Laboratory Manual 1.0.7

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Laboratory Manual 1.0.7"

Transcription

1 Laboratory Manual Background What is X-ray Diffraction? X-rays scatter off of electrons, in a process of absorption and re-admission. Diffraction is the accumulative result of the x-ray scattering of a group of electrons that are spaced in an orderly array. For an incident X-ray photon of monochromatic wavelength λ, coherent waves are produced from the sample at an angle of θ (2-θ with respect to the incident x-ray beam) if the electron groups interact with the x-ray beam and are spaced at a repeat distance d. The interaction is described by Bragg's law : nλ=2dsinθ. The intensity of the scattered x-ray is proportional to the number of electrons that the x-ray is scattered from. Why use X-rays? Normally one would use a microscope to view small objects. For a microscope, light is scattered by an object and collected using lenses, which in turn magnifies the image of the object. The limit of the microscope is intrinsic to the nature of the electromagnetic radiation that is used to probe the object. If we use white light we cannot look at objects smaller than the wavelength of light, which is about 10-6 m. Since the atom has dimensions of about m we cannot image an atom with a photon of white light. X-rays, on the other hand, have a wavelength of about m and are suitable for imaging objects at the atomic scale. What are X-rays X-rays are electromagnetic radiation of wavelength about 1 Å (10-10 m) which is about the same size as an atom. They occur in that portion of the electromagnetic spectrum between gamma rays and the ultraviolet. The discovery of X-rays in 1895 enabled scientists to probe crystalline structure at the atomic level. X-ray diffraction has been employed in two main areas: for the fingerprint characterization of crystalline materials and the determination of their structure. Each crystalline solid has its unique characteristic X-ray powder pattern, which may be used as a "fingerprint" for its identification. Once the material has been identified, X-ray crystallography may be used to determine its structure, i.e. how the atoms pack together in the crystalline state and what the inter-atomic distance and angle are etc. X-ray diffraction is one of the most important characterization tools used in solid-state chemistry and materials science. We can determine the size and the shape of the unit cell for any compound most easily using the diffraction of x-rays. Diffraction of X-rays

2 Given that two parallel rays will strike a grating at an angle theta where the grating separation is given as d then : A B A' B' θ C θ θ d 2d θ Γ 2d Γ sinθ = 2d 2d sinθ = Γ Γ = AC A' B' given A' B' = AB then Γ = AC AB = BC Γ = BC = λ ( path difference) 2d sinθ = λ An interference maximum will be observed when Γ is an integral multiply (n) of λ. This leads to the Bragg equation: nλ = 2dsinθ

3 X-ray Sources and Monochromation. The two sources for in-house or laboratory X-rays are the sealed-tube and the rotating anode types. The sealed tube is simply a glass or ceramic tube where a tungsten cathode has been placed above a metallic stationary anode. The tube is then evacuated and current is applied to the cathode and the anode. A rotating anode is similar to the sealed tube instrument except for the fact that the metallic anode is now spinning. The spinning anode spreads the heat of the electron bombardment over a wider area. This allows for higher wattages, which produces a higher X-ray flux. For diffraction experiments the X-rays should be monochromatic. To do this we employ either a crystal monochromator or a metallic filter. The crystal monochromator produces more monochromatic X-rays at the expense of X-ray flux. The metallic filter is normally used with powder diffraction and results in high X-ray flux with poor monochromation. The anode is also rectangular which allows for a line focus (which is broad but has low flux and a point focus, which is intense but has a narrow illumination area. In practice the line focus is used with powder diffraction so as to illuminate more sample and the point focus is used in single crystal and small angle x-ray scattering instruments for higher flux for small samples.

4 line focus Focus X-ray Sources sealed tube cathode The primary beam is used for experimentation. e - primary beam anode (top view) point focus Single crystal work requires a point focus, while powder work employs the line focus 50kV anode Be window main beam crystal (graphite) monochromator Normal operation 40kV and 40ma the power = 1600 watts rotating anode cathode e - evacuated chamber main beam 50kV anode metal filter rotating anode ~4000rpm Normal operation 50kV x 180ma the power = 9000 watts

5 The x-rays that are generated are of two types 1) Characteristic (ejection of electrons from the atom in the anode 2) White Radiation (synchrotron effect) Electron strikes the target and ejects an electron. The cascade of electrons from higher orbitals generates X-ray M e - Characteristic X-rays K alpha K beta Electron reaccelerate when entering the metal and "bend" their trajectory path. Loss of momentum results in generation of X-rays. White Radiation Bremsstrahlung or breaking radiation The energy of the X-ray is determined from the observed wavelength and is given by the formula : Energy (KeV) = / λ (nm) Profile of X-rays generated by electron ejection and momentum loss. K alpha and K beta are the characteristic X-rays from the lowest electron shells and are superimposed on the white radiation. Energy for K alpha (for Mo) = KeV Powder and Single Crystal Diffraction normally employ the K α characteristic radiation, due to its intensity and monochromatic wavelengths.

6 Laboratory 1. Radiation Safety for X-ray Diffractometers To begin the X-ray Crystallography Laboratory you must complete the on-line X-ray safety training. The following appendix is available for your information and not necessary reading. Bibliography "Procedures Manual for Use of Radioisotopes and Radiation Producing Devices", Office of Radiological Safety, Texas A & M University "A Guide to the Safe Use of X-ray Diffraction and Spectrometry Equipment", Martin, E., Science Reviews Ltd., Ash Drive, Leeds, LS 17 8RA U.K. "A Case History of Severe Radiation Burns from 50 kvc X-rays", Steidley, K., Stabile, R. & Santillippo, L. Health Physics (1981) "Analytical X-ray Hazards: A Continuing Problem" Lubenau, J., Davis, J., McDonald, D. & Gerusky, T. Health Physics (1969). 16, "Occupational Hazards in X-ray Analytical Work" Lindel, B. Health Physics (1968). 15, "Incidence, Detection and Monitoring of Radiation from X-ray Analytical Instrumentation" Jenkins, R. & Haas, D. X-ray Spectrom (1975). 4, "Protection Against Radiation Injury" Cook, J. & Oosterkamp, W. International Tables for Crystallography (1962)

7 X-ray Diffraction Laboratory 2. X-RAY ANALYSIS OF SILICON Warning : This laboratory employs X-rays (~10KeV). X-rays are hazardous. All necessary safety procedures are in place. Instructors will mount/dismount samples. The student is not allowed to enter the x-ray enclosure. Materials Analysis Qualitative Analysis Bragg's Law Learning Experiences In this lab you will measure the x-ray powder diffraction pattern from silicon. Your TA will give you the sample to be measured and show you how to set up the D8 x-ray diffractometer. You should measure all the values of 2theta from the chart, and after converting them into d values calculate the repeat distance in your unit cell. In your lab notebook list all the 2theta values with their corresponding values of n and d. INSTRUMENTATION The X-ray diffraction experiment requires an X-ray source, the sample under investigation and a detector to pick up the diffracted X-rays. Figure 1 is a schematic diagram of a powder X-ray diffractometer. X-ray Tube X-ray Detector θ R1 Sample R2 θ Receiving Slit R1 = R2 Fig. 1. Schematic of an X-ray powder diffractometer

