during sex 3. Can be used during vaginal, oral, or anal sex 4. Women & men of any age can buy them without a prescription (some clinics even give them out for free) 5. Currently the only available effective and reversible method for men 6. Easy to use 84%-94% 1. Offers some limited protection against reproductive tract infections 2. Can be inserted 2 hours prior to sexual intercourse 3. Easy to carry around, comfortable 4. Does not alter menstrual cycles 5. Does not affect future fertility May help females get to know their bodies better 1. After intercourse, the cap must be left in place for 8 hours 2. A fitting is required with a physician 3. The cap must be removed during menstruation 4. Not as effective after childbirth & women must get refitted by a doctor after birth 5. Does not offer STI protection 6. Possible allergic reactions 7. Cannot be used with a history of PID, abnormal pap smears, severe cervitis, or an abnormal shaped cervix 8. Must be cleaned in-between uses 1. Noticeable during sex 2. Sometimes difficult to insert or use 3. Does not contain spermicide 4. Can break or leak 5. About 3x more expensive than male condoms 1. Some people feel they dull sensation 2. Some males feel they make them too self-conscious to stay erect 3. People allergic to latex cannot use them 4. They expire, so check the expiration date 5. They should be stored in a cool, dry location (no wallets or glove compartments) 6. They can be inserted inside out, falloff, tear, or leak 1. After intercourse, it must be left in place for 6-8 hours 2. Requires a fitting with a physician 3. Does not protect against HIV/AIDS 4. Needs occasional refitting 5. Possible allergic reaction 6. May increase risk or bladder infections 7. Can be messy 8. Must be cleaned in-between uses $7-200 (doctor s visit, cervical cap, spermicidal jellies, foams, or creams, etc.) About $4 $0-$2.50 ( the type of condom and the store or health care facility) $30-50 (should be replaced every 2 years) Plus the cost of the doctor s visit and refitting fee Spermicide $

3 Shield (Lea s Shield) Sponge (Today Sponge) HORMONAL Birth Control Patch (Ortho Evra) Birth Control Shot (Depo- Provera) A one-size fits all reusable vaginal barrier that is about the size of a diaphragm and it is composed entirely of grade silicone rubber. The device is washable and reusable. Unlike other barrier methods, it does not depend on vaginal dimensions or cervical size, which vary from woman to woman. A valve on the device vents air during insertion, creating a suction effect for a snug fit. A loop attached to the cup assists with insertion and removal. Use with spermicide It is made of plastic foam and contains spermicide. It is soft, round, and about 2 inches in diameter. It has a nylon loop attached to the bottom for removal. IT is inserted deep into the vagina before intercourse. It covers the cervix, blocking sperm from entering the uterus, it also releases spermicide to keep sperm from moving It is a thin, beige, 1 ¾ inch square patch that sticks to the skin. It releases hormones (combination of estrogen and progesterone) through the skin into the bloodstream to prevent pregnancy by preventing ovulation. Hormones also thicken the cervical mucous making it difficult for sperm to enter and reach any eggs if they actually are released. It can also thin the endometrium. Each patch is worn for one week, and then a new patch is applied each week, until the 4 th week, when the patch is removed to allow for menstruation A hormone injection that lasts for 3 months to prevent pregnancy. The injection contains synthetic progesterone and no estrogen. It is usually given in the arm, hip, upper high, or abdomen, delivering a high level of progesterone to the body. It stops the ovaries from releasing eggs. It also causes the cervical mucous to thicken and changes the uterine lining, making it harder for sperm to enter or survive the uterus. 85%-92% 1. Safe for nursing mothers 2. One-size fits all, so a fitting is not required by physician 3. Many females think this is more comfortable than the diaphragm or cervical cap 4. Does not affect menstrual cycle 5. Lasts up to 6 months 6. It can be inserted for up to 48 hours 84%-91% (never given 68%-80% (given 92%-99% (less effective in females who weigh more than 198 pounds) 1. It can be carried in a pocket or purse 2. It generally cannot be felt by partner 3. It has not effect on a woman s natural hormones 4. It can be worn for 30 hours 5. Safe for nursing mothers 1. Don t have to remember to take a pill at the same time every day 2. Helps with acne 3. Females experience more regular, lighter, and shorter periods 4. It can be worn on the buttocks, stomach, upper outer arm, or upper torso % 1. Private 2. Effective after 24 hours 3. Does not require