UTILIZATION OF BIOGAS AND BIOMASS FOR NEW BIOPRODUCTS

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1 UTILIZATION OF BIOGAS AND BIOMASS FOR NEW BIOPRODUCTS Joint Research Collaboration Universiti Putra Malaysia FELDA Palm Industries Sdn. Bhd. Kyushu Institute of Technology

2 PALM OIL INDUSTRY RESEARCH COLLABORATION (KEY MILESTONES) Oct Feb.2002 July 2003 Apr July 2004 Dec 2005 Research collaboration between UPM and Japanese Institutions GEC (MOE, Japan) CDM feasibility studies Methane emission baseline studies UPM FPISB - KIT MoU signed between UPM and KIT Construction of Biogas Pilot Plant Biogas Pilot Plant commissioned Research Agreement - UPM, FPISB & KIT Fully operational Biogas Pilot Plant (20 m 3 Biogas/ tonne POME)

3 Malaysia Palm Oil Industry - Renewable Resources Fresh Fruit Bunch 67.5 million tonnes Palm Kernel Oil 1.6 million tonnes Oil Extraction Crude Palm Oil 13.9 million tonnes Renewable Resources Fiber 0.8 million tonnes Shell 0.5 million tonnes Palm Oil Mill Effluent 45 million tonnes Empty Fruit Bunches 14 million tonnes

4 Palm Oil Industry - POME Palm oil mill effluent (POME) 45 million tonnes/year POME treatment facility anaerobic, facultative and aerobic Open tanks and lagoons Treatment for safe discharge, BOD 25,000ppm down to 100ppm Extensive and efficient system (> 70% of total mill area) Biogas emission - 28m 3 /m 3 POME, with 65% METHANE content Untapped renewable energy & UNCONTROLLED RELEASED (GLOBAL WARMING)

5 Methane Emission Estimate ( ) Methane emitted (tonnes) Time (year) Tank system Pond system (Based on 72 FELDA s mills FFB processed over 10 years)

6 Proposed Methane Emission Mitigation Measures Methane from FELDA mills Mitigation Methods CDM Projects Anaerobic Ponds 45,310 t/yr Open Digesters 10,448 t/yr Greenhouse Gases Emission (2.5%) Biogas Plant Bioacids Plant Global Warming Climate Changes Energy Bioplastics

7 PROJECT #1 Improved METHANE Fermentation from Palm Oil Mill Effluent for Electric Power Generation for CDM (Status: Pilot to commercialization phase)

8 Project #1: Methane Production from POME HOLDING TANK Continuous feeding GAS SCRUBBER Biogas polishing Sludge recycle BIOREACTOR Methane fermentation SETTLING TANK Sludge separation GAS UTILIZATION GAS STORAGE Methane storage

9 Project #1 Biogas Pilot Plant Performance Process parameters COD removal (polluting strength) Treatment time (days) Methane utilization Methane production (kg/kg COD) Methane content (%) Biogas production (m 3 /tonne POME) Solid discharge (g/l) Open Digesters 81% 20 Not collected N/A 20 Biogas Pilot Plant 97% 10 Available

10 Mitigation Method #1: Electricity Generation (1000 kwh) Estimated Costs, RM (million) Construction of Biogas Tanks (3500t x 3 units) Downstream processing (Gas scrubber & storage) Gas 1000 kwh (Methane productivity) Total plant cost Yearly maintenance and operation cost (5% of plant cost) Benefits/Revenues generated : Internal office use and external lighting reduce diesel cost/usage during mill s non-operating hours Aeration system to remove remaining BOD increase POME treatment efficiency/environmental benefits reduce large land requirement (> 70%) Estimated sale of per tonne CO 2 per year RM 1.8 million (Assumption: Mill capacity of 60t FFB/hr and 320 days of operation)