8 The X-ray radiation most commonly used is that emitted by copper, whose characteristic average wavelength for the K radiation is Å. When the incident beam strikes a powder sample, diffraction occurs in every possible orientation of 2theta. The diffracted beam may be detected by using a moveable detector such as a x-ray counter, which is connected to a computer. In normal use, the counter is set to scan over a range of 2theta values at a constant angular velocity. Routinely, a 2theta range of 5 to 90 degrees is sufficient to cover the most useful part of the powder pattern. PROCEDURE **Do not open the enclosure while the alarm red light is on. 1. Obtain a sample from your instructor and place it into the sample holder. 2. Place sample holder in the sample positioner. 3. Record the values of the fixed slits. 4. Close the DOORS. The green ready light should be the only LED displayed 5. Run the COMMANDER program. 6. For RAW-file name type ijksilicon wher ijk are YOUR initials 7. Add a title under sample identification. 8. Set the instrument at optimum setting as follows time constant 1 deg/min range 20 to 90 o (2θ) step size Your scan should be complete in about 30 mins. 10. Save the *.raw file when scan is complete. 11. When finished : Close all windows and start EVA

9 12. Start the EVA program and import your RAW file.

10 13. Locate all peaks on the chart and corresponding 2theta values and write their values into your lab notebook. Perform the necessary calculations in the table and calculate the repeat distance. type this tab to get the peak list. Use slid bar append to list when finished 14. Use the ZOOM key to zoom out the plot (if necessary). 15. Keep this information for Laboratory 3. (You can cut and paste the results from the peak list to the notepad)

11 CHECK ONLY THE * 16. Find Silicon in the ICCD data base. reference peaks appear in red toggle all unwanted red all wanted green 17. PLOT the results 23. Print the results and be sure you have written down the peak positions.

12 Laboratory 3. Indexing Powder Patterns Learning Experiences o o - How to manually index a simple powder pattern. - Mathematics involved in pattern indexing In this lab you will manually index the powder pattern for Silicon. An example of how to index powder patterns is presented. The mathematics are introduced and the step by step procedure is presented. You will need a calculator and a pencil. For the peak positions of Silicon use the values that you determined in Laboratory 2. or ask your Laboratory assistant for the values Example How to Index the powder pattern for NaCl Analytical Method : Equations Given Bragg s Law 2d sinθ = nλ nλ sinθ = 2d 2 2 λ sin θ = 2 4d d * can be determined as : d * = 1/d = (h 2 a * + k 2 b * + l 2 c * + 2hka * b * cosγ * + 2hla * c * cosβ * + 2klb * c * cosα * ) 1/2 See "Crystal Structure Determination" by Werner Massa pp

13 For a cubic system a * = b * = c * = 1/a and α * = β * = γ * = 90 cos γ * = then ( h + k + l ) = 2 2 d a 2 2 λ 2 sin θ = ( h + k 2 4a 2 2 sin θ λ = ( h + k + l ) 4a 2 + l 2 ) Let X = λ 2 /4a 2 and M = h 2 +k 2 +l 2 Now create a table for M values given h,k and l are integers Table 1. M n = h 2 + k 2 + l 2 n h k l M n Note for cubic systems : = = = = = = = = etc some h,k,l values share h 2 +k 2 +l 2 sums e.g. 2,2,1 and 3,0,0 sum to h 2 +k 2 +l 2 = 9 h, k and l must be integers. Not all h 2 +k 2 +l 2 sums have integer h, k, l values (i.e. some h 2 +k 2 +l 2 values are not possible) From the X-ray powder pattern we find the peak positions at 2θ = 38.52, 44.76, 65.14, 78.26, 82.47, 99.11, and o

14 Table 2 2θ θ sin 2 θ/m 1 sin 2 θ/m 2 sin 2 θ/m 3 sin 2 θ/m 4 sin 2 θ/m 5 sin 2 θ/m 6 sin 2 θ/m 7 sin 2 θ/m 8 sin 2 θ/m 9 sin 2 θ/m 10 sin 2 θ/m Largest common sin 2 θ/m value(s) (X) are (see bold values above) = = = = ± = X inserting = into the equation affords : = λ 2 /4a 2 a = ( Å) 2 / 4 (0.0362) 2 = Å From Table 2 we see that is the result for sin 2 θ/m 3 : M 3 is the result for h =1, k =1 and l =1. Completing the table for the first 4 peaks we now can assign these peaks with h,k,l values Table 3. M = h 2 + k 2 + l 2 h k l M Or we can solve Bragg s equation for each observed peak. For example for 2θ = : sin 2 θ/ = or From table 1 we see that M=3 is equivalent to h=1, k=1 and l =1. Therefore the peak at is assigned as the (1,1,1) reflection. Table 4 summarizes the results for all peaks and assigns their h,k,l values.

15 Table 4 2θ sin 2 θ/ M h,k,l ,1, ,0, ,2, ,1, ,2, ,0, ,3, ,2, ,2,2

16 Laboratory Particle: Index the following. First Task. Fill in Table 1 e.g. for n=1 h=1,k=0,l=0 will afford M 1 = 1 Table 1. Table of indices n h k l M n Note for cubic systems : = = = = = = = = etc some h,k,l values share h 2 +k 2 +l 2 sums e.g. 2,2,1 and 3,0,0 sum to h 2 +k 2 +l 2 = 9 h, k and l must be integers. Not all h 2 +k 2 +l 2 sums have integer h, k, l values (i.e. some h 2 +k 2 +l 2 values are not possible)

17 Table 2. List of sin 2 θ / M n (n=1,..) use only observed M n From your peak list from Laboratory 2 fill in this table. For example a peak at 26 o 2θ will afford θ = 13 o sin 2 (13) = sin 2 (13)/M 1 = /1 = sin 2 (13)/M 2 = /2 = Complete this table for your peaks. (or you may generate a spread sheet in EXCEL to do the same thing) # 2θ Θ sin 2 θ/m 1 sin 2 θ/m 2 sin 2 θ/m 3 sin 2 θ/m 4 sin 2 θ/m 5 sin 2 θ/m 6 sin 2 θ/m 8 sin 2 θ/m 9 sin 2 θ/m 10 sin 2 θ/m 11 sin 2 θ/m 12 sin 2 θ/m 14 sin 2 θ/m 15 sin 2 θ/m Continue for M 17 to M 30 sin 2 θ/m 17 sin 2 θ/m 18 sin 2 θ/m 19 sin 2 θ/m 20 sin 2 θ/m 21 sin 2 θ/m 22 sin 2 θ/m 23 sin 2 θ/m 24 sin 2 θ/m 25 sin 2 θ/m 26 sin 2 θ/m 27 sin 2 θ/m 28 sin 2 θ/m 29 sin 2 θ/m 30

