KS4 Physical Education

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1 KS4 Physical Education Sports Injuries These icons indicate that teacher s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates that the slide contains activities created in Flash. These activities are not editable. 1of 33 For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation.

2 Learning objectives Learning objectives What we will learn in this presentation: How to classify injuries as chronic or acute How to classify injuries as soft tissue or hard tissue Different types of skin damage cuts, grazes, blisters and chafing The causes and treatment of strains, sprains, dislocations and torn cartilage How to identify and treat fractures The treatment of injuries R.I.C.E. The causes and treatment of unconsciousness D.R.A.B.C., resuscitation and the recovery position The causes and treatment of concussion, dehydration and hypothermia. 2of 33

3 Injuries 3of 33

4 Chronic injuries Injuries can be classed as chronic or acute. First, we will consider chronic injuries. Chronic injuries are caused by continuous stress on a body part over a long time. Here are some common chronic injuries: tennis elbow golfers elbow shin splints. Chronic injuries can be caused by training too hard, not allowing time for recovery, poor footwear and bad technique. 4of 33

5 Chronic injuries: tennis and golf elbow Overuse injuries can occur due to repeated powerful muscle movements. Golf and tennis put a lot of strain on the elbow. In golf and tennis elbow, the tendons that attach muscles to the elbow joint become inflamed, sore and painful. These injuries should be treated by applying an icepack and resting for several weeks. Physiotherapy treatment may be needed and possibly cortisone (steroid) injections to relieve the pain. 5of 33

6 Chronic injuries: shin splints Shin splints are pains in the lower leg, caused by continuous stress over a long period of time. Either the tendons around the tibia become inflamed, or stress fractures develop these are cracks along the length of the bone. Shin splints should be treated with ice and plenty of rest. Cushioned footwear and special insoles can help to prevent the injury returning. 6of 33

7 Acute injuries Acute injuries occur when there is sudden stress on the body. There are three main causes: 1. Collisions with opponents or obstacles. 2. Being struck by an object. EMPICS Ltd 3. Falling from a height or at speed. 7of 33

8 Acute injuries 8of 33

9 Hard and soft tissue injuries Injuries can also be classified as soft tissue or hard tissue injuries. Hard tissue injuries are bone injuries. Soft tissue injuries involve damage to skin, muscles, tendons, ligaments or cartilage. 9of 33

10 Soft tissue injuries Soft tissue injuries can be open or closed. An open injury means that the skin has been broken blood usually escapes. Open injuries include cuts, grazes, blisters and chafing. A closed injury occurs beneath the skin there is no external bleeding. Closed injuries include bruising, pulls, strains and sprains. EMPICS Ltd 10 of 33

11 Open injuries: cuts and grazes Cuts require immediate attention to stop bleeding and allow the blood to clot. After the cut is cleaned, plasters and dressings can be used to control bleeding and protect the wound. Deep cuts may need stitches to hold the skin together. Grazes or abrasions where skin is scraped off the body, need to be cleaned carefully. Grazes that result from falls can often contain dirt and grit. EMPICS Ltd 11 of 33

12 Open skin damage blisters and chafing Blisters are caused by the skin rubbing on other surfaces. They most commonly occur on the feet, due to ill-fitting shoes, and on the hands, due to excessive wear and tear (e.g. from rowing and archery). A bubble of liquid forms just under the skin to protect the area while new skin is grown underneath. Never burst the bubble, as the blister may then become infected. Chafing is caused by ill-fitting clothing or material. Longdistance runners are particularly prone to chafing in areas like the armpits, where clothing may rub. 12 of 33

13 Closed injuries Bruises occur when small blood vessels are damaged by an impact or sudden wrenching movement. This causes bleeding beneath the skin, leading to swelling and discolouration. Strained (pulled) muscles result from muscles being suddenly and forcefully overstretched. This tears the muscle fibres, usually where they attach to the tendon. The muscle is painful and its strength is reduced. Bruises and strains should be treated with ice to reduce the swelling. 13 of 33

14 Sprained/ twisted ankle Sprains are different to strains they involve ligaments rather than muscles and tendons. Sprains occur when ligaments at joints get stretched and torn. A sharp twist of the foot can give you a sprained or twisted ankle. Severe sprains result in torn ligaments. Sprains are more serious than strains, and result in considerable pain and loss of function at the joint. The symptoms are similar to a fracture or dislocation. Sprains should be treated with ice and rest. 14 of 33

15 Dislocation A dislocation occurs when a bone is pulled or twisted out of place at a joint. When the shoulder is dislocated, the humerus is pulled out of the socket on the scapula. The injured person is usually unable to move their arm, and the shoulder loses its rounded shape. Dislocations are very painful. They require hospital treatment to move the bone back into position. The ligaments and tissue around the joint can take a long time to recover. 15 of 33

16 Cartilage tear of the knee Cartilage aids friction free movement at the knee joint and provides some shock absorption. Cartilage can tear if the knee is twisted excessively. This is a common football injury, caused when players change direction quickly. A cartilage tear is a serious injury. The knee will be painful, may lock and will swell. An icepack can reduce swelling, but surgery is sometimes needed to repair the damaged cartilage. cartilage 16 of 33

