OUTREACH AND EXTENSION IN THE REALM OF CLIMATE CHANGE: CHALLENGES, ISSUES AND THE WAY FORE\WARD

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1 OUTREACH AND EXTENSION IN THE REALM OF CLIMATE CHANGE: CHALLENGES, ISSUES AND THE WAY FORE\WARD Babar Shahbaz, PhD Outreach Program, US-Pakistan Center for Advanced Studies in Agriculture and Food Security and Institute of Agric. Extension & Rural Development University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, PAKISTAN

2 Outline Introduction Case Study Climate Change: Farmers Perceptions and Access to Information in KPK, Pakistan Ag Extension in Pakistan: Limitations, Challenges, constraints The Way Forward

3 Information on Climate Change? No Information Lot of Information

4 AKIS (Agricultural Knowledge and Information System) Universit ies Private Sector NGOs Federal Govt. Provincial Govt Producers

5 Do farmers (like Banaras) have access to information they need? Are information relevant to the needs of farmers?

6 The problem - information gap Supply Demand (What farmers need) Mark Bell, UCD

7 Case Study of Highlands of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province Warming in Himalayas is higher than global average Increasing temperature; and mixed trend of rains in the mountainous regions of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province Dearth of climate change studies Lack of climate stations weather stations in KPK 500 in Switzerland (about half of the area of KP) Socio-cultural aspects? (Bhutiyani et al., 2007) (Islam et al. 2009) (Chaudhry et al., 2009).

8

9 Research Questions patterns of climate change in the study area? peoples perceptions regarding climate change and related agricultural practices? coping strategies of communities in this regards?

10 Methodology M.Sc. And M.Phil. Studies (Agri. Univ. Faisalabad; Swiss NCCR North- South SDPI) Umair Safdar (2013); Martin Kienzler (2012) Kaghan valley Trend analysis; time series Qualitative research semi structured interviews; life histories (elderly people) Kaghan, batakundi, Lari, Kawai, paras and Bella Balseri Quantitative survey 2 UCs (six villages; 120 respondents)

11 Kaghan Valley Area- 846 sq. km Elevation - from 2135 feet (650 m) to feet (4170 m) Subsistence farming Maize, wheat, potato, peas

12

13 (Kienzler, 2012)

14 (Kienzler, 2012)

15 (Source: PMD, 2012) Kaghan Valley -- Annual Mean Temp.

16 Annual mean precipitation averaged over Kaghan Valley (Source: PMD, 2012)

17 Semi-structured interviews ++ strong increase + slight increase - Slight reduction -- strong reduction 0 no trend

18 % of respondents Awareness about CC Majority (85%) had already felt long-term changes in climate. But very few heard about it from external sources Radio T.V. Newspaper NGO,s Govt. Fellow Never Heard Farmers %

19 Coping strategies Climate Change Coping strategy Yes No F % F % Use drought resistant varieties Change in cropping pattern (single to multiple crops) Forest conservation Planting of new trees Migration Access to weather forecast Increased land area Food storage Inducting new land for cultivation (Safdar, 2013)

20 Coping strategies Food Shortage Coping Strategy Never Sometime s Mostly F % F % F % Rely on less expensive and less preferred food Borrowed food/helped by relatives Consumed seed stock held for next season Reduced No. of meals /day Reduced expenditure on health and education Spent savings Borrowed money Sold animals Sold land

21 Excerpts from Life Stories Changing livelihood strategies: Crops and livestock were the main sources of livelihood for my father and my family in the past times. Rains & temperature were helpful. I also practiced farming when I was 10 years old. Rains were abundant.... But now I have to work as driver on daily wage (62 years old driver) I was doing farming since childhood but as the time passed production started decreasing irregular rains and higher temp..... Now daily wage labour is my main activity (58 years old labourer) Changing food habits:.. We used to eat maize as staple food in my childhood & we were self sufficient but now wheat is major food... I had to work in Karachi to feed my family (83 years old man).. Some farmers are trying to shift towards the cultivation of (off season) vegetable, but no technical services.

22 Conclusions The increase in temperature is strongest in the high-mountain areas (>1500 m asl). Most farmers have realized the changes in climate Increase in yield (technological advancement, new varieties, fertilizers) increase in crop yield is nullified due to extreme weather events; floods, melting of glaciers and subsequent floods. Least Changes in cropping pattern; No technical support Migration

23 migration, food storage, and diversifying of livelihoods are some of the main coping and adaptation strategies to attain food security. increasing trend of adopting non-farm activities to sustain

24 Agri. Extension & Outreach in Pakistan

25 Challenges and constraints 1. Targeting the clienteles comparatively more-educated and medium to larger and resource-rich farmers. Smallholders, tenants, rural women, youths are generally excluded Source: Shahbaz and Ata (2014)

26 Challenges and constraints 2. Lack of linkages and coordination lack of linkages between different departments agricultural universities operate in relative isolation from research and extension institutions Source: Shahbaz and Ata (2014)

27 Challenges and constraints 3. (Partial) decentralization decentralized extension system has not shown any considerable change in the efficiency of extension service Least financial powers Irrelevant activities Source: Shahbaz and Ata (2014)

28 Challenges and constraints 4. Market-driven private sector Private and public sectors drive overlapping extension programmes with a key difference in the clientele with whom they work directly 5. Climate change and natural disasters Floods Declining natural resources Climate change

29

30 Bridging the Gap

31 Information and Communication Technologies Source: internet

32 Need based knowledge generation and dissemination A systematic and research informed series of actions is needed in the context of Climate Change, ranging from better flood management systems, improvement in infrastructure, and climate change adaptable farming and cropping systems.

33 Information for Farmers Simple Clear Relevant

34 Transdisciplinary Approach

35 Natural Science Perspective Social Science Perspective Practical Perspective Cartoon: K. Herweg

36 Thanks

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