18 Largest common sin 2 θ value from Table 2 (value of X) = Remember X = λ 2 /4a 2 Calculate unit cell a given λ = Å Now complete Table 3 from the given information assign the h,k,l value for each peak. Table 3 List of h, k, l values Peak # sin 2 θ sin 2 θ/a h 2 +k 2 +l 2 =M hkl

19 Laboratory 4. Indexing Complex Patterns Learning Experiences o o - Use of computer peak picking and indexing programs - Programs that you will use Powder X (C. Dong) "PowderX: Windows-95 based program for powder X-ray diffraction data processing", C. Dong, J. Appl. Cryst. (1999), 32, Treor (P-E. Werner) TREOR, a semi-exhaustive trial-and-error powder indexing program for all symmetries. Werner,P.-E.,Eriksson,L. and Westdahl,M., J.Appl. Cryst.. 18(1985) Link to this web site to download POWDERX : In this lab you will index a powder pattern from a known and unknown sample. You will need to use the computers in the X-ray Laboratory. Bring a calculator, your notebook and a pencil. The three steps to Indexing and Refined Unit Cell Parameters 1. Peak Picking - Generation of a list of d hkl and their intensities 2. Peak Indexing with the program TREOR - Choice of unit cell parameters based on the number of reflections indexed and the figure of merit. 3. Indexing and Cell parameters refinement

20 1. Peak Picking. Begin the program POWDERX and load the Ascorbic Acid data. Note : The raw data file is in the BRUKER RAW format. This is input with the Simens *.RAW selection. (Siemens was bought out by BRUKER in 2000) --- Point to peak and pick simple peak (picking) Pick show and ok (do not change the tolerances)

21 Caution : If you have background that has been choosen as a peak then click on the ZOOM feature and ZOOM in on the area in question. Then use the add/delete peak function (right click on peak) to remove the unwanted peak. When in doubt ask the instructor Keep the wavelength and save the results. Point to OK

22 Example of the Table of peak positions from the peak Pick routine

23 Step 2. Indexing unit cell with the program TREOR Point to index and Treor Point to file and use current peaks You should see a table similar to this one. This is the TREOR input file and can be edit if necessary.. Save (overwrite) the file if prompted.

24 Point to Start and VBTreor90 Let the program run and examine (print) the output for later study. (point to file and then print)

25 Summary of TEROR output Scroll down the TEROR listing file and find : THIS MAY BE THE SOLUTION This is a good sign that you have successfully indexed the cell 0 LINES ARE UNINDEXED. <-number of peaks not indexed 0 is good M-TEST= 27 UNINDEXED IN THE TEST=0 THIS MAY BE THE SOLUTION!!! THE REFINEMENT OF THE CELL WILL NOW BE REPEATED THREE CYCLES MORE. --- GOOD LUCK!... The predicted unit cell NUMBER OF SINGLE INDEXED LINES = 24 TOTAL NUMBER OF LINES = 40 A = A ALFA= DEG. B = A BETA= DEG. C = A GAMMA= DEG. The predicted volume. Does is make sense based on the chemical formula? UNIT CELL VOLUME = The first few indexed peaks. Is the DELTA value small? H K L SST-OBS SST-CALC DELTA 2TH-OBS 2TH-CALC D-OBS FREE PARAM Final Figures of Merit NUMBER OF OBS. LINES = 40 NUMBER OF CALC. LINES =62 M(20)= 26 AV.EPS= F20 = 44. ( ,50) M(30)=27 AV.EPS= F30 = 51. ( ,0) M(40)=23 AV.EPS= F40 = 52. ( ,109)

26 How interpret the Figures of Merit The main rule is that if all the first twenty lines are indexed and the De Wolff figure of merit M(20) [J. Appl. Cryst. (1972). 5, 243] is greater than 9, then the indexing problem is in principle solved. Comments a. If the De Wolff figure of merit M(20) is less than 10 or more than one line is un-indexed within the 20 first observed lines, the solution is probably meaningless. b. Hexagonal and Tetragonal cells are sometimes indexed as orthorhombic. c. Observe that the De Wolff figure of merits are derived from the assumption that no systematic extinctions occur and all lines are indexed. Warning. a high figure of merit has no meaning unless the lines are indexed. d. If possible, use the density and formula weight to check that the unit cell contains an integral number of formula units. e. If a cell axis is more than 20 a...be very suspicious! The De Wolff figure of merit test may fail in such cases. f. If one cell edge is much shorter than the others, be suspicious! It may cause a dominant zone problem. g. If a table starts with...not refined unit cell... then two parameters are probably almost identical (the symmetry may be higher) and the trial cell parameters are used to print the list. Is this the correct unit cell?

27 Proceed to the next window for refinement and point to CALCULATE

28 Exam the DHKL results and look for unassigned peaks. If none then point to PEAK MATCH. You should see something like this Zoom in on the first few peaks with the zoom command Notice all of the peaks (save the one near o ) are labeled. You did not select the peak at the peak picking stage so it is not labeled now. Add this peak with the TASK/ADD remove peak command and type finish. For the wavelength box point to OK Goto to

29 INDEXING/DHKL and recalculate the PEAK MATCH. Now when you ZOOM you will see the peak labeled. CAUTION : Care must be taken when manually picking the peak. You could be off and assign the peak as 100 which would be WRONG! Finally Point to the REFINE CELL button and you will refine the cell. Report your results.

X-Ray Diffraction HOW IT WORKS WHAT IT CAN AND WHAT IT CANNOT TELL US. Hanno zur Loye

X-Ray Diffraction HOW IT WORKS WHAT IT CAN AND WHAT IT CANNOT TELL US. Hanno zur Loye X-Ray Diffraction HOW IT WORKS WHAT IT CAN AND WHAT IT CANNOT TELL US Hanno zur Loye X-rays are electromagnetic radiation of wavelength about 1 Å (10-10 m), which is about the same size as an atom. The

More information

LAUE DIFFRACTION INTRODUCTION CHARACTERISTICS X RAYS BREMSSTRAHLUNG

LAUE DIFFRACTION INTRODUCTION CHARACTERISTICS X RAYS BREMSSTRAHLUNG LAUE DIFFRACTION INTRODUCTION X-rays are electromagnetic radiations that originate outside the nucleus. There are two major processes for X-ray production which are quite different and which lead to different

More information

Crystal Structure Determination I

Crystal Structure Determination I Crystal Structure Determination I Dr. Falak Sher Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences National Workshop on Crystal Structure Determination using Powder XRD, organized by the Khwarzimic

More information

Experiment: Crystal Structure Analysis in Engineering Materials

Experiment: Crystal Structure Analysis in Engineering Materials Experiment: Crystal Structure Analysis in Engineering Materials Objective The purpose of this experiment is to introduce students to the use of X-ray diffraction techniques for investigating various types

More information

Introduction to X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data Analysis

Introduction to X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data Analysis Introduction to X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data Analysis Center for Materials Science and Engineering at MIT http://prism.mit.edu/xray An X-ray diffraction pattern is a plot of the intensity of X-rays scattered

More information

Introduction to Powder X-Ray Diffraction History Basic Principles

Introduction to Powder X-Ray Diffraction History Basic Principles Introduction to Powder X-Ray Diffraction History Basic Principles Folie.1 History: Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen discovered 1895 the X-rays. 1901 he was honoured by the Noble prize for

More information

CHAPTER 3 THE STRUCTURE OF CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS PROBLEM SOLUTIONS

CHAPTER 3 THE STRUCTURE OF CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS PROBLEM SOLUTIONS CHAPTER THE STRUCTURE OF CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS PROBLEM SOLUTIONS Fundamental Concepts.6 Show that the atomic packing factor for HCP is 0.74. The APF is just the total sphere volume-unit cell volume ratio.

More information

Using the Spectrophotometer

Using the Spectrophotometer Using the Spectrophotometer Introduction In this exercise, you will learn the basic principals of spectrophotometry and and serial dilution and their practical application. You will need these skills to

More information

Production of X-rays. Radiation Safety Training for Analytical X-Ray Devices Module 9

Production of X-rays. Radiation Safety Training for Analytical X-Ray Devices Module 9 Module 9 This module presents information on what X-rays are and how they are produced. Introduction Module 9, Page 2 X-rays are a type of electromagnetic radiation. Other types of electromagnetic radiation

More information

Electromagnetic Radiation

Electromagnetic Radiation Activity 17 Electromagnetic Radiation Why? Electromagnetic radiation, which also is called light, is an amazing phenomenon. It carries energy and has characteristics of both particles and waves. We can

More information

Experiment #5: Qualitative Absorption Spectroscopy

Experiment #5: Qualitative Absorption Spectroscopy Experiment #5: Qualitative Absorption Spectroscopy One of the most important areas in the field of analytical chemistry is that of spectroscopy. In general terms, spectroscopy deals with the interactions

More information

Chapter 7: Basics of X-ray Diffraction

Chapter 7: Basics of X-ray Diffraction Providing Solutions To Your Diffraction Needs. Chapter 7: Basics of X-ray Diffraction Scintag has prepared this section for use by customers and authorized personnel. The information contained herein is

More information

X-Ray Diffraction. wavelength Electric field of light

X-Ray Diffraction. wavelength Electric field of light Light is composed of electromagnetic radiation with an electric component that modulates versus time perpendicular to the direction it is travelling (the magnetic component is also perpendicular to the

More information

UNIT: Electromagnetic Radiation and Photometric Equipment

UNIT: Electromagnetic Radiation and Photometric Equipment UNIT: Electromagnetic Radiation and Photometric Equipment 3photo.wpd Task Instrumentation I To review the theory of electromagnetic radiation and the principle and use of common laboratory instruments

More information

Answer: b. Answer: a. Answer: d

Answer: b. Answer: a. Answer: d Practice Test IV Name 1) In a single slit diffraction experiment, the width of the slit is 3.1 10-5 m and the distance from the slit to the screen is 2.2 m. If the beam of light of wavelength 600 nm passes

More information

emission of light from atoms discrete line spectra - energy levels, Franck-Hertz experiment

emission of light from atoms discrete line spectra - energy levels, Franck-Hertz experiment Introduction Until the early 20 th century physicists used to explain the phenomena in the physical world around them using theories such a mechanics, electromagnetism, thermodynamics and statistical physics

More information

ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE: Given: A = 3 and B = 4 if we now want the value of C=? C = 3 + 4 = 9 + 16 = 25 or 2

ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE: Given: A = 3 and B = 4 if we now want the value of C=? C = 3 + 4 = 9 + 16 = 25 or 2 Forensic Spectral Anaylysis: Warm up! The study of triangles has been done since ancient times. Many of the early discoveries about triangles are still used today. We will only be concerned with the "right

More information

What does DXA mean and why is it important? Principles of operation of DXA systems. How can we measure bone mineral density? What is radiation?

What does DXA mean and why is it important? Principles of operation of DXA systems. How can we measure bone mineral density? What is radiation? What does DXA mean and why is it important? Principles of operation of DXA systems Dr Wil Evans Head of Medical Physics University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff DXA stands for Dual energy X-ray Absorptiometry

More information

Generation of X-Rays (prepared by James R. Connolly, for EPS400-002, Introduction to X-Ray Powder Diffraction, Spring 2005)

Generation of X-Rays (prepared by James R. Connolly, for EPS400-002, Introduction to X-Ray Powder Diffraction, Spring 2005) A Bit of History A good discussion of the early x-ray discoveries may be found in Chapter 1 of Moore and Reynolds (1997). I have borrowed freely from a variety of sources for this section. An online sketch

More information

BCM 6200 - Protein crystallography - I. Crystal symmetry X-ray diffraction Protein crystallization X-ray sources SAXS

BCM 6200 - Protein crystallography - I. Crystal symmetry X-ray diffraction Protein crystallization X-ray sources SAXS BCM 6200 - Protein crystallography - I Crystal symmetry X-ray diffraction Protein crystallization X-ray sources SAXS Elastic X-ray Scattering From classical electrodynamics, the electric field of the electromagnetic

More information

X-ray Powder Diffraction Pattern Indexing for Pharmaceutical Applications

X-ray Powder Diffraction Pattern Indexing for Pharmaceutical Applications The published version of this manuscript may be found at the following webpage: http://www.pharmtech.com/pharmtech/peer-reviewed+research/x-ray-powder-diffraction-pattern-indexing-for- Phar/ArticleStandard/Article/detail/800851

More information

X-ray Crystallography Lectures

X-ray Crystallography Lectures X-ray Crystallography Lectures 1. Biological imaging by X-ray diffraction. An overview. 2. Crystals. Growth, physical properties and diffraction. 3. Working in reciprocal space. X-ray intensity data collection

More information

Polarization Dependence in X-ray Spectroscopy and Scattering. S P Collins et al Diamond Light Source UK

Polarization Dependence in X-ray Spectroscopy and Scattering. S P Collins et al Diamond Light Source UK Polarization Dependence in X-ray Spectroscopy and Scattering S P Collins et al Diamond Light Source UK Overview of talk 1. Experimental techniques at Diamond: why we care about x-ray polarization 2. How

More information

GRID AND PRISM SPECTROMETERS

GRID AND PRISM SPECTROMETERS FYSA230/2 GRID AND PRISM SPECTROMETERS 1. Introduction Electromagnetic radiation (e.g. visible light) experiences reflection, refraction, interference and diffraction phenomena when entering and passing

More information

Vacuum Evaporation Recap

Vacuum Evaporation Recap Sputtering Vacuum Evaporation Recap Use high temperatures at high vacuum to evaporate (eject) atoms or molecules off a material surface. Use ballistic flow to transport them to a substrate and deposit.