11 Mitigation Method #2: Steam Co-generation Estimated Costs, RM (million) Construction of Biogas Tanks (3500t x 3 units) Downstream processing & boiler modifications Total plant cost Yearly maintenance and operation cost Benefits/Revenues generated : Additional income from shell sale RM40/tonne reduce of 50% shell usage inside the boilers Potential daily revenue RM 2480 (60 tonnes shell) Reduce black smoke emission from boilers increase air quality/environmental benefits Estimated sale of per tonne CO 2 per year RM 1.8 million (Assumption: Mill capacity of 60t FFB/hr and 320 days of operation)

12 PROJECT #2 ORGANIC ACIDS Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (Status: R & D to Pilot phase)

13 Project #2: Organic Acids Production Fermentative bacteria POME Alcohols, amines, organic acids, H 2 Acidogens Volatile organic acids Volatile organic acids production from POME fermentation (UPM Patent No: PI ) Yield ~ 15 g/l of acetic, propionic and butyric acids Lab scale 50 L Proposed scale up pilot plant 100 tonnes capacity Raw material for bioplastic (PHA) production Methanogens Recovery of VFA Partially purified Bioplastic fermentation CH 4 & CO 2

14 Mitigation measures: Proposed 100 tonnes organic acids pilot plant (2006) Bioplastic (PHA)* Partially Purified Acid Mixture NaOH Tank Bioreactor Settling Tank Evaporator Sludge Recycle POME Storage Sludge Discharge/Methane fermentation system Sludge Filter press

15 Mitigation Method #3: Bio-acids production Estimated Costs, RM (million) Construction of Biogas Tanks (1000t x 3 units) Downstream processing (Separator and evaporator units) Total plant cost Yearly maintenance and operation cost Benefits/Revenues generated : Additional income from organic acid sale RM200/tonne Potential daily revenue RM 2150 Seed for bioplastics industry in Malaysia Bioplastic resin RM 5000 per tonne Minimizing non-degradable plastic disposal/environmental benefits Estimated sale of per tonne CO 2 per year RM 1.8 million (Assumption: Mill capacity of 60t FFB/hr and 320 days of operation)

16 PROJECT #3 Production of SUGARS and Other Valued Products from Empty Fruit Bunch and Fiber (Status: R & D phase)

17 Project #3: Production of Sugars for Lactic Fermentation Saccharification of cellulose to produce sugars Screening for potential cellulase producing microbes Sugars as raw materials for new bioproducts: Lactic acid fermentation for polylactate (bioplastic)

18 Project #3: Polylactate Pilot Plant in Japan Poly-lactate pilot plant at Kyushu Institute of Technology Crystalline Poly-lactate

19 Proposed Framework of the CDM Business Proposal Production of Bioproducts Malaysian Japanese Equity Equity CDM scheme Quantify Certified Emission Reduction Initial Cost (Construction of manufacturing plant) CER Price Sale of Bioproducts CER Revenue Operating & maintenance cost Not Profitable feasible

20 New Business Potential of Palm Oil Industry under CDM Projects Concentration of biomass business as usual Bioplastics (Polylactate) Empty Fruit Bunch > 14 million t/yr Palm Oil Mill Effluent > 45 million t/yr Saccharification of cellulose Organic acids Sugar Fermentation & esterification of lactic acid Electricity 500 m 3 Biogas Pilot Plant Bioplastics (PHA)

21 Novel Business Using Biomass Energy from Palm Oil Industry in Malaysia CDM provides profitable area for novel business to which biomass energy can be supplied from palm oil industry with a very good price for novel business CDM provides a complete methane fermentation system and change lagoon area into a profitable area. CDM provides electricity using the methane fermentation system for the novel business with a competitive price. 1. CDM can reduce GHG by sealing the lagoons. 2. Prevention of undesirable smell. 3. Local employment can be encouraged for new business. According to the economic growth in Malaysia, the development of new oil palm plantation in the tropical rain forest becomes no longer economically effective. To answer the increasing demand for palm oil in the future, palm oil industry must cooperatively stay with other industries and people >>> 3P (Profit, People, Planet)

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