17 Soft tissue injuries 17 of 33

18 Hard tissue injuries Hard tissue injuries are bone fractures the bone either cracks or breaks. Fractures lead to: bruising and swelling pain due to nerve damage the limb or area of the body where the break is becomes immobile if it is a bad fracture, the area will look obviously deformed. Shin splints are a form of fracture caused by repeated stress. 18 of 33

19 Fractures Fractures can be open (simple) or closed (compound). A simple or closed fracture means that the bone is cracked but the skin is not broken. A compound or open fracture means that the skin is broken and the bone is sticking out. Open fractures are more serious. They usually involve blood loss. 19 of 33

20 Fractures Fractures are usually caused by violent impacts. They are most common in contact sports like rugby, and sports where there is a risk of falling from height or at speed, for example, horse riding, skiing and climbing. Fractures are difficult to prevent as they are caused by sudden and unexpected events or accidents. Using correct technique and playing by the rules can reduce the risks to some extent. Fractures should be treated by immobilizing the injured area with a splint or sling and controlling any bleeding with a dressing. The casualty should not be moved until the ambulance arrives, unless absolutely necessary. 20 of 33

21 R.I.C.E. Whenever there is any injury to bones, joints, ligaments muscles or tendons, blood vessels will be damaged. Broken blood vessels mean that blood leaks into tissues around the injury. This will lead to swelling, bruising and pain. To combat the effects of this, you should follow the R.I.C.E method of treatment: R I C E Rest Ice Compression Elevation 21 of 33

22 R.I.C.E. 22 of 33

23 Unconsciousness Unconsciousness can be caused by a number of things. 1. Fainting common fainting is a temporary abnormality in blood flow to the brain. It can be caused by stress, heat or physical exertion. 2. Head injury any blow to the head can cause unconsciousness, whether it damages the skull or not. 3. Heart attack or stroke this can interrupt blood flow to the brain. 4. Asphyxia breathing is obstructed, for example if the person has inhaled water. 5. Shock caused by blood loss, infection or heart problems. Unconsciousness can also be a sign of a wide range of illnesses, for example, diabetes. 23 of 33

24 D.R.A.B.C. 24 of 33

25 Resuscitation If an unconscious casualty is not breathing, rescue breaths (or mouth-to-mouth resuscitation) can be used. This involves the rescuer repeatedly blowing air into the mouth of the casualty to inflate and deflate their lungs. This allows some oxygen into the body. If a casualty has no pulse, chest compressions can be used. The rescuer pushes down firmly and repeatedly on the casualty s chest, mimicking the action of the heart and circulating some blood around the body. Used together, these two techniques are known as cardiopulmonary resuscitation, or CPR. 25 of 33

26 The recovery position An unconscious casualty who is breathing and has no life-threatening conditions should be placed in the recovery position. This keeps the airway open and prevents them swallowing their own tongue or choking on vomit. 26 of 33

27 Concussion Concussion is a common cause of unconsciousness while playing sport. Concussion occurs when an individual has received a blow to the head, causing an injury to the brain. This could be caused by falling or being hit by something or someone. A person may be concussed without losing consciousness. The signs can include disorientation, loss of vision, vomiting, paleness, a racing pulse and shallow breathing. Concussion should be treated at hospital. EMPICS Ltd 27 of 33

28 Dehydration When we exercise, especially in hot conditions, the body loses water as a result of sweating. If the performer does not re-hydrate by drinking lots of water, they may suffer from dehydration. The body also loses important electrolytes salts which conduct nerve impulses and maintain cell metabolism. This results in the performer feeling very tired, nauseous and faint. The performer should stop exercising and re-hydrate somewhere cool. 28 of 33

29 Hypothermia Normal body temperature is 37 C. If a performer s body temperature falls below 35 C, they begin to suffer from hypothermia. People who take part in activities in mountainous areas or on water are particularly at risk. Common symptoms of hypothermia are shivering, paleness, loss of dexterity and erratic behaviour. A hypothermic person should be warmed-up gradually. They need warm, dry clothing, warm drinks and high energy foods. 29 of 33

30 Causes and treatments 30 of 33

31 Quiz 31 of 33

32 Exam-style questions 1. Explain what is meant by: a) a soft tissue injury b) a chronic injury. 2. Fran turns her ankle over during her ballet lesson. Her ankle is painful and her teacher says she may have damaged some ligaments. a) What injury does Fran s teacher suspect? b) Describe how the injury should be treated. 3. A hockey player is hit on the head by the ball. They appear to be unconscious. Describe how you would treat the casualty. 32 of 33

33 Can you remember all these keywords? Chronic injury Acute injury Continuous stress Overuse injury Soft tissue injury Hard tissue injury Open injury Closed injury Cuts Grazes and abrasions Blisters and chafing Bruising Strains / pulled muscle Sprain Dislocation Fracture simple / closed Fracture compound / open R.I.C.E. D.R.A.B.C. Concussion Dehydration Hypothermia 33 of 33

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