More information

X-ray thin-film measurement techniques

X-ray thin-film measurement techniques Technical articles X-ray thin-film measurement techniques II. Out-of-plane diffraction measurements Toru Mitsunaga* 1. Introduction A thin-film sample is two-dimensionally formed on the surface of a substrate,

More information

AN INNOVATED LABORATORY XAFS APPARATUS

AN INNOVATED LABORATORY XAFS APPARATUS Copyright (c)jcpds-international Centre for Diffraction Data 2002, Advances in X-ray Analysis, Volume 45. 397 AN INNOVATED LABORATORY XAFS APPARATUS TAGUCHI Takeyoshi XRD Division, Rigaku Corporation HARADA

More information

From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly orders the different categories of electromagnetic radiation?

From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly orders the different categories of electromagnetic radiation? From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly orders the different categories of electromagnetic radiation? From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly

More information

Production of X-Rays. Yoichi Watanabe, Ph.D. Masonic Memorial Building M10-M (612) MPHY 5170/TRAD 7170, Fall semester

Production of X-Rays. Yoichi Watanabe, Ph.D. Masonic Memorial Building M10-M (612) MPHY 5170/TRAD 7170, Fall semester Production of X-Rays Yoichi Watanabe, Ph.D. Masonic Memorial Building M10-M (612)626-6708 watan016@umn.edu MPHY 5170/TRAD 7170, Fall semester Contents 1) Physics of X-ray production 2) The X-ray tube 3)

More information

POWDER X-RAY DIFFRACTION: STRUCTURAL DETERMINATION OF ALKALI HALIDE SALTS

POWDER X-RAY DIFFRACTION: STRUCTURAL DETERMINATION OF ALKALI HALIDE SALTS EXPERIMENT 4 POWDER X-RAY DIFFRACTION: STRUCTURAL DETERMINATION OF ALKALI HALIDE SALTS I. Introduction The determination of the chemical structure of molecules is indispensable to chemists in their effort

More information

Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms

Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms CHAPTER 4 PRE-TEST Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms In the space provided, write the letter of the term that best completes each sentence or best answers each question. 1. Which of the following orbital

More information

PRACTICE EXAM IV P202 SPRING 2004

PRACTICE EXAM IV P202 SPRING 2004 PRACTICE EXAM IV P202 SPRING 2004 1. In two separate double slit experiments, an interference pattern is observed on a screen. In the first experiment, violet light (λ = 754 nm) is used and a second-order

More information

Spectroscopy. Biogeochemical Methods OCN 633. Rebecca Briggs

Spectroscopy. Biogeochemical Methods OCN 633. Rebecca Briggs Spectroscopy Biogeochemical Methods OCN 633 Rebecca Briggs Definitions of Spectrometry Defined by the method used to prepare the sample 1. Optical spectrometry Elements are converted to gaseous atoms or

More information

hypothesis of Louis de Broglie (1924): particles may have wave-like properties

hypothesis of Louis de Broglie (1924): particles may have wave-like properties Wave properties of particles hypothesis of Louis de Broglie (1924): particles may have wave-like properties note: it took almost 20 years after noting that waves have particle like properties that particles

More information

EXPERIMENT 11 UV/VIS Spectroscopy and Spectrophotometry: Spectrophotometric Analysis of Potassium Permanganate Solutions.

EXPERIMENT 11 UV/VIS Spectroscopy and Spectrophotometry: Spectrophotometric Analysis of Potassium Permanganate Solutions. EXPERIMENT 11 UV/VIS Spectroscopy and Spectrophotometry: Spectrophotometric Analysis of Potassium Permanganate Solutions. Outcomes After completing this experiment, the student should be able to: 1. Prepare

More information

X-ray Diffraction and EBSD

X-ray Diffraction and EBSD X-ray Diffraction and EBSD Jonathan Cowen Swagelok Center for the Surface Analysis of Materials Case School of Engineering Case Western Reserve University October 27, 2014 Outline X-ray Diffraction (XRD)

More information

Name Date Class ELECTRONS IN ATOMS. Standard Curriculum Core content Extension topics

Name Date Class ELECTRONS IN ATOMS. Standard Curriculum Core content Extension topics 13 ELECTRONS IN ATOMS Conceptual Curriculum Concrete concepts More abstract concepts or math/problem-solving Standard Curriculum Core content Extension topics Honors Curriculum Core honors content Options

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Exam Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) A photo cathode whose work function is 2.4 ev, is illuminated with white light that has

More information

PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT AND DUAL NATURE OF MATTER AND RADIATIONS

PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT AND DUAL NATURE OF MATTER AND RADIATIONS PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT AND DUAL NATURE OF MATTER AND RADIATIONS 1. Photons 2. Photoelectric Effect 3. Experimental Set-up to study Photoelectric Effect 4. Effect of Intensity, Frequency, Potential on P.E.

More information

Lectures about XRF (X-Ray Fluorescence)

Lectures about XRF (X-Ray Fluorescence) 1 / 38 Lectures about XRF (X-Ray Fluorescence) Advanced Physics Laboratory Laurea Magistrale in Fisica year 2013 - Camerino 2 / 38 X-ray Fluorescence XRF is an acronym for X-Ray Fluorescence. The XRF technique

More information

Structure Factors 59-553 78

Structure Factors 59-553 78 78 Structure Factors Until now, we have only typically considered reflections arising from planes in a hypothetical lattice containing one atom in the asymmetric unit. In practice we will generally deal

More information

X-ray Diffraction (XRD)

X-ray Diffraction (XRD) X-ray Diffraction (XRD) 1.0 What is X-ray Diffraction 2.0 Basics of Crystallography 3.0 Production of X-rays 4.0 Applications of XRD 5.0 Instrumental Sources of Error 6.0 Conclusions Bragg s Law n l =2dsinq

More information

Using the Bruker Tracer III-SD Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer using PC Software for Data Collection

Using the Bruker Tracer III-SD Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer using PC Software for Data Collection Using the Bruker Tracer III-SD Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer using PC Software for Data Collection Scott A Speakman, Ph.D Center for Materials Science and Engineering at MIT speakman@mit.edu

More information

Powder diffraction and synchrotron radiation

Powder diffraction and synchrotron radiation Powder diffraction and synchrotron radiation Gilberto Artioli Dip. Geoscienze UNIPD CIRCe Center for Cement Materials single xl diffraction powder diffraction Ideal powder Powder averaging Textured sample

More information

6) How wide must a narrow slit be if the first diffraction minimum occurs at ±12 with laser light of 633 nm?