regular attention 4. Does not interrupt sex 5. Has no estrogen 6. May decrease risk for ovarian and uterine cancers 7. Women can start this 6 weeks after giving birth 8. Don t have to remember to take a pill 2. Have shown increased chances of Toxic Shock Syndrome, UTI s, and vaginal infections 3. It must be left in place for at least 8 hours after sexual intercourse 4. Must be cleaned in-between uses 5. Examine regularly for holes, tears, or leaks 2. It may cause vaginal irritations 3. It may make sex too messy or too dry (a water-based lubricant may help) 4. Spermicide may be a problem for some people 5. Takes practice to insert correctly 2. Cannot be used by people over 35, smokers, diabetics, people with high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or certain inherited blood-clotting disorders, need prolonged bed rest 3. Increased risk of blood clots, heart attack, and stroke are possible than with the pill (60% higher dose of estrogen than the pill) 4. Irregular menstrual bleeding, nausea, weight gain, headaches, dizziness, moody and breast tenderness 5. Patch may fall off 6. Skin reactions at sit of application 7. Vision changes, inability to wear contact lenses 8. Menstrual Cramps 9. Current lawsuit (no recall yet) 2. Should not be used by women with unexplained vaginal bleeding, liver disease, breast cancer, and blood clots 3. Can cause irregular menstrual periods or no periods at all (50% of people) 4. Headaches, nervousness, depression, dizziness, acne, changes in appetite, weight gain, excessive growth of facial and body hair, hair loss, loss of bone $65 The examination and learning how to insert and remove it can range from $ $9-15 (for a package of 3) $15-50 per month Physical exam $ $ for exam and prescription $20-75 follow visits/ injections

4 Intrauterine Contraception (IUC Mirena) Intrauterine Device (IUD) *This is not a hormonal method Oral Contraceptive Pill Combo & Progestin- Only Vaginal Contracepti ve Ring (NuvaRing) CHEMICAL Spermicide s (foam, A tiny T-shaped piece of plastic that is placed in the uterus by your healthcare professional. Once it is place, it slowly releases small amounts of the hormone, progestin into the uterus. It does not contain estrogen. Blocks sperm from reaching egg. Makes lining of uterus thin. Stops the release of the egg from ovary. A small T-shaped device implanted in the uterus to prevent pregnancy, made of flexible plastic. It contains copper, not hormones. It thickens the woman s cervical mucus, thereby creating a natural barrier to sperm. It also alters the uterine lining in order to inhibit implantation of a fertilized egg. A pill is taken at the same time very day to stop ovulation (ovary releasing ovum). 28-day packs=3 weeks of active pills are taken with 1 week or sugar/placebo pills to allow for menstruation. 21-day pack=active pills for 3 weeks and no pills are taken for a week to allow for menstruation. BC pills also increase cervical mucous to help block sperm and thins the lining of the uterus. Combination includes estrogen & progestin Progestin-only 4 weeks of active pills (period may be light or not at all, some people experience bleeding all month) Slender, flexible, transparent combined contraceptive vaginal ring delivers steady low does contraceptive hormones (estrogen and progestin) around the clock. It works like combination birth control pills. To inhibit ovulation, change cervical mucus, and decrease uterine lining It comes in different forms to help immobilize and kill sperm before they are able to swim into the uterus every day 9. Prevents uterine fibroids 99%-99.9% 1. Provides lower and steadier hormones than the pill (free of estrogen sideeffects) 2. Won t cause significant weight gain 3. Easily removed with quick return to fertility 4. May help shorten, lighten, or eliminate periods 5. Provides up to 5 years of birth control 95%-98.5% 1. Lasts for 12 years 2. Does not contain hormones 3. Ability to become pregnant once it is removed returns quickly 4. Females continues to ovulate 5. One of the most popular birth control methods in the world, because women do not need to work about contraception on a regular basis 6. It has also proven to be affective as an emergency contraceptive 92%-99.7% Both Reduces menstrual cramps. Lighter periods, offers some protection against PID Combination Helps against acne, ovarian cysts, endometrial & ovarian cancers, & ectopic pregnancies 98%-99% 1. No long-term effects on fertility 2. Decreased menstrual cramps, menstrual flow, and regularity of periods 3. Helps against acne 4. Helps against PMS 5. Helps vaginal dryness 71%-74% 1. Available without prescription at drug stores 2. Can be combined other methods, specifically barrier methods mineral density (longer than 2 years) 5. Must