# Basic circuit analysis

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1 EIE209 Basic Electronics Basic circuit analysis Analysis 1

2 Fundamental quantities Voltage potential difference bet. 2 points across quantity analogous to pressure between two points Current flow of charge through a material through quantity analogous to fluid flowing along a pipe Analysis 2

3 Units of measurement Voltage: volt (V) Current: ampere (A) NOT Volt, Ampere!! Analysis 3

4 Power and energy Work done in moving a charge dq from A to B having a potential difference of V is W = V dq dq A Power is work done per unit time, i.e., B Analysis 4

5 Direction and polarity Current direction indicates the direction of flow of positive charge Voltage polarity indicates the relative potential between 2 points: + assigned to a higher potential point; and assigned to a lower potential point. NOTE: Direction and polarity are arbitrarily assigned on circuit diagrams. Actual direction and polarity will be governed by the sign of the value. Analysis 5

6 Independent sources Voltage sources Current sources Independent stubborn! never change! Maintains a voltage/current (fixed or varying) which is not affected by any other quantities. An independent voltage source can never be shorted. An independent current source can never be opened. Analysis 6

7 Dependent sources Dependent sources values depend on some other variables Analysis 7

8 Circuit Collection of devices such as sources and resistors in which terminals are connected together by conducting wires. These wires converge in NODES The devices are called BRANCHES of the circuit Circuit Analysis Problem: To find all currents and voltages in the branches of the circuit when the intensities of the sources are known. Analysis 8

9 Kirchhoff s laws Kirchhoff s current law (KCL) The algebraic sum of the currents in all branches which converge to a common node is equal to zero. Kirchhoff s voltage law (KVL) The algebraic sum of all voltages between successive nodes in a closed path in the circuit is equal to zero. Analysis 9

10 Overview of analysis Ad hoc methods (not general) Series/parallel reduction Ladder circuit Voltage/current division Star-delta conversion More general Mesh and nodal methods } Done in Basic Electronics! Completely general Loop and cutset approach (requires graph theory) NEW Analysis 10

11 Series/parallel reduction Series circuit each node is incident to just two branches of the circuit KVL gives Hence, the equivalent resistance is: = Analysis 11

12 Series/parallel reduction Parallel circuit one terminal of each element is connected to a node of the circuit while other terminals of the elements are connected to another node of the circuit KCL gives Hence, the equivalent resistance is: Analysis 12

13 Note on algebra For algebraic brevity and simplicity: For series circuits, R is preferably used. For parallel circuits, G is preferably used. For example, if we use R for the parallel circuit, we get the equivalent resistance as which is more complex than the formula in terms of G: G = G 1 + G G n Analysis 13

14 Ladder circuit We can find the resistance looking into the terminals 0 and 1, by apply the series/ parallel reduction successively. First, lumping everything beyond node 2 as G 2, we have Then, we focus on this G 2, which is just G 20 in parallel with another subcircuit, i.e., We continue to focus on the remaining subcircuit. Eventually we get Analysis 14

15 Voltage/current division For the series circuit, we can find the voltage across each resistor by the formula: For the parallel circuit, we can find the voltage across each resistor by the formula: Note the choice of R and G in the formulae! Analysis 15

16 Example (something that can be done with series/parallel reduction) Consider this circuit, which is created deliberately so that you can solve it using series/parallel reduction technique. Find V 2. Solution: Resistance seen by the voltage source is Hence, Current division gives: Then, using V 2 =I 4 R 4, we get Analysis 16

17 Oops! Series/parallel reduction fails for this bridge circuit! Is there some ad hoc solution? Analysis 17

18 Equivalence of star and delta Y (star) D (delta) Problems: 1. Given a star circuit, find the delta equivalence. That means, suppose you have all the G s in the star. Find the G s in the delta such that the two circuits are equivalent from the external viewpoint. 2. The reverse problem. Analysis 18

19 Star-to-delta conversion Y (star) D (delta) For the Y circuit, we consider summing up all currents into the centre node: I 1 +I 2 +I 3 =0, where Thus,, and Analysis 19

20 Star-to-delta conversion Y (star) D (delta) For the D circuit, we have Analysis 20

21 Star-to-delta conversion Now, equating the two sets of I 1, I 2 and I 3, we get The first problem is solved. Analysis 21

22 Delta-to-star conversion This problem is more conveniently handled in terms of R. The answer is: Analysis 22

23 Example the bridge circuit again We know that the series/parallel reduction method is not useful for this circuit! The star-delta transformation may solve this problem. The question is how to apply the transformation so that the circuit can become solvable using the series/parallel reduction or other ac hoc methods. Analysis 23

24 Example the bridge circuit again After we do the conversion from Y to D, we can easily solve the circuit with parallel/series reduction. Analysis 24

25 Useful/important theorems Thévenin Theorem Norton Theorem Maximum Power Transfer Theorem Analysis 25

26 Thévenin and Norton theorems Circuit in question External apparatus (another circuit) Problem: Find the simplest equivalent circuit model for N, such that the external circuit N* would not feel any difference if N is replaced by that equivalent model. The solution is contained in two theorems due to Thévenin and Norton. Analysis 26

27 Thévenin and Norton theorems Let s look at the logic behind these theorems (quite simple really). If we write down KVL, KCL, and Ohm s law equations correctly, we will have a number of equations with the same number of unknowns. Then, we can try to solve them to get what we want. Now suppose everything is linear. We are sure that we can get the following equation after elimination/substitution (some high school algebra): Case 1: a 0 Case 2: b 0 Thévenin Norton Analysis 27

28 Equivalent models Thévenin equiv. ckt Voltage source in series with a resistor i.e., V + IR T = V T which is consistent with case 1 equation Norton equiv. ckt Current source in parallel with a resistor i.e., I = I N + V/R N which is consistent with case 2 equation Analysis 28

29 How to find V T and I N = V T Thévenin equiv. ckt Open-circuit the terminals (I=0), we get V T as the observed value of V. Easy! V T is just the opencircuit voltage! I = I N Norton equiv. ckt Short-circuit the terminals (V=0), we get I N as the observed current I. Easy! I N is just the shortcircuit current! Analysis 29

30 How to find R T and R N (they are equal) I = I sc Thévenin equiv. ckt Short-circuit the terminals (V=0), find I which is equal to V T /R T. Thus, R T = V T / I sc = V oc Norton equiv. ckt Open-circuit the terminals (I=0), find V which is equal to I N R N. Thus, R N = V oc / I N. For both cases, R T = R N = V oc / I sc Analysis 30

31 Simple example Step 1: open-circuit The o/c terminal voltage is Step 2: short-circuit The s/c current is Step 3: Thévenin or Norton resistance Hence, the equiv. ckts are: Analysis 31

32 Example the bridge again Problem: Find the current flowing in R5. One solution is by delta-star conversion (as done before). Another simpler method is to find the Thévenin equivalent circuit seen from R5. Analysis 32

33 Example the bridge again Step 1: open circuit The o/c voltage across A and B is = V T Step 2: short circuit The s/c current is Step 3: R T Analysis 33

34 Example the bridge again = Current in R5 = V T R 5 + R T Analysis 34

35 Maximum power transfer theorem We consider the power dissipated by R L. The current in R L is Thus, the power is This power has a maximum, when plotted against R L. = 0 gives R L = R T. Analysis 35

36 A misleading interpretation It seems counter-intuitive that the MPT theorem suggests a maximum power at R L = R T. Shouldn t maximum power occur when we have all power go to the load? That is, when R T = 0! Is the MPT theorem wrong? Discussion: what is the condition required by the theorem? Analysis 36

37 Systematic analysis techniques So far, we have solved circuits on an ad hoc manner. We are able to treat circuits with parallel/series reduction, star-delta conversion, with the help of some theorems. How about very general arbitrary circuit styles? In Basic Electronics, you have learnt the use of MESH and NODAL methods. MESH planar circuits only; solution in terms of mesh currents. NODAL any circuit; solution in terms of nodal voltages. BUT THEY ARE NOT EFFICIENT! Analysis 37

38 Mesh analysis (for planar circuits only) Meshes windows Planar or not? Analysis 38

39 Mesh analysis Step 1: Define meshes and unknowns Each window is a mesh. Here, we have two meshes. For each one, we imagine a current circulating around it. So, we have two such currents, I 1 and I 2 unknowns to be found. Step 2: Set up KVL equations Step 3: Simplify and solve Once we know the mesh currents, we can find anything in the circuit! which gives I 1 = 6 A and I 2 = 4 A. e.g., current flowing down the 3Ω resistor in the middle is equal to I 1 I 2 ; current flowing up the 42V source is I 1 ; current flowing down the 10V source is I 2 ; and voltages can be found via Ohm s law. Analysis 39

40 Mesh analysis In general, we formulate the solution in terms of unknown mesh currents: [ R ] [ I ] = [ V ] mesh equation where [ R ] is the resistance matrix [ I ] is the unknown mesh current vector [ V ] is the source vector For a short cut in setting up the above matrix equation, see Sec of the textbook. This may be picked up in the tutorial. Analysis 40

41 Mesh analysis observing superposition Consider the previous example. The mesh equation is given by: or Thus, the solution can be written as Remember what 42 and 10 are? They are the sources! The above solution can also be written as or SUPERPOSITION of two sources Analysis 41

42 Problem with current sources The mesh method may run into trouble if the circuit has current source(s). Suppose we define the unknowns in the same way, i.e., I 1, I 2 and I 3. The trouble is that we don t know what voltage is dropped across the 14A source! How can we set up the KVL equation for meshes 1 and 3? One solution is to ignore meshes 1 and 3. Instead we look at the supermesh containing 1 and 3. So, we set up KVL equations for mesh 2 and the supermesh: Mesh 2: Supermesh: One more equation: I 1 I 3 = 14 Finally, solve the equations. Analysis 42

43 Complexity of mesh method In all cases, we see that the mesh method ends up with N equations and N unknowns, where N is the number of meshes (windows) of the circuit. One important point: The mesh method is over-complex when applied to circuits with current source(s). WHY? We don t need N equations for circuits with current source(s) because the currents are partly known! In the previous example, it seems unnecessary to solve for both I 1 and I 3 because their difference is known to be 14! This is a waste of efforts! Can we improve it? Analysis 43

44 Nodal analysis Step 1: Define unknowns Each node is assigned a number. Choose a reference node which has zero potential. Then, each node has a voltage w.r.t. the reference node. Here, we have V 1 and V 2 unknowns to be found. Step 2: Set up KCL equation for each node Node 1: Node 2: Step 3: Simplify and solve which gives V 1 = 5 V and V 2 = 2.5 V. Once we know the nodal voltages, we can find anything in the circuit! e.g., voltage across the 5Ω resistor in the middle is equal to V 1 V 2 ; voltage across the 3A source is V 1 ; voltage across the 2A source is V 2 ; and currents can be found via Ohm s law. Analysis 44

45 Nodal analysis In general, we formulate the solution in terms of unknown nodal voltages: [ G ] [ V ] = [ I ] nodal equation where [ G ] is the conductance matrix [ V ] is the unknown node voltage vector [ I ] is the source vector For a short cut in setting up the above matrix equation, see Sec of the textbook. This may be picked up in the tutorial. Analysis 45

46 Nodal analysis observing superposition Consider the previous example. The nodal equation is given by: Thus, the solution can be written as Remember what 3 and 2 are? They are the sources! The above solution can also be written as or SUPERPOSITION of two sources Analysis 46

47 Problem with voltage sources The nodal method may run into trouble if the circuit has voltage source(s). Suppose we define the unknowns in the same way, i.e., V 1, V 2 and V 3. The trouble is that we don t know what current is flowing through the 2V source! How can we set up the KCL equation for nodes 2 and 3? One solution is to ignore nodes 1 and 3. Instead we look at the supernode merging 2 and 3. So, we set up KCL equations for node 1 and the supernode: One more equation: V 3 V 2 = 2 Finally, solve the equations. Analysis 47

48 Complexity of nodal method In all cases, we see that the mesh method ends up with N equations and N unknowns, where N is the number of nodes of the circuit minus 1. One important point: The nodal method is over-complex when applied to circuits with voltage source(s). WHY? We don t need N equations for circuits with voltage source(s) because the node voltages are partly known! In the previous example, it seems unnecessary to solve for both V 2 and V 3 because their difference is known to be 2! This is a waste of efforts! Can we improve it? Analysis 48

49 Final note on superposition Superposition is a consequence of linearity. We may conclude that for any linear circuit, any voltage or current can be written as linear combination of the sources. Suppose we have a circuit which contains two voltage sources V 1, V 2 and I 3. And, suppose we wish to find I x. Without doing anything, we know for sure that the following is correct: I x = a V 1 + b V 2 + c I 3 where a, b and c are some constants. Is this property useful? Can we use this property for analysis? V 1 V 2 I 3 I x We may pick this up in the tutorial. Analysis 49

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