Validation of a video game made for training laparoscopic skills Jalink, Maarten

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1 Validation of a video game made for training laparoscopic skills Jalink, Maarten IMPORTANT NOTE: You are advised to consult the publisher's version (publisher's PDF) if you wish to cite from it. Please check the document version below. Document Version Publisher's PDF, also known as Version of record Publication date: 2014 Link to publication in University of Groningen/UMCG research database Citation for published version (APA): Jalink, M. (2014). Validation of a video game made for training laparoscopic skills [S.l.]: [S.n.] Copyright Other than for strictly personal use, it is not permitted to download or to forward/distribute the text or part of it without the consent of the author(s) and/or copyright holder(s), unless the work is under an open content license (like Creative Commons). Take-down policy If you believe that this document breaches copyright please contact us providing details, and we will remove access to the work immediately and investigate your claim. Downloaded from the University of Groningen/UMCG research database (Pure): For technical reasons the number of authors shown on this cover page is limited to 10 maximum. Download date:

2 Validation of a video game made for training laparoscopic skills Maarten B. Jalink 1

3 Validation of a video game made for training laparoscopic skills Address for correspondence M.B. Jalink University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen Internal postal code FC33 P.O. Box , 9700 RB Groningen, the Netherlands M.B. Jalink, 2014, Groningen, the Netherlands All rights reserved. No part of this thesis may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, without the written permission from the author or, when appropriate, from the publishers of the publications. The printing of this thesis was financially supported by the University Medical Center Groningen and the Graduate School of Medical Sciences. A full financial disclaimer can be found in the appendix of this thesis. ISBN Cover Printing (printed version) (electronic version) Underground title screen, Lieuwe de Wit, senior artist Grendel Games B.V. NetzoDruk Groningen B.V. 2

4 Validation of a video game made for training laparoscopic skills Proefschrift ter verkrijging van de graad van doctor aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen op gezag van de rector magnificus prof. dr. E. Sterken en volgens besluit van het College voor Promoties. De openbare verdediging zal plaatsvinden op woensdag 17 december 2014 om 12:45 uur door Maarten Bernhardus Jalink geboren op 22 mei 1988 te Winschoten 3

5 Promotores Prof. dr. E. Heineman Prof. dr. J.P.E.N. Pierie Beoordelingscommissie Prof. dr. H.J. Bonjer Prof. dr. I.A.M.J. Broeders Prof. dr. R.P. Zwierstra 4

6 Video games are bad for you? That's what they said about rock- n-roll. Shigeru Miyamoto (creator of Donkey Kong, Super Mario, and The Legend of Zelda amongst others) Paranimfen Marijn H. Parmentier, MA Drs. Jetse Goris 5

7 Table of contents Table of contents 6 Chapter 1 Introduction and outline of this thesis 10 About (serious) games 10 Laparoscopy, training, and simulators 12 Underground 15 History and development 15 Technical details 18 Validation 21 Aim of this thesis 23 Outline of this thesis 24 References 25 Chapter 2 The effects of video games on laparoscopic simulator skills 31 American Journal of Surgery Jul;208(1): (IF 2.516) Introduction 32 Methods 32 Results 32 Game experience and basic laparoscopic skills 33 Games used to improve laparoscopic skills 36 Discussion 38 References 40 Chapter 3 Training basic laparoscopic skills using a custom-made 45 video game Perspectives on Medical Education Sep;3(4): Background 46 The game 47 Validation 48 Conclusion 49 References 50 6

8 Chapter 4 Face validity of a Wii U video game for training basic 53 laparoscopic skills Accepted for publication (American Journal of Surgery, IF 2.516) Introduction 54 Goals and hypothesis 55 Methods 56 Participants 56 Apparatus and tasks 56 Assessment 56 Evaluation 57 Results 57 Discussion 58 Limitations of the study 59 References 60 Chapter 5 Construct and concurrent validity of a Nintendo Wii video 63 game made for training basic laparoscopic skills. Surgical Endoscopy Feb;28(2): (IF 3.427) Introduction 64 Goals and hypotheses 65 Methods 65 Participants 65 Apparatus and tasks 67 Assessment 68 Power analysis 68 Evaluation 69 Results 69 Construct validity 69 Concurrent validity 69 Discussion 70 Limitations of the study 71 Acknowledgements 71 References 72 7

9 Chapter 6 The effect of a preoperative warm-up with a custom-made 77 Nintendo video game on the performance of laparoscopic surgeons Surgical Endoscopy Nov 1. [Epub ahead of print] (IF 3.427) Introduction 78 Goals and hypothesis 80 Methods 80 Participants 80 Apparatus and tasks 81 Assessment 83 Power analysis 83 Evaluation 84 Ethics 84 Results 84 Discussion 86 Limitations of the study 86 Conclusion 87 References 88 Chapter 7 Is a Nintendo a dangerous Christmas present? A narrative 91 review of Nintendo-related injuries and other complaints Accepted for publication (The BMJ Christmas Edition 2014, IF ) Introduction 92 Methods 92 Results 92 Early reports 93 Nintendinitis 94 Enter the Wii 95 Wiiitis 96 Wii Knee 96 Surgerii 96 Discussion 97 References 98 8

10 Chapter 8 Discussion, conclusions, and future perspectives 102 Limitations of this thesis 105 This thesis lacks a decent content validity study 105 The long-term effect of Underground 106 Future perspectives 107 More research is needed 107 Further uses of the Underground hard- and software 107 Using Underground for measuring basic laparoscopic skills 108 General conclusions and recommendations 110 References 111 Chapter 9 Summaries 114 Summary in English 114 Samenvatting in het Nederlands 120 Soamenvatting in t Grönnens 127 Appendix 129 Questionnaires 131 Face validity questionnaire used in chapter Intake questionnaire used in chapter Intake questionnaire used in chapter Disclaimer 140 Acknowledgements/Dankwoord 144 Scientific publications 149 Curriculum Vitae 151 9

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