Learning Development Unit. A Little Guide to REFERENCING

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1 Learning Development Unit A Little Guide to REFERENCING 2009

2 Contents Page Introduction 2 1. Why reference? 3 2. How to reference using the Harvard referencing system: 4 Books Journals Websites 3. Test your knowledge so far 8 4. More about in-text referencing 9 5. Gathering referenced information Bibliographies Examples of some common referencing difficulties Summary examples of in-text and end-text referencing 13 Books Journals Websites 9. How to access more detailed information 14 1

3 Introduction All members of the academic community around the world, whatever our subject disciplines, are committed to the creation and discovery of knowledge and the free exchange of ideas. This ideal relies on a common understanding of the notion of academic honesty which, at its simplest, means never falsifying the results of research and always giving full credit for any other people's contributions to our own achievements. Because it is so important to safeguard academic integrity, conventions have evolved which you will need to observe in all your academic work from now on..." (University of Brighton: 2005)* There is plenty of sound information on referencing in your student handbook and on the Bucks New University website. (A search on the main Bucks New University page for HARVARD will supply a copy of the Guidelines) The purpose of this little guide is to simplify that information and help you to check you have understood it. You will still need to refer to the handbook for more detailed help. *From "All my own work?" - University of Brighton Plagiarism Awareness Pack, 2005/06, available from the Centre for Learning & Teaching website at sm.htm [accessed 10/10/05] 2

4 1. Why reference? Why all this fuss about referencing? You need to remember what getting a degree is supposed to prove about you. That you know your subject; that you understand your subject; that you know this because you know what the experts have researched and written about your subject. (And other things too, of course.) Every assignment you do is a step towards proving you are worth a degree. So in every assignment you need to prove you have read what experts have written about your subject. So where does referencing come in? It demonstrates that you have read the work of the experts It indicates where your information comes from, in such a way that other people can track it down for themselves and read more It indicates the validity of the evidence you are citing It is courteous to whoever put effort into creating the materials you are now using It shows that you have not plagiarised * It gains marks in assignments! It explains how you know what you know * Plagiarism is a form of cheating; it means that you have taken someone else s words and ideas and presented them as your own. Students proved to have plagiarised are heavily penalised. 3

5 2. How to reference using the Harvard referencing system At Bucks New University you are required to use the Harvard Referencing System. There are other referencing systems used elsewhere, which may require footnotes or different formats. The Harvard System is very widely used and relatively simple once you understand it. It is often called the Author, date, system because these are the first and most vital pieces of information required. The Harvard Referencing System indicates where your information comes from, in such a way that other people can track it down for themselves and read more. With this information you should be able to go into a library or bookshop and locate a copy of exactly the same text that someone was referring to in their writing. Every time in your writing that you state a fact, quote or paraphrase (put into your own words) an opinion based on something you have read, you must acknowledge the source of this information. You must state the author s surname and date of publication in your text. (Bloggs, 1999). An actual quotation (using the exact words used by the writer) needs a page reference too. [ Life is bliss (Oswald, 2003 p16)] Every book, journal, website, etc. to which you refer in this way must be fully referenced in your reference list at the end of the assignment. It is not just quotations which are referenced: all information which you use must have had a source. State the source! All texts are referenced using the same underlying principles but you need slightly different information to locate a book or a journal or a website, so the details of the referencing requirements vary slightly. Books You are asked to record 5 or 6 pieces of information. Author by surname, initial. (date of publication) Title of the text. if there is a subtitle this is preceded by : Edition if not first Place of publication: Name of publisher. In your reference list, this looks like: Bloggs, J. (1998) The problem with modern youth. 2 nd ed. York: Cassels. (N.B: If a book sells out, it may be reprinted. If it goes out of date it may be reedited. In a reprint nothing changes. In a new edition, words may be changed, 4

6 information updated, so to note a second or third edition is vital. You do not need to mention the print run.) Notice the order, the fonts, the capital letters, (only the first word of the title takes a capital), the punctuation and the brackets in the examples given. You are expected to reference with this level of accuracy. Why is the date and place of publication important? These help to indicate the validity of the evidence you are citing. Think about: Everton is the most popular football club in Britain (Bloggs, 1979). The source of information for this statement is totally out of date: the statement is unlikely still to be valid. Notice the place of publication is a town or city, not a country, though you may add the name of the country as well. The place of publication is important. Strict regulations in London, Paris, New York and other places attempt to prevent the publication of untrue or unjust material. This may not be the case in every country. The place of publication may indicate the bias or viewpoint of the writer. An Ideal Global Economy published in Beijing could differ from its equivalent published in Dublin. So where do I find the information I need for this referencing? Look on the cover of the book for the title and author and at the frontispiece (that s the page at the front of the book, inside the cover) for the publication date and publisher s name. Ignore any information about printing! 5

7 So, if this is the cover of a book. THE DEVELOPMENT OF UNDERWATER ORIGAMI By JIM SMITH SOODALL PUBLISHING LTD And this is the inside page. Copyright: Jim Smith All rights reserved. Published by Soodall Publishing Limited Long Road Aldershot Hampshire Printed in China First published 1980 Second edition 1995 Sixteenth impression 2003 Write the reference to this book in the box below. You may like to try this exercise again with a real book. 6

8 Journals Read journals! They may well be the most up-to-date, cutting-edge sources of information available to you. Most journals publish several issues each year. Each year they start a new volume. Prof. Bob Moorhen maybe writes in every issue. To locate the article he wrote that you want to cite, you need his name, the journal name, but also the volume number and (the issue number). And you need the name of the article itself and, to be really helpful, the number of the pages it is on. The date of publication is still important. Moorhen, B. (2005) Nutrition from pond mud. Green Living. 2 (3), Notice the capitals, the use of bold for the volume number, the brackets round the issue number and the italics for the journal name. Notice that italics are used for the part of the information you need when you look on the back of books or journals on library shelves. Websites Finding accurate information to reference internet material can be difficult. Even if there is no author stated, you should always refer to the smallest traceable source or the group responsible for the article and give the date you downloaded or accessed the information. (Websites can change daily). If you are unable to find all the information you need on the website or for any text, acknowledge this by using the following abbreviations: Author not given No date given No place given (sine loco) No publisher (sine nominee) Not known [Anon.] [n.d] [s.l] [s.n] [n.k] Attempt to give: Author/editor, initial. (date) Title [online]. Publisher. Available from: URL [accessed date]. This might look like: Corsican travel team (2004) Best beaches [online]. Available from: [Accessed 14 October 2004]. N.B Do not split up the URL address at the end of a line. 7

9 Notice that Corsica Travel Team is the corporate author, the organisation responsible for placing the article on line. In text, cite (Corsica travel team, 2004) as your Author, date reference after any information gleaned from this sight. 3. Test your knowledge so far Each of these references contains at least one inaccuracy. Circle and correct the mistakes. 1) Snodgrass, F. 1998, The history of chocolate: an in depth research. Zurich, Jamieson 2) Henrietta Smith. (2001) The Perfect Householder. London: Collins. 3) Pratt, L. (1983) Mistakes I have made, Routledge and Paul 4) Harrison, D (1998) the decline in modern students, Education Today, 6 (2), ) Halliday, M (1996) French Holiday Homes (online). Available from: Your reference list gives details of every book, etc. that you have mentioned in your writing. The texts should be listed alphabetically by author s surname. Rearrange the above list to fit this convention. Every text you put in your reference list, must be cited somewhere in your writing. Your tutor may do a two-way check. Make sure you do this check yourself, before handing in your work. 8

10 4. More about in-text referencing There would be no point giving a detailed reference list if it was not also clear which pieces of information in your assignment came from which text. It is necessary to refer briefly to the source of any information you cite, in your text. This is an alternative to using footnotes, which are not used in the Harvard System. The simplest method is to put the author s surname and the date of that particular publication, in brackets, at the end of the information you are citing. Look at At the age of about 18 months, a baby learns a new word every two hours. (Pinker, 1994) This is not a direct quote. (In the original, Pinker wrote a whole paragraph on this topic.) It is a paraphrase (i.e., the idea rephrased into their own words by the assignment writer). The source of the information still needs to be acknowledged. Full details of Pinker s text can now be tracked in the reference list. This could have been written as: Stephen Pinker (1994) tells us that babies learn a new word every two hours when they reach 18 months. Or: According to Pinker (1994) babies increase their vocabulary... A short direct quotation needs to be acknowledged as such by using single quote marks and the page number stated. As Smith (1832 p17) famously stated: apples start their lives as blossoms. A longer quotation needs to be separated from your text by a blank line and then indented. No quote marks are needed. And so on. To be or not to be there: that is the question. Whether tis nobler... The important thing is to distinguish between what you are saying, your comments, your opinions, and the facts or words you have taken from another source. 9

11 Citing from websites In-text citation from websites requires you to state the smallest traceable aspect of the material. Many tutors will want you to make it clear it is online material. For example: Charles Brown [BBC news online ] states... Remember that often the author has to be a corporate author: the organisation responsible for the website. In the following exercise, A is a direct quote. With that information in mind, comment on the way this, and all the other examples, are referenced in text. Spot the paraphrase. Spot the possibility of a plagiarism accusation. A When we deceive ourselves we are denying knowledge of ourselves, and this is silly because one cannot runs one s life on false information. We need to know what we are capable of in order to be able to plan ahead, to anticipate how we will cope with situations. It is also true that people are capable of a great deal more than they give themselves credit for. This is precisely because we do have the capacity for growth and change. The self is not fixed (Dimbleby, 1998 p26). B. Dimbleby (1998) talks about the necessity of being honest with ourselves. C. It is essential that we are true to ourselves..we should not think there are things we can never ever do. It is also true that people are capable of a great deal more than they give themselves credit for. This is precisely because we do have the capacity for growth and change. We must believe in the not yet and not the never (Dimbleby, 1998) D. It is also true that people are capable of a great deal more than they give themselves credit for. This is precisely because we do have the capacity for growth and change. The self is not fixed. I could not continue with my studies if I did not believe this to be true. Whatever you quote or cite, you are expected to comment on that material. A patchwork collection of other people s work (often referred to as cut and paste ), even if correctly referenced, will not on its own give you good marks. 10

12 5. Gathering referenced information It pays to adopt the habit of keeping the necessary information about every book, journal, internet download, etc. from which you take notes. This way, you do not have to track down your source material again later when you need to refer to it. Every time you read any form of text make sure you record all the details you will need should you decide to refer to this information later. You can create note-making masters from this sheet or keep a similar system on your lap top or via card index. This system is also useful when you come to sort the notes you have gathered into essay structure. Record of information search: Place Date Assignment Text: Book/journal/website/other Author/editor: Surname and initial(s) Year of publication Title of chapter or article (if applicable)/sub-title Title of book /journal Edition (if not 1st) (books only) Journals: Volume; issue; month; page numbers Place of publication (not journals) Publisher (not journals) URL: Web accessed date Notes: JMDonachie. Learning Development Unit,

13 Record of information search : Place Date Assignment Wellesbourne Library Evaluating benefits of underwater origami Text: Book/journal/website/other Author/editor: Surname and initial(s) Phisch, E Year of publication 2001 Title of chapter or article (if applicable)/sub-title n/a Title of book /journal Modern Leisure Pursuits Edition (if not 1st) (books only) 2nd Journals: Volume; issue; month; page numbers n/a Place of publication (not journals) West Wittering Publisher (not journals) Babcock URL: n/a Web accessed date n/a Notes difficulties of working with soggy paper difficulties with dexterity while wearing breathing equipment. Can you use above information to create a) a sentence complete with in text reference and b) the item you need in your reference list? 6. Bibliographies You will be asked to provide a reference list with every piece of work you do, and sometimes a bibliography too. A bibliography is a list of books and journals you have read while preparing a piece of work, but to which you have not referred specifically. They have inspired you, informed your thinking, and you acknowledge this using exactly the same format as for the reference list. 12

14 7. Examples of some common referencing difficulties You may like to discuss these in a personal tutor session. 1. You talk to Fred Smith on the phone on 3 rd Sept, 2005 as part of your research. He tells you about some important but as yet unpublished research that he is doing which is demonstrating that the presence of ice cream vans at football matches decreases the chance of violence by nearly 40%. Can you use this material? If so, how do you reference it? 2. You receive an from a director of a travel company containing an interesting opinion on the future of air travel. Can you use it? How do you reference it? 3. An MP is interviewed on BBC One's 10 O'Clock News. You want to quote him. Can you? If so, how should you do this? All published material should be referenced. government publications, video tapes, films. This includes newspapers, This guide gives information on referencing books, journals and websites. Use your Student Handbook to check exactly how to reference other types of materials: the principle stays the same but the detail may be different. Unpublished material needs to be acknowledged, and permission granted if possible, for its use. 8. Summary examples of in-text and end-text referencing BOOKS In text: Model 1: Knife crime is a product of a need for excitement in an overprotected world (Bloggs, 1998). Author, by surname only, and date of publication all in brackets at the end of the statement. Or model 2: Bloggs (1998) claims that young people today lack challenge in their lives and so have to create the adrenalin rush artificially. Author, by surname only, only the date in brackets, both as part of the sentence. If you quoted Bloggs, word for word, you would also include the page number. 13

15 Whatever book you refer to in text MUST appear in your Reference List. In the reference list the details you need are: Bloggs, J. (1998) The problem with modern youth. 2 nd ed. York: Cassels JOURNALS In text: Supervisors and support staff argued that students should be able to take risks and be creative in their research under their guidance (Manathunga, 2005). Whatever journal you refer to MUST appear in your reference list Reference list: Manathunga, C. (2005) Early warning signs in postgraduate research education: a different approach to ensuring timely completions, Teaching in higher education. 10 (2), pp In text WEBSITES Calvi has one of the best beaches in Corsica (Corsican Travel, 2004). or: Corsican Travel (2004) suggest that one of the best beaches in Corsica is at a place called Calvi. In the reference list: Corsican travel (2004) Best beaches [online]. Available from: [Accessed 14 October 2004]. If it is in the reference list, it MUST also be cited in the text. 9. How to access more detailed information Look first in your Student Handbook. Then try some internet sites. will provide answers to the above questions. 14

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