6) How wide must a narrow slit be if the first diffraction minimum occurs at ±12 with laser light of 633 nm? Test IV Name 1) In a single slit diffraction experiment, the width of the slit is 3.1 10-5 m and the distance from the slit to the screen is 2.2 m. If the beam of light of wavelength 600 nm passes through

More information

Crystal Structure of High Temperature Superconductors. Marie Nelson East Orange Campus High School NJIT Professor: Trevor Tyson

Crystal Structure of High Temperature Superconductors. Marie Nelson East Orange Campus High School NJIT Professor: Trevor Tyson Crystal Structure of High Temperature Superconductors Marie Nelson East Orange Campus High School NJIT Professor: Trevor Tyson Introduction History of Superconductors Superconductors are material which

More information

Chapter 6 Electromagnetic Radiation and the Electronic Structure of the Atom

Chapter 6 Electromagnetic Radiation and the Electronic Structure of the Atom Chapter 6 In This Chapter Physical and chemical properties of compounds are influenced by the structure of the molecules that they consist of. Chemical structure depends, in turn, on how electrons are

More information

Interference. Physics 102 Workshop #3. General Instructions

Interference. Physics 102 Workshop #3. General Instructions Interference Physics 102 Workshop #3 Name: Lab Partner(s): Instructor: Time of Workshop: General Instructions Workshop exercises are to be carried out in groups of three. One report per group is due by

More information

Measurement of Charge-to-Mass (e/m) Ratio for the Electron

Measurement of Charge-to-Mass (e/m) Ratio for the Electron Measurement of Charge-to-Mass (e/m) Ratio for the Electron Experiment objectives: measure the ratio of the electron charge-to-mass ratio e/m by studying the electron trajectories in a uniform magnetic

More information

Physics 441/2: Transmission Electron Microscope

Physics 441/2: Transmission Electron Microscope Physics 441/2: Transmission Electron Microscope Introduction In this experiment we will explore the use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to take us into the world of ultrasmall structures. This

More information

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF MINERALS. Quantitative methodology in mineralogy and mineral physics

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF MINERALS. Quantitative methodology in mineralogy and mineral physics CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF MINERALS Quantitative methodology in mineralogy and mineral physics CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF MINERALS There are many different types of both qualitative ti and quantitative analysis available

More information

How is LASER light different from white light? Teacher Notes

How is LASER light different from white light? Teacher Notes How is LASER light different from white light? Teacher Notes Concepts: (1) Light is a type of energy that travels as waves. [6.2.3.1.1] (2) Laser light is different from traditional light sources and must

More information

X-ray Production. Target Interactions. Principles of Imaging Science I (RAD119) X-ray Production & Emission

X-ray Production. Target Interactions. Principles of Imaging Science I (RAD119) X-ray Production & Emission Principles of Imaging Science I (RAD119) X-ray Production & Emission X-ray Production X-rays are produced inside the x-ray tube when high energy projectile electrons from the filament interact with the

More information

GAMMA-RAY SPECTRA REFERENCES

GAMMA-RAY SPECTRA REFERENCES GAMMA-RAY SPECTRA REFERENCES 1. K. Siegbahn, Alpha, Beta and Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy, Vol. I, particularly Chapts. 5, 8A. 2. Nucleonics Data Sheets, Nos. 1-45 (available from the Resource Centre) 3. H.E.

More information

O6: The Diffraction Grating Spectrometer

O6: The Diffraction Grating Spectrometer 2B30: PRACTICAL ASTROPHYSICS FORMAL REPORT: O6: The Diffraction Grating Spectrometer Adam Hill Lab partner: G. Evans Tutor: Dr. Peter Storey 1 Abstract The calibration of a diffraction grating spectrometer

More information

Austin Peay State University Department of Chemistry Chem 1111. The Use of the Spectrophotometer and Beer's Law

Austin Peay State University Department of Chemistry Chem 1111. The Use of the Spectrophotometer and Beer's Law Purpose To become familiar with using a spectrophotometer and gain an understanding of Beer s law and it s relationship to solution concentration. Introduction Scientists use many methods to determine

More information

Relevant Reading for this Lecture... Pages 83-87.

Relevant Reading for this Lecture... Pages 83-87. LECTURE #06 Chapter 3: X-ray Diffraction and Crystal Structure Determination Learning Objectives To describe crystals in terms of the stacking of planes. How to use a dot product to solve for the angles

More information

2 Spectrophotometry and the Analysis of Riboflavin

2 Spectrophotometry and the Analysis of Riboflavin 2 Spectrophotometry and the Analysis of Riboflavin Objectives: A) To become familiar with operating the Platereader; B) to learn how to use the Platereader in determining the absorption spectrum of a compound

More information

Beckman Coulter DU 800 Spectrophotometer Bergen County Technical Schools Stem Cell Lab

Beckman Coulter DU 800 Spectrophotometer Bergen County Technical Schools Stem Cell Lab Beckman Coulter DU 800 Spectrophotometer Bergen County Technical Schools Stem Cell Lab Room 213 Beckman Coulter DU 800 Spectrophotometer Safety Sheet 1. Samples should be handled according to good laboratory

More information

LAB 8: Electron Charge-to-Mass Ratio

LAB 8: Electron Charge-to-Mass Ratio Name Date Partner(s) OBJECTIVES LAB 8: Electron Charge-to-Mass Ratio To understand how electric and magnetic fields impact an electron beam To experimentally determine the electron charge-to-mass ratio.

More information

The Crystal Structures of Solids

The Crystal Structures of Solids The Crystal Structures of Solids Crystals of pure substances can be analyzed using X-ray diffraction methods to provide valuable information. The type and strength of intramolecular forces, density, molar

More information

The Phenomenon of Photoelectric Emission:

The Phenomenon of Photoelectric Emission: The Photoelectric Effect. The Wave particle duality of light Light, like any other E.M.R (electromagnetic radiation) has got a dual nature. That is there are experiments that prove that it is made up of

More information

ATOMIC SPECTRA. Apparatus: Optical spectrometer, spectral tubes, power supply, incandescent lamp, bottles of dyed water, elevating jack or block.