go to a clinic every 3 months for another shot 1. Must be inserted by a physician 3. Recommended for women who have had at least one child 4. No history of ectopic pregnancy 5. Irregular menstrual bleeding and/or cessation of menses 6. Some women develop a cyst on their ovaries 1. Must be inserted by a healthcare provider 3. Menstrual cramps, backaches, heavier periods 4. Sometimes it can slip out of the uterus 5. Some religious or cultural objections 1. No STI protection 2. Should not use over People with diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, very overweight, inherited blood-clot disorders, &/or smoke should not use BC pills 1. No STI protection 2. Increased risk of vaginal infections 3. Some women have potentially harmful side-effects 4. Bleeding between periods, nausea, vomiting, breast tenderness 5. Vaginal discharge &/or irritation 1. Must be placed in the vagina 15 minutes prior to intercourse 2. Only effective for 1 hour 3. No STI protection $225 depending on health $175-$500 $ (Exam) $15-50 (Prescription) Depends on insurance $20-40 per month depending on pharmacy, could be higher with doctor s visit costs $0.50-$1.50

5 creams, & jellies) Vaginal Contracepti ve Film (VCF) Tubal Ligation PERMANENT /SURGICAL METHOD Vasectomy PERMANENT /SURGICAL METHOD A 2 by 2 inch thin sheet with chemical that kills sperm. It is placed on or near the cervix and it dissolves in seconds. Female sterilization, known as getting your tubes tied. This procedure closes the fallopian tubes, and stops the egg from traveling to the uterus from the ovary. It also prevents the sperm from reaching the fallopian tube to fertilize an egg. The Fallopian tubes are cut, burned, or blocked with rings, bands, or clips. Male sterilization, where the vas deferens from each testes is clamped, cut, or otherwise sealed. This prevents sperm from mixing with semen that is ejaculated from the penis. An egg cannot be fertilized when there aren't any sperm in the semen. The testes continue to produce sperm, but the sperm are reabsorbed into the body (this also happens to sperm that are not ejaculated with or without a vasectomy). The fluid levels from the glands will remain the same. NON-METHODS (These are not considered to be contraception methods) Withdrawal or pulling-out ) Douching Emergency Contraception 3. Relatively easy to use 71%-82% 1. Easy to use 2. It is not messy, there is no discharge, discreet 3. No prescription needed, can be purchased at most drug stores 99.5%-99.9% 1. Permanent birth control 2. Immediately effective 3. Allows for sexual spontaneity 4. Requires no daily attention 5. Not messy 6. Cost-effective in the long-run 99.8%-99.9% 1. Permanent method of birth control 2. Cheaper, safer, with fewer complications than tubal ligation 3. Cost-effective in the long-run 4. Will not interfere with libido, ability to have erections, sensation of orgasm, or ability to ejaculate Removing the penis from the vagina prior to ejaculation Not effective 1. Less sperm are released into the vagina Rinsing the vagina with water and/or special solutions using a container, tubing, and a nozzle (known collectively as a douche). It is no longer recommend because it washes away the healthy bacterial lining the vagina. Also known as the morning after pill. It contains the same hormones found in birth control pills in an increased dosage. This is meant to be a back-up incase another method has failed (like the condom breaking, missed birth control pill, raped, etc.). 1. Does not offer adequate STI protection 2. Spermicide may cause irritation 3. A new film must be used each time 4. Female must wash hands with soap and water and dry them thoroughly prior to contact with film 1. Does not offer STI projection 2. Requires surgery 3. Has risks associated with surgery 4. More complicated than male sterilization 5. May not be reversible 6. Possible regret 7. Possibility of Tubal Ligation Syndrome (bleeding, cramps, etc.) 2. Reversal procedure is difficult 3. May have mild aching in testes during sexual arousal for a few months after surgery 1. Pre-ejaculate can release sperm into the vagina prior to ejaculation Not effective None 1. Sperm move faster than a douche 2. Can cause Yeast Infections, Bacterial Vaginosis, PID, or other infections by disrupting the natural ph levels of the vagina 3. Does more harm than good 75%-89% 1. It can be used up to 5 days after unprotected sex to try to prevent pregnancy 1. Not a substitute for a regular method 3. Nausea & vomiting 4. Breast tenderness, irregular bleeding, dizziness, & headaches $4-$18 (Depending on # of films & purchase location) $1200-$6000 $500-$1000 Free (no cost) Free-$20 Depending on type and location purchased $10-$70 benefits

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