Creating America (Survey)

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1 Creating America (Survey) Chapter 17: The Tide of War Turns, Section 1: The Emancipation Proclamation Main Idea: In 1863, President Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which helped change the war s course. On January 1, 1863, President Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which freed the slaves in the Confederate states. Lincoln said the proclamation was a military action, which, as Commander-in-Chief, he was allowed to take. Lincoln also asked Congress to abolish slavery throughout the land. Reactions varied. Northern abolitionists rejoiced. But they wanted the president to free all slaves not just those in the South. Many Northern Democrats felt that the proclamation would only prolong the war. The Emancipation Proclamation allowed African-Americans to join the Union army. By the end of the war, 180,000 black soldiers had fought for the Union. African-Americans fought in all-black units, which usually were led by white officers. They often were assigned the worst jobs and paid less than white soldiers. Even so, African Americans showed great courage on the battlefield. The most famous African-American regiment was the 54th Massachusetts regiment. In July 1863, the unit led a heroic attack on Fort Wagner in South Carolina. African Americans faced greater danger than whites if captured. Southerners usually shot black soldiers or returned them to slavery rather than take them as prisoners. 1

2 Section 2: War Affects Society Main Idea: The Civil War caused social, economic, and political changes in the North and South. By 1863, people had grown tired of war. Confederate soldiers began to flee the army. Southern states started quarreling among each other. Some Northerners, called Copperheads, wanted to make peace. Lincoln had many war protestors arrested. He also suspended habeas corpus, which prevents the government from holding citizens without a trial. Both sides passed laws of conscription, which required men to serve in the military. In the South, however, wealthy men could avoid the draft by hiring substitutes. Planters who owned 20 or more slaves also could avoid military service. The North offered bounties, or cash payments, to men who volunteered to serve. Even so, the draft law was not popular. In July 1863, anger over the draft, along with racial tensions, led to the New York City draft riots. In the South, food shortages were common. Another problem was inflation. Slave resistance also hurt the Southern economy. Many slaves slowed their pace or sabotaged farm machines. Some rose up in rebellion. Many others fled to join the Union forces. In the North, war production boosted Northern industry. Inflation was much lower than in the South. In 1861, the Union government established the first income tax. The following year, the government issued a new paper currency called greenbacks, which helped the Union pay for the war. Women took on new duties. They plowed the fields and ran the plantations. They worked in offices and factories. Many served on the front lines as nurses. Clara Barton organized an agency of women who washed clothes and cooked for Union soldiers. Harriet Tubman 2

3 served as a spy for Union forces in South Carolina. The most famous Confederate spy was Belle Boyd. Captured soldiers faced terrible conditions. One of the worst prison camps in the North was in Elmira, New York. During one year, almost one fourth of Elmira s 12,122 prisoners died of sickness and exposure to severe weather. The worst Southern camp was at Andersonville, Georgia. As many as 100 men per day died from starvation, disease, and exposure. Section 3: The North Wins Main Idea: Thanks to victories, beginning with Gettysburg and ending with Richmond, the Union survived. Confederate forces had failed in their first attempt to invade the North. In September 1862, Union forces turned back Southern troops at the bloody Battle of Antietam. In June 1863, however, Confederate forces crossed into southern Pennsylvania and met Union troops near Gettysburg. The Battle of Gettysburg raged for three days. When General Pickett s forces charged the middle of the Union line, they were torn to pieces. The Confederates retreated. Although Union forces failed to pursue them, the Union victory at Gettysburg was a turning point of the war. The day after Pickett s Charge, Union General Ulysses S. Grant defeated rebel troops at the Siege of Vicksburg. Now the Union had complete control of the Mississippi River, which split the South in two. The tide of war turned in favor of the North. In March 1864, Lincoln made Grant commander of all the Union armies. Grant quickly made a plan to defeat the Confederacy. He would pursue Lee s army in Virginia. Meanwhile, Union forces under William Tecumseh Sherman would push through the Deep South to Atlanta and the Atlantic Coast. As he marched through the South, Sherman waged total war. His troops tore up rail lines, destroyed crops, and burned towns. Sherman s victories were important for Lincoln, 3

4 because Northerners suddenly could sense victory. This optimism helped Lincoln to win reelection in After marching through Georgia, Sherman moved north. His plan was to link up with Grant s troops in Virginia. In June 1864, Grant s troops reached the edge of Richmond. There, the two sides battled for ten months. In the end, Lee could not hold out. The Union army marched into Richmond on April 3, On April 9, Lee and Grant met at Appomattox Court House. There, the two men arranged a surrender. Grant offered generous terms. After handing over their weapons, the Confederates were free to return home. The war was over. Section 4: The Legacy of the War Main Idea: The Civil War brought great changes and new challenges to the United States. The Civil War was the deadliest war in American history. About 620,000 men died. Another 535,000 were wounded. The war was costly as well. Years later, the federal government was still paying interest on its war debts. One of the greatest effects of the war was the freeing of millions of enslaved people. However, the Emancipation Proclamation applied mainly to slaves in the Confederacy. Then, in January 1865, Congress passed the Thirteenth Amendment, which officially banned slavery throughout the United States. By the end of the year, the required number of states had ratified the amendment, and it became part of the U.S. Constitution. Five days after the South surrendered, a Confederate supporter named John Wilkes Booth shot President Lincoln. The next day, Lincoln died. Booth escaped but later was killed by soldiers. Lincoln s murder stunned the nation. His loss was a terrible setback. The Civil War changed the nation in many ways. People began to think of the United States as a single nation. The war caused the national government to expand. It also 4

5 transformed the Northern economy, as new industries grew rapidly. By the late 1800s, industry was replacing farming as the basis of the national economy. For the South, the war brought economic disaster. Farms and plantations were destroyed. Slavery the system that built the southern economy was gone. The country as a whole faced other difficult challenges. How would the South be brought back into the Union? And how would the nation address the needs of four million former slaves? These questions would occupy the nation s energies for years to come. 5

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