ATOMIC SPECTRA. Apparatus: Optical spectrometer, spectral tubes, power supply, incandescent lamp, bottles of dyed water, elevating jack or block. 1 ATOMIC SPECTRA Objective: To measure the wavelengths of visible light emitted by atomic hydrogen and verify the measured wavelengths against those predicted by quantum theory. To identify an unknown

More information

Energy (J) -8E-19 -1.2E-18 -1.6E-18 -2E-18

Energy (J) -8E-19 -1.2E-18 -1.6E-18 -2E-18 Spectrophotometry Reading assignment:. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/beer-lambert_law Goals We will study the spectral properties of a transition metal-containing compound. We will also study the relationship

More information

X-RAY DIFFRACTION PROCEDURES

X-RAY DIFFRACTION PROCEDURES X-RAY DIFFRACTION PROCEDURES For Polycrystalline and Amorphous Materials HAROLD P. KLUG HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT OF RESEARCH IN CHEMICAL PHYSICS LEROY E. ALEXANDER SENIOR FELLOW IN X-RAY DIFFRACTION Mellon

More information

Electromagnetic Radiation Wave and Particle Models of Light

Electromagnetic Radiation Wave and Particle Models of Light Electromagnetic Radiation 2007 26 minutes Teacher Notes: Victoria Millar BSc (Hons), Dip. Ed, MSc Program Synopsis For hundreds of years, scientists have hypothesised about the structure of light. Two

More information

In the previous presentation, we discussed how x-rays were discovered and how they are generated at the atomic level. Today we will begin the

In the previous presentation, we discussed how x-rays were discovered and how they are generated at the atomic level. Today we will begin the In the previous presentation, we discussed how x-rays were discovered and how they are generated at the atomic level. Today we will begin the discussion on the major components of the x-ray machine. Today

More information

Spectrophotometry and the Beer-Lambert Law: An Important Analytical Technique in Chemistry

Spectrophotometry and the Beer-Lambert Law: An Important Analytical Technique in Chemistry Spectrophotometry and the Beer-Lambert Law: An Important Analytical Technique in Chemistry Jon H. Hardesty, PhD and Bassam Attili, PhD Collin College Department of Chemistry Introduction: In the last lab

More information

Eighth Grade Electromagnetic Radiation and Light Assessment

Eighth Grade Electromagnetic Radiation and Light Assessment Eighth Grade Electromagnetic Radiation and Light Assessment 1a. Light waves are the only waves that can travel through. a. space b. solids 1b. Electromagnetic waves, such as light, are the only kind of

More information

Upon completion of this lab, the student will be able to:

Upon completion of this lab, the student will be able to: 1 Learning Outcomes EXPERIMENT B4: CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM Upon completion of this lab, the student will be able to: 1) Analyze the absorbance spectrum of a sample. 2) Calculate the equilibrium constant for

More information

Chapter 18: The Structure of the Atom

Chapter 18: The Structure of the Atom Chapter 18: The Structure of the Atom 1. For most elements, an atom has A. no neutrons in the nucleus. B. more protons than electrons. C. less neutrons than electrons. D. just as many electrons as protons.

More information

CALCULATION METHODS OF X-RAY SPECTRA: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

CALCULATION METHODS OF X-RAY SPECTRA: A COMPARATIVE STUDY 243 CALCULATION METHODS OF X-RAY SPECTRA: A COMPARATIVE STUDY B. Chyba, M. Mantler, H. Ebel, R. Svagera Technische Universit Vienna, Austria ABSTRACT The accurate characterization of the spectral distribution

More information

Light, Light Bulbs and the Electromagnetic Spectrum

Light, Light Bulbs and the Electromagnetic Spectrum Light, Light Bulbs and the Electromagnetic Spectrum Spectrum The different wavelengths of electromagnetic waves present in visible light correspond to what we see as different colours. Electromagnetic

More information

Chapter 9. Gamma Decay

Chapter 9. Gamma Decay Chapter 9 Gamma Decay As we have seen γ-decay is often observed in conjunction with α- or β-decay when the daughter nucleus is formed in an excited state and then makes one or more transitions to its ground

More information

PHYS 222 Spring 2012 Final Exam. Closed books, notes, etc. No electronic device except a calculator.

PHYS 222 Spring 2012 Final Exam. Closed books, notes, etc. No electronic device except a calculator. PHYS 222 Spring 2012 Final Exam Closed books, notes, etc. No electronic device except a calculator. NAME: (all questions with equal weight) 1. If the distance between two point charges is tripled, the

More information

ANALYSIS OF ASPIRIN INFRARED (IR) SPECTROSCOPY AND MELTING POINT DETERMINATION

ANALYSIS OF ASPIRIN INFRARED (IR) SPECTROSCOPY AND MELTING POINT DETERMINATION Chem 306 Section (Circle) M Tu W Th Name Partners Date ANALYSIS OF ASPIRIN INFRARED (IR) SPECTROSCOPY AND MELTING POINT DETERMINATION Materials: prepared acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), stockroom samples

More information

How can I tell what the polarization axis is for a linear polarizer?

How can I tell what the polarization axis is for a linear polarizer? How can I tell what the polarization axis is for a linear polarizer? The axis of a linear polarizer determines the plane of polarization that the polarizer passes. There are two ways of finding the axis

More information

VISIBLE SPECTROSCOPY

VISIBLE SPECTROSCOPY VISIBLE SPECTROSCOPY Visible spectroscopy is the study of the interaction of radiation from the visible part (λ = 380-720 nm) of the electromagnetic spectrum with a chemical species. Quantifying the interaction

More information

Photosynthesis - Exercise 6 Objectives

Photosynthesis - Exercise 6 Objectives The purpose of this lab exercise will be to examine several factors involved in photosynthesis. -The effect of the intensity of light (# of photons per time) on the rate of photosynthesis and know how

More information

Chapter 7: The Quantum-Mechanical Model of the Atom

Chapter 7: The Quantum-Mechanical Model of the Atom C h e m i s t r y 1 A : C h a p t e r 7 P a g e 1 Chapter 7: The Quantum-Mechanical Model of the Atom Homework: Read Chapter 7. Work out sample/practice exercises Suggested Chapter 7 Problems: 37, 39,

More information

Rigaku XRD-System Instruction Manual v4/19/03. The Krishnan Group/Wilcox 132, University of Washington

Rigaku XRD-System Instruction Manual v4/19/03. The Krishnan Group/Wilcox 132, University of Washington Rigaku XRD-System Instruction Manual v4/19/03 The Krishnan Group/Wilcox 132, University of Washington Contents: - General information - Safety - How to turn on the X-rays - How to turn off the X-rays -

More information

UV/Vis Spectroscopy. Varka Evi-Maria Ph.D. Chemist AUTH Thessaloniki 2012

UV/Vis Spectroscopy. Varka Evi-Maria Ph.D. Chemist AUTH Thessaloniki 2012 UV/Vis Spectroscopy Varka Evi-Maria Ph.D. Chemist AUTH Thessaloniki 2012 Introduction of Spectroscopy The structure of new synthesised molecules or isolated compounds from natural sources in the lab must

More information

Tutorial 4.6 Gamma Spectrum Analysis

Tutorial 4.6 Gamma Spectrum Analysis Tutorial 4.6 Gamma Spectrum Analysis Slide 1. Gamma Spectrum Analysis In this module, we will apply the concepts that were discussed in Tutorial 4.1, Interactions of Radiation with Matter. Slide 2. Learning

More information

LSU School of Dentistry Laser Safety : Clinical

LSU School of Dentistry Laser Safety : Clinical LSU School of Dentistry Laser Safety : Clinical SAFETY PROCEDURES FOR LASER (NON-IONIZING) RADIATION 1. PURPOSE This procedure sets forth the Louisiana State University (LSU) System non-ionizing radiation

More information

Crystal Optics of Visible Light

Crystal Optics of Visible Light Crystal Optics of Visible Light This can be a very helpful aspect of minerals in understanding the petrographic history of a rock. The manner by which light is transferred through a mineral is a means

More information

Rules for this test. Physics 222, Winter 2012 Final Exam April 16, 2012 Instructor: Scott Bergeson

Rules for this test. Physics 222, Winter 2012 Final Exam April 16, 2012 Instructor: Scott Bergeson Physics 222, Winter 2012 Final Exam April 16, 2012 Instructor: Scott Bergeson Rules for this test 1. This test is open book and open notes, including our class notes page online, and your homework solutions.

More information

Physics/Science *P41764A0120* Edexcel GCSE P41764A. Unit P1: Universal Physics. Higher Tier. Thursday 8 November 2012 Morning Time: 1 hour

Physics/Science *P41764A0120* Edexcel GCSE P41764A. Unit P1: Universal Physics. Higher Tier. Thursday 8 November 2012 Morning Time: 1 hour Write your name here Surname Other names Edexcel GCSE Centre Number Physics/Science Unit P1: Universal Physics Thursday 8 November 2012 Morning Time: 1 hour You must have: Calculator, ruler Candidate Number

More information

Raman spectroscopy Lecture

Raman spectroscopy Lecture Raman spectroscopy Lecture Licentiate course in measurement science and technology Spring 2008 10.04.2008 Antti Kivioja Contents - Introduction - What is Raman spectroscopy? - The theory of Raman spectroscopy

More information

Physical Science Study Guide Unit 7 Wave properties and behaviors, electromagnetic spectrum, Doppler Effect

Physical Science Study Guide Unit 7 Wave properties and behaviors, electromagnetic spectrum, Doppler Effect Objectives: PS-7.1 Physical Science Study Guide Unit 7 Wave properties and behaviors, electromagnetic spectrum, Doppler Effect Illustrate ways that the energy of waves is transferred by interaction with

More information

Sample Exercise 6.1 Concepts of Wavelength and Frequency

Sample Exercise 6.1 Concepts of Wavelength and Frequency Sample Exercise 6.1 Concepts of Wavelength and Frequency Two electromagnetic waves are represented in the margin. (a) Which wave has the higher frequency? (b) If one wave represents visible light and the

More information

SPECTROPHOTOMETRY. Blue. Orange

SPECTROPHOTOMETRY. Blue. Orange Appendix I FV /26/5 SPECTROPHOTOMETRY Spectrophotometry is an analytical technique used to measure the amount of light of a particular wavelength absorbed by a sample in solution. This measurement is then

More information

Physics 30 Worksheet # 14: Michelson Experiment

Physics 30 Worksheet # 14: Michelson Experiment Physics 30 Worksheet # 14: Michelson Experiment 1. The speed of light found by a Michelson experiment was found to be 2.90 x 10 8 m/s. If the two hills were 20.0 km apart, what was the frequency of the

More information

Astronomy 110 Homework #04 Assigned: 02/06/2007 Due: 02/13/2007. Name:

Astronomy 110 Homework #04 Assigned: 02/06/2007 Due: 02/13/2007. Name: Astronomy 110 Homework #04 Assigned: 02/06/2007 Due: 02/13/2007 Name: Directions: Listed below are twenty (20) multiple-choice questions based on the material covered by the lectures this past week. Choose

More information

Advanced Physics Laboratory. XRF X-Ray Fluorescence: Energy-Dispersive analysis (EDXRF)

Advanced Physics Laboratory. XRF X-Ray Fluorescence: Energy-Dispersive analysis (EDXRF) Advanced Physics Laboratory XRF X-Ray Fluorescence: Energy-Dispersive analysis (EDXRF) Bahia Arezki Contents 1. INTRODUCTION... 2 2. FUNDAMENTALS... 2 2.1 X-RAY PRODUCTION... 2 2. 1. 1 Continuous radiation...

More information

TIME OF COMPLETION NAME SOLUTION DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL SCIENCES. PHYS 3650, Exam 2 Section 1 Version 1 October 31, 2005 Total Weight: 100 points

TIME OF COMPLETION NAME SOLUTION DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL SCIENCES. PHYS 3650, Exam 2 Section 1 Version 1 October 31, 2005 Total Weight: 100 points TIME OF COMPLETION NAME SOLUTION DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL SCIENCES PHYS 3650, Exam 2 Section 1 Version 1 October 31, 2005 Total Weight: 100 points 1. Check your examination for completeness prior to starting.

More information

1 Laboratory #5: Grating Spectrometer

1 Laboratory #5: Grating Spectrometer SIMG-215-20061: LABORATORY #5 1 Laboratory #5: Grating Spectrometer 1.1 Objective: To observe and measure the spectra of different light sources. 1.2 Materials: 1. OSA optics kit. 2. Nikon digital camera

More information

Interactions of Photons with Matter

Interactions of Photons with Matter Interactions of Photons with Matter Photons are elecomagnetic radiation with zero mass, zero charge, and a velocity that is always c, the speed of light. Because they are elecically neual, they do not

More information

EDS system. CRF Oxford Instruments INCA CRF EDAX Genesis EVEX- NanoAnalysis Table top system

EDS system. CRF Oxford Instruments INCA CRF EDAX Genesis EVEX- NanoAnalysis Table top system EDS system Most common X-Ray measurement system in the SEM lab. Major elements (10 wt% or greater) identified in ~10 secs. Minor elements identifiable in ~100 secs. Rapid qualitative and accurate quantitative

More information

The Nature of Electromagnetic Radiation

The Nature of Electromagnetic Radiation II The Nature of Electromagnetic Radiation The Sun s energy has traveled across space as electromagnetic radiation, and that is the form in which it arrives on Earth. It is this radiation that determines

More information

PHYSICS PAPER 1 (THEORY)

PHYSICS PAPER 1 (THEORY) PHYSICS PAPER 1 (THEORY) (Three hours) (Candidates are allowed additional 15 minutes for only reading the paper. They must NOT start writing during this time.) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

More information