Water- Energy-Food Security Nexus in the HKH Countries

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1 Water- Energy-Food Security Nexus in the HKH Countries Golam Rasul, Theme Leader, Livelihoods International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development Kathmandu, Nepal

2 Outline 1. Background & objective 2. Nexus challenges in South Asia 3. Role of Himalayas in Nexus security in South Asia 4. Emerging issues 5. Key questions

3 Water, Energy & Food Security: A common challenge Over 40% of the world's poor live in South Asia Growing water stress- 20% lack access to safe drinking water Food-energy deficiency- 51% 63% population no access to modern energy Water, Energy & Food security is a common challenge for SA

4 Objective Mountains provide numerous goods & services fresh water, biodiversity, food, forest, medicinal products & energy. However, the role of mountains in nexus security is not fully understood & recognized. Poor understanding may lead to inadequate action & further degradation of critical resources including mountain ecosystems With an example of the Himalayan ecosystem services & their role in ensuring water, energy & food security in SA, we argue that mountains deserve special attention in the waterenergy-food-nexus discourse.

5 2. Nexus Challenges in South Asia

6 Nexus Challenges: Food Security With 3% of land, SA has to feed 20% population Per capita agricultural land declining Food production needs to be doubled in next 25 years Water demand for irrigation will increase about 70% Fertilizer demand will increase over 100% Rice & wheat- high water & energy demanding Intensification of agriculture has led to a great dependence on water & energy

7 Nexus Challenges: Water Security Growing water demand for agriculture, energy, industry, human & livestock Almost 90% water is consumed by the agriculture sector About 20% of the population lack access to safe drinking water Groundwater: 70-80% of the agricultural production depends on groundwater irrigation Water pollution arsenic, water borne diseases, high child mortality, poor human health, salinization Growing water stress- Pakistan, India

8 Challenges: Irrigation Trend, Water Stress Irrigated area in Bangladesh 000 ha Irrigated area in India 000 ha 70,000 57,178 60,000 50,000 40,637 40,000 30,000 25,523 20,000 10, Irrigated land as % of arable land, Bangladesh Irrigated land as % of arable land, India

9 Challenges: Irrigation Trend, Water Stress Irrigated land in Nepal, 000 ha 1,200 1,135 1, Irrigated land as % of arable land, Nepal Irrigated land in Pakistan, 000 ha Irrigated land as % of arable land, Pakistan 20,000 18,000 16,000 14,000 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2, ,810 15,548 11,

10 Irrigation Trend in South Asia Groundwater Irrigated area in 1000 ha Tanks Canal irrigated area Tank irrigated area Groundwater irrigated area Mokherji, 2014

11 Nexus Challenges: Energy Security Widening demand-supply gap 65% use biomass for cooking Shortage of energy impedes economic growth Meeting growing energy demand for agriculture, water, industry & other economic activities High dependence on traditional sources, fossil fuels, imported energy Reducing reliance upon fossil fuels & carbon intensity

12 Nexus Challenge: Climate change (% change) World -0.6 to -0.9 Developed Countries 2.7 to 9.0 Developing -3.3 to -7.2 Countries Southeast Asia -2.5 to -7.8 South Asia to Sub-Saharan -3.9 to -7.5 Africa Latin America 5.2 to 12.5 Climate change is a major concern - alterations in temperature & precipitation, melting Himalayan glaciers, degradation of natural resources & environment Fresh water availability increased uncertainty Increased frequency of extreme events, drought, floods, variability in climate, affecting monsoon patterns

13 3. Role of Himalayas in Water, Energy, and Food Security in South Asia

14 Himalayas the water tower of Asia Himalayan freshwater 54,000 glaciers, covering 60,000 Km 2 Largest body of ice outside the Polar caps Store about 12,000 km3 of freshwater

15 Indo-Gangetic Plain- bread basket of SA World s largest irrigated agriculture in IGBP Rice-wheat system produces the bulk of the food-grains of SA

16 Ground water recharge Himalayan watersheds are natural storage of water Himalayas influences the ground water condition of IGBP - Recharge deep aquifers IGBP is rich in ground water replenish by rainfall, snow & ice melting & seepage from Himalayan watershed

17 Energy Security Energy is driving land & water use Energy demand is growing 3-5% annually Future of nuclear energy after Fukushima Demand for Hydropower & Bioenergy is growing

18 Role of Himalayas in Energy Security Himalayas have vital role in energy security in SA Hydropower potential 500 GW Himalayas can provide access to green energy Of the total hydropower potential in India, 79% is in the Himalayan region Micro-hydropower

19 Hydropower in Indian Himalayan Region GOI aims to build 292 hydropower in IHR by 2030 In 12 th plan, about 100 hydropower schemes are planned in IHR States No of scheme s MW Himachal Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Uttarakhand Darjeeling (West Bengal state) Sikkim Arunachal Pradesh Assam Manipur Meghalaya 2 504

20 Hydropower in Pakistan Pakistan has about 60, 000 MW hydropower potential Government is encouraging private investment to promote hydropower

21 Identified hydropower sites in KPK

22 Identified hydropower site in Gilgit-Baltistan

23 Demand on land for biofuel Demand for land for bioenergy is growing India- targeted 20% biodesel blending to produce 13 million tons of biodiesel annually from 11 million hectares of land. Pakistan- 10% ethanol blending by 2020 Increase ethanol production from 0.2 million tons in 2006 to 4.3 million tons in Biofuel production will have serious implications on land & water

24 Emerging issues Hydropower & biofuel may change the landscape of HKH region Growing trade-offs food, energy & water Increased vulnerabilities & risks of food security Increased globalization may erode mountain biodiversity Outmigration- feminization of agriculture, shortage of agricultural labor, the abandonment of agricultural land Degradation of land, water, ecosystems Policies, institutions, technologies insensitive to mountain contexts- unequal exchange & resource flow

25 Key questions How food, water & energy needs of mountain communities could best be met? How to balance land demand for food, water & energy? How to manage their trade-offs & exploit synergies? How mountain people can be part of & receive fair benefits from the development of land, water, & energy resources in the HKH region? Which knowledge, approaches, tools necessary to support nexus action at different levels?

26 Thank you

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