CHEPTER-3 EFFECT OF OPERATING VARIABLES ON THERMAL EFFICIENCY OF COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "CHEPTER-3 EFFECT OF OPERATING VARIABLES ON THERMAL EFFICIENCY OF COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT"

Transcription

1 CHEPTER-3 EFFECT OF OPERATING VARIABLES ON THERMAL EFFICIENCY OF COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT 3.1 THERMAL EFFICIENCY OF THE COMBINED CYCLE: - In combined cycle power plants if power in gas turbine and steam turbine is P gt and P st respectively and heat supplied in combustion chamber is Q c, then according to general definition of thermal efficiency. (3.1) If there is a supplementary firing in HRSG, then (3.2) For gas turbine process (3.3) For steam turbine process (3.4) Q 1 is the heat exchange in HRSG from exhaust gases Now from equation (3.3) (3.5) Therefore (3.6) Substituting the value of from equations (3.3) and (3.6) in equation (3.2) Now, (3.7) 3.2 THE EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTARY FIRING IN THE HRSG ON OVERALL THERMAL EFFICIENCY Supplementary firing in the HRSG improves the overall thermal efficiency of combined cycle power plant whenever (3.8) 23

2 Differentiating the eq. (3.7) w.r.t Q SF From eq. (3.7) the RHS term is η o Now The term is the heat input to the steam cycles Now from eq. (3.6) = (3.9) Eq. (3.9) shows that with supplementary firing of fuel in HRSG, the power output of steam cycle (P st ) as well as its efficiency ( ) increase and so the increase in the overall efficiency diminishes. Therefore, supplementary firing is becoming less and less attractive. Generally it is more profitable to burn the fuel in the combustor of gas turbine 24

3 plant itself since the heat is supplied to the system at a temperature higher than that in steam cycle. If there is no supplementary firing then efficiency of combined cycle from eq.(3.7). reduