Referencing Guidelines for Students and Staff

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1 Learning Resources Department of Performing Arts & English for Students and Staff Harvard University of Bedfordshire Style (July 2011) lrweb.beds.ac.uk/guides

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3 Contents What is? 03 How do I know what resources I should reference? 03 List of specific resources that you are likely to use in your assignments. 04 Where should referencing be used? 05 How do I reference? General points to remember: 06 1) Books 07 a) Books with an author 07 b) Books with more than three authors 10 d) Electronic books 11 2) Journals 15 a) Print journals 15 b) Electronic editions of print journals 17 3) Newspaper articles (print and electronic) 19 4) Lecture materials from BREO 21 5) Organisational or personal Internet sites 23 6) Audio visual material 27 a) Audio visual material Videos and DVDs 27 b) Audio Visual Material - CDs [Music or spoken word] 29 7) Live performances Theatre and Dance 31 a) Live theatre performance 31 b) Live dance performances 33 8) Secondary referencing 35 How do I find out more about referencing? 36 Appendix: Example of a Reference List 37 2

4 What is referencing? It is a way of... acknowledging that you have used the ideas and written material belonging to another author. You should use reference in all your assignments: essays portfolios posters presentations dissertations avoiding plagiarism (literary theft a serious academic offence) How do I know what resources I should reference? You will be expected to reference what you have watched listened to looked at Note: this includes electronic sources such as websites. It also includes live performances. 3

5 List of specific resources that you are likely to use in your assignments Here are some specific resources that you are most likely to use to back up research for any assignments during your degree. This list is not exhaustive. 1. Books a. With an author b. With more than three authors c. With an editor or chapter in an edited book d. Electronic books 2. Journals a. Print journals b. Electronic editions of print journals (e.g. from databases such as International Index to Performing Arts) 3. Newspaper articles (print and electronic) 4. Lecture materials on BREO 5. Organisational or personal Internet sites 6. Audio visual material CDs, videos & DVDs 7. Live performances Dance and Theatre 8. Secondary On the following pages are the actual examples Look at them carefully and check each of your references along side the examples. It is up to you to check and double check that you have referenced correctly. The more you do this the easier it will become as there is a format for each type of reference. 4

6 Where should referencing be used? There are two main parts of your assignment that will need to be referenced: - in the main part of your assignment (the body of the text) Whenever you refer to someone else s work Directly - using direct quotations Indirectly - paraphrasing someone else s ideas into your own words Note: look carefully at the examples later on to see how to do this it is quite simple once you learn the rules. In this guide all the examples for how to reference within the main part of your assignment are found in the pink boxes. - at the end of your assignment In a Reference List which includes the full details for all the references you use in your assignment (discussed, quoted or paraphrased). There is an example of a Reference List in Appendix OR A Bibliography is a Reference List and all other sources that you may have read but not referred to in the body of your text. Check with your tutor to see if you need to do a Reference List or a Bibliography. In this guide all the examples of how to reference within the Reference List or Bibliography are found in the green boxes. 5

7 How do I reference? General points to remember: Punctuation is very important!! In fact it is essential please follow the instructions in the boxes very carefully. This referencing style does not use footnotes You will see the following used in some examples: Sentence case: means you would write it as in a sentence (Capital letter at beginning followed by lower case unless someone s name, place of a name etc. and ending in a full stop). Title case: to write it as you would a title. (e.g. Grey Rabbit and the Weasels). How to reference in the main part of your assignment (in the body of your text). Example T i): Directly when you use a direct quote: Cottrell (2003, p.133) recommends that you use your own words, even if you don t think you write well they count for more than copied text. Example T ii): Indirectly - when you put it into your own words [paraphrasing]: Performances originate from a variety of sources, such as written texts or works of visual art (Schechner, 2006, p. 226). Can you see that you only need to put the author s surname, year of publication and the page number you do not need to put all the reference details here this is done at the end of your assignment in the Reference List. 6

8 1) Books For all books use the title page and the copyright page, rather than the book s cover to find the details used in referencing. a) Books with an author How to add books with authors to a Reference List. At the end of your assignment you must have a list of all the resources you have used in your assignment. This is called the Reference List. There is an example of a Reference List in Appendix 1. In the Reference List all the books with authors you have referred to in your assignment must be in the following format. Each of the following boxes has additional instructions to help you set out your reference list correctly: Author(s) Surname (comma), followed by first name initial (full stop). (Year of publication) (In round brackets) Book title. In italics, in sentence case [see explanation on page 6] and ending in a full stop. Edition (abbreviate to edn. - don t include the edition number if it is the 1st edition) Place of publication (the first named if there is more than one place) followed by a colon Publisher This is simply the name of the publisher and a full stop. 7

9 Example T1 and T2: How to reference a book with an author and without or with a subtitle in the main part of your assignment. Cottrell (2003, p.133) recommends that you use your own words, even if you don t think you write well they count for more than copied text. This is exactly the same for both examples (without and with a subtitle). Example RL1: How to add a book with an author but without a subtitle in the Reference List. Cottrell, S. (2003) The study skills handbook. 2nd edn Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. If you had referred to this book in your assignment this is how it would be laid out in your Reference List: Cottrell, S. (2003) The study skills handbook. 2nd edn. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Example RL2: How to add a book with author(s) and with a subtitle in the Reference List. Schechner, R. (2006) Performance Studies: an introduction. 2nd edn. London: Routledge. If you had referred to this book in your assignment this is how it would be laid out in your Reference List: Schechner, R. (2006) Performance studies: an introduction. 2nd edn. London: Routledge. 8

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11 b) Books with more than three authors Example T3: How to reference in the main part of your assignment if there are more than three authors. When there are more than three authors use the surname of the first listed author and then add et al (in italics). The Latin expression et al means and other. In the main part of your assignment referencing a book with more than three authors will look like this: This was proved by Zarrilli et al. (2006) Example RL3: How to add a book with more than three authors to the Reference List. The components within this reference are the same as examples RL1 and RL2 however when there are more than three authors all the authors are shown in the Reference List at the end of your work instead of et al as shown in example T3. So if you had referred to the following book in the main part of your assignment you would add it to your Reference List in the following way: Zarrilli, P. B., Sorgenfrei, C. F., Williams, G. J., McConachie, B.(2006) Theatre histories : an introduction. New York: Routledge. 10

12 c) Books with an editor or chapter in an edited book Example T4: How to reference an editor or chapter in an edited book in the main part of your assignment. Begam (2007, p. 186) argues that Joyce s political engagement operates at the aesthetic level. Note that it is the same layout as example T1. How to add books with an editor or chapter in an edited book to your Reference List. In the Reference List all the books with an editor or chapter in an edited book you have referred to in your assignment must be in the following format. Each of the following boxes has additional instructions to help you set out your reference list correctly: Author(s) of chapter Surname (comma), followed by initial (full stop). (Year of publication) (In round brackets) Title of chapter in In inverted commas and a comma, followed by in (but not in italics) Name of Editor(s) Abbreviated to ed. Or eds. Book title: subtitle In italics, in sentence case If there is a subtitle separate by colon Place of publication: (the first named if there is more than one place) followed by a colon Publisher, This is simply the name of the publisher and a comma, Page numbers of the chapter. Use p. or pp. End with a full stop. 11

13 Example RL4: How to add a book with an editor or chapter in an edited book to your Reference List. Begam, R. (2007) Joyce s Trojan Horse: Ulysses and the aesthetics of decolonization, in Begam, R. and Valdez Moses, M. (eds.) Modernism and colonialism: British and Irish literature, Durham: Duke University Press, pp If you had referred to this chapter within a book in your assignment this is how it would be laid out in your Reference List. Begam, R. (2007) Joyce s Trojan Horse: Ulysses and the aesthetics of decolonization, in Begam, R. and Valdez Moses, M. (eds.) Modernism and colonialism: British and Irish literature, Durham: Duke University Press, pp

14 d) Electronic books Example T5: How to reference an electronic book in the main part of your assignment. Since the early 1960s women have been involved in performance art and have worked to liberate the body marked female from the confines of patriarchal delimitation (Schneider, 1997, p. 11). Again this is the same as Examples T1-T3. You will see that referencing within the main part of your assignment is quite easy. How to add electronic books to your Reference List. In the Reference List all the electronic books you have referred to in your assignment must be in the following format. Each of the following boxes has additional instructions to help you set out your Reference list correctly: Author(s) Surname (comma), followed by first name initial (full stop). (Year of publication) (In round brackets) Book title: subtitle In italics, in sentence case. If there is a subtitle seperated by a colon E-book supplier [Online]. (e.g. Netlibrary, DawsonEra) Available at: URL Include (Accessed: day month year). (in round brackets) 13

15 Example RL5: How to add an electronic book to your Reference List. Schneider, R. (1997) The explicit body in performance. Netlibrary [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: 20 October 2010). If you had referred to this electronic book in your assignment this is how it would be laid out in your Reference List: Schneider, R. (1997) The explicit body in performance. Netlibrary [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: 20 October 2010). 14

16 2) Journals Print journals Example T6: How to reference a print journal in the main part of your assignment. Hawkins (2006, p. 373) argues that Dante s contribution to theology. Once again you will see that referencing in the main part of your assignment follows the same format as previous examples. How to add print journals to your Reference List. In the Reference List all the print journals you have referred to in your assignment must be in the following format. Each of the following boxes has additional instructions to help you set out your Reference List correctly: Author(s) Surname (comma), followed by first name initial (full stop). (Year of publication) (In round brackets) Title of article (in inverted commas but not in italics) Title of Journal (in italics, in Title Case) Volume (issue number), page number(s). Issue number in (round brackets) 15

17 Example RL6: How to add print journals to your Reference List. Hawkins, P. (2006) All smiles: poetry and theology in Dante PMLA, 121 (2), pp If you had referred to this print journal in your assignment this is how it would be laid out in your Reference List: Hawkins, P. (2006) All smiles: poetry and theology in Dante, PMLA, 121 (2), pp The et al rule also applies to journal articles. See page How to reference books with more than three authors. 16

18 b) Electronic editions of print journals (e.g. from databases such as International Index to Performing Arts) Example T7: How to reference an electronic edition of print journal in the main part of your assignment. Price (1990, p. 324) argues that Bausch s Tanztheatre explores the construction of gender from the standpoint of both radical and materialist feminism. Once again you will see that referencing in the main part of your assignment follows the same format as previous examples. How to add electronic editions of print journals to your Reference List. In the Reference List all the electronic editions of print journals you have referred to in your assignment must be in the following format. Each of the following boxes has additional instructions to help you set out your Reference List correctly: Author(s) Surname (comma), followed by first name initial (full stop). (Year of publication) (In round brackets) Title of article (in inverted commas but not in italics) Title of Journal (in italics, in Title Case) Volume (issue number), page number(s). Issue number in (round brackets) Name of database / electronic journal supplier see Note field on library Catalogue page. In italics [Online]. [In square brackets] Available at: URL of collection Include (Accessed: day month year). The date of the last time you looked at it. 17

19 Example RL7: How to add an electronic editions of print journals to your Reference List. Price, D. (1990) Women and/in drama: the politics of the body: Pina Bausch s Tanztheater, Theatre Journal, 42 (3), pp International Index to Performing Arts [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: 14 November 2007). If you had referred to this electronic editions of print journals in your assignment this is how it would be laid out in your Reference List. Price, D. (1990) Women and/in drama: the politics of the body: Pina Bausch s Tanztheater, Theatre Journal, 42 (3), pp International Index to Performing Arts [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: 14 November 2007). 18

20 3) Newspaper articles (print and electronic) Example T8: How to reference newspaper articles (print and electronic) in the main part of your assignment. The preponderance of reality TV shows featuring competitors vying for a place in West End musicals has led to a rise in theatre attendance (Byrne, 2008). How to add newspaper articles (print and electronic) to your Reference List. In the Reference List all the newspaper articles (print and electronic) you have referred to in your assignment must be in the following format. Each of the following boxes has additional instructions to help you set out your: Author(s) Surname (comma), followed by first name initial (full stop). (Year of publication) (In round brackets) Title of article (in inverted commas but not in italics) Name of newspaper (in italics, in sentence case) Day and month of publication, Page number(s) (p. or pp. ; only include page numbers for print articles) If using an electronic version of an article, add the following to the above information after removing the page number(s): [Online]. Available at: URL (Accessed: date month year) 19

21 Example RL8: How to add printed newspaper articles to your Reference List. Byrne, C. (2008) Reality TV shows creates boom in theatre attendance, The Independent, 18 January, p. 22. If you had referred to this print version of a newspaper article in your assignment this is how it would be laid out in your Reference List. Byrne, C. (2008) Reality TV shows create boom in theatre attendance, The Independent, 18 January, p. 22. Example RL9: if you are adding the electronic version of a newspaper article to your Reference List remove the page number(s) and add the following: [Online]. Available at: /legal/home/ home.do?rand= (Accessed: 7 February 2008). If you had referred to this electronic version of a newspaper article in your assignment this is how it would be laid out in your Reference List. Byrne, C. (2008) Reality TV shows create boom in theatre attendance, The Independent, 18 January [Online]. Available at: ac.uk/uk/legal/home/ home.do?rand= (Accessed: 7 February 2008). 20

22 4) Lecture materials from BREO Example T9: How to reference lecture material from BREO in the main part of your assignment. The aim of politically correct language is to create a more inclusive vocabulary (Walsh, 2008). How to add lecture materials from BREO to the Reference List. In the Reference List all the lecture materials from BREO you have referred to in your assignment must be in the following format. Each of the following boxes has additional instructions to help you set out your reference list correctly: Author(s) Surname (comma), followed by first name initial (full stop). (Year of publication) (In round brackets) Title of Lecture (in inverted commas but not in italics) Name of unit/module (in italics, in sentence case) [Online]. Available at: URL of BREO Include (Accessed: day month year). 21

23 Example RL9: How to add lecture materials from BREO to the Reference List. Walsh, C. (2008) Week 16: Free speech and political correctness. Language, ideology and power [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: 2 May 2008). If you had referred to this lecture material from BREO in your assignment this is how it would be laid out in your Reference List. Walsh, C. (2008) Week 16: Free speech and political correctness. Language, ideology and power [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: 2 May 2008). 22

24 5) Organisational or personal Internet sites If you cannot identify the originator or date of a webpage, you should reconsider whether the information is of reliable quality. Example T10 and T11: How to reference Organisational or personal Internet sites in the main part of your assignment. Note: The first example is an example of a publication on a website so there are page numbers, the second example does not have page numbers. Example T10 a publication on a website so there are page numbers. Many graduates from creative disciplines such as dance are self-employed, in part because of the creative freedom this offers (Burns, 2007, p. 6). Example T11 no page numbers on the website. DV8 s artistic policy emphasises the company s attempts to break down the barriers between dance, theatre and personal politics (DV8 Physical Theatre, 2008). How to add Organisational or personal Internet sites to your Reference List. In the Reference List all the Organisational or personal Internet sites you have referred to in your assignment must be in the following format. Each of the following boxes has additional instructions to help you set out your reference list correctly: Author(s) Surname (comma), followed by first name initial (full stop). (Year of publication) (In round brackets) Name of webpage (in italics, in sentence case) 23

25 Available at: URL (Include the webpage s full address not just the generic website) (Accessed: day month year). Example RL10 and RL11: How to add Organisational or personal Internet sites in the Reference List. Example RL10 is a publication on a website so there is an author and page numbers. The page numbers are referred to in the body of your assignment by not in the Reference List. Burns, S. (2007) Mapping dance: entrepreneurship and professional practice in dance higher education. Available at: (Accessed: 27 March 2008). If you had referred to this Organisational or personal Internet sites in your assignment this is how it would be laid out in your Reference List: Burns, S. (2007) Mapping dance: entrepreneurship and professional practice in dance higher education. Available at: (Accessed: 27 March 2008). 24

26 Example RL11 is an example of an organisational website so the author is the Company not an individual, on this website there are no page numbers. DV8 Physical Theatre (2008) About DV8: artistic policy Available at: (Accessed: 27 November 2007). If you had referred to this Organisational or personal Internet sites in your assignment this is how it would be laid out in your Reference List. DV8 Physical Theatre (2008) About DV8: artistic policy. Available at: (Accessed: 27 November 2007). 25

27 26

28 6) Audio visual material a) Audio visual material Videos and DVDs Example T12 and T13: How to reference Audio visual material videos and DVDs [including copies of TV programmes] in the main part of your assignment: In Michael Hoffman s recent adaptation of Shakespeare s play (A Midsummer Night s Dream, 2002) How to add Audio visual material videos and DVDs to your Reference List In the Reference List all the Audio visual material videos and DVDs you have referred to in your assignment must be in the following format. Note: additional information is required for DVD copies of television programmes. Each of the following boxes has additional instructions to help you set out your reference list correctly: Title of film/ programme (in italics) (Year of distribution) Directed by Director s name [DVD] or [video cassette]. Place of distribution: Publisher. Don t forget the colon!! 27

29 Example RL12 How to add audio visual material [videos, DVDs] in the Reference List. A Midsummer Night s Dream (2002) Directed by Michael Hoffman [DVD]. Los Angeles: 20th Century Fox. If you had referred to this Videos or DVDs in your assignment this is how it would be laid out in your Reference List: A Midsummer Night s Dream (2002) Directed by Michael Hoffman [DVD]. Los Angeles: 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment. Example RL13: How to reference audio visual material video or DVD copies of television programmes in the Reference List Note: [these are often called off air recordings] you don t add the place of distribution but do add the channel and date of recording: Dance for the camera: the snowball effect (1998) Directed by Brett Turnball [DVD]. BBC 2, 15 January. If you had referred to this DVD in your assignment this is how it would be laid out in your Reference List: Dance for the camera: the snowball effect (1998) Directed by Brett Turnball [DVD]. BBC 2, 15 January. 28

30 There are various types of television programmes including directly from the TV, episodes of a series, separate episodes from DVD box sets and TV viewed on the Internet. See Pears (2010) pages for further details. b) Audio Visual Material - CDs [Music or spoken word] Example T14: How to reference Audio visual material CDs [Music or spoken word] in the main part of your assignment: The band s finest album (What s the story) Morning Glory (1995) How to add Audio visual material CDs [Music or spoken word] to your Reference List In the Reference List all the Audio visual material CDs [Music or spoken word] you have referred to in your assignment must be in the following format. Each of the following boxes has additional instructions to help you set out your reference list correctly: Artist If available if not use title first (Year of distribution) (In round brackets) Title of recording In italics [CD]. Full stop! Place of distribution: Don t forget the colon: Distribution company. and a full stop. 29

31 RL14: How to reference audio visual material CDs [Music or spoken word] in the Reference List. Oasis (1995) (What s the story) Morning glory [CD]. London: Creation Records. If you had referred to this this audio visual material CDs [Music or spoken word] in your assignment this is how it would be laid out in your Reference List: Oasis (1995) (What s the story) Morning glory [CD]. London: Creation Records. 30

32 7) Live performances Theatre and Dance a) Live theatre performance Example T15: How to reference a live theatre performance in the main part of your assignment: The production used video screens on stage to display both pre-recorded and live images (Richard II, 2005). How to add a live theatre performance to your Reference List In the Reference List all the live theatre performances you have referred to in your assignment must be in the following format. Each of the following boxes has additional instructions to help you set out your reference list correctly: Title (in italics) by Author s name first name and surname in full (Year of performance) (In round brackets) Directed by full stop. Location. [Open square bracket Day Month seen. Close square bracket]. 31

33 Example RL15: How to add a Live theatre performance in the Reference List. Richard II By William Shakespeare (2005) Directed by Trevor Nunn. [The Old Vic Theatre, London. 15 September]. If you had referred to live theatre performance in your assignment this is how it would be laid out in your Reference List: Richard II by William Shakespeare (2005) Directed by Trevor Nunn. [The Old Vic Theatre, London. 15 September]. 32

34 b) Live dance performances Example T16: How to reference a live dance performance in the main part of your assignment: The production updates Bizet s opera Carmen to 1960s America (Bourne, 2000). How to add a live dance performance to your Reference List In the Reference List all the live dance performances you have referred to in your assignment must be in the following format. Each of the following boxes has additional instructions to help you set out your reference list correctly: Composer or choreographer (Year of premier) (In round brackets) Title In italics Location. [Open square bracket Day Month Year seen. Close square bracket]. 33

35 Example RL16: How to add a Live dance performance in the Reference List. Bourne M. (2000) The Car Man. [Sadler s Wells Theatre, 11 July 2007]. If you had referred to live dance performance in your assignment this is how it would be laid out in your Reference List: Bourne, M. (2000) The Car Man. [Sadler s Wells Theatre, London. 11 July 2007]. 34

36 8) Secondary referencing - this is a useful technique, but should only be used infrequently. Example T17: Secondary referencing books in the main part of your assignment: Let it be first of all by their presence that objects and gestures establish themselves (Alain Robbe-Grillet, quoted in Banes, 1987, p. 43) Example T18: Secondary referencing journals in the main part of your assignment: Barish, cited by Poole (1995), remarks that Puritan can often be used as a shorthand term for much anti-theatrical writing. The following examples show how to use secondary reference from a book and then a journal. Example RL 17: Secondary referencing books in the Reference List: Banes, S. (1987) Terpsichore in sneakers: post-modern dance. Hanover: Wesleyan University Press. Example RL18: Secondary referencing journals in the Reference List: Poole, K. (1995) Saints alive! Falstaff, Martin Marprelate, and the staging of Puritanism, Shakespeare Quarterly, 46 (1), pp

37 How do I find out more about referencing? If you are still confused about referencing in an assignment, talk to your lecturer or contact your librarian for help: Sandra Weir (Academic Liaison Librarian) ext: 4382 The University of Bedfordshire also uses an automated referencing system called RefWorks. Before using this system it is best to become familiar with the basic rules mentioned in this guide. For further information contact your Academic Liaison Librarian. consult Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2010) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. Durham: Pear Tree Books. There are copies of this guide in Polhill Library at classmark 808 PEA. Acknowledgement: Based on the referencing guide for the University of Bedfordshire Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, created by Hilary Johnson (Health Studies Librarian), Dawn Haysom (Academic Liaison Librarian) and Susan Malherbe (Lecturer) (June 2006, updated June 2007, further updates by Jacqueline Belanger April May 2008 (Academic Liaison Librarian). This version created by Sandra Weir (Academic Liaison Librarian), July

38 Appendix: Example of a Reference List Begam, R. (2007) Joyce s Trojan Horse: Ulysses and the aesthetics of decolonization, in Begam, R. and Valdez Moses, M. (eds.) Modernism and colonialism: British and Irish literature, Durham: Duke University Press, pp Bourne, M. (2000) The Car Man. [Sadler s Wells Theatre, London. 11 July 2007]. Burns, S. (2007) Mapping dance: entrepreneurship and professional practice in dance higher education. Available at: ac.uk/files/publications/723.pdf (Accessed: 27 March 2008). Byrne, C. (2008) Reality TV shows create boom in theatre attendance, The Independent, 18 January, p. 22. Byrne, C. (2008) Reality TV shows create boom in theatre attendance, The Independent, 18 January [Online]. Available at: home.o?rand = (Accessed: 7 February 2008). Hawkins, P. (2006) All smiles: poetry and theology in Dante, PMLA, 121 (2), pp Oasis (1995) (What s the story) Morning glory [CD]. London: Creation Records. Price, D. (1990) Women and/in drama: the politics of the body: Pina Bausch s Tanztheater, Theatre Journal, 42 (3), pp International Index to Performing Arts [Online]. Available at: chadwyck.com.brum.luton.ac.uk/home.do (Accessed: 14 November 2007). Richard II by William Shakespeare (2005) Directed by Trevor Nunn. [The Old Vic Theatre, London. 15 September]. Schechner, R. (2006) Performance studies: an introduction. 2nd edn. London: Routledge. 37

39 Schneider, R. (1997) The explicit body in performance. Netlibrary [Online]. Available at: (Accessed: 20 October 2010). Walsh, C. (2008) Week 16: Free speech and political correctness. Language, ideology and power [Online]. Available at: beds.ac.uk (Accessed: 2 May 2008). Zarrilli, P. B., Sorgenfrei, C. F., Williams, G. J., McConachie, B.(2006) Theatre histories :an introduction. New York: Routledge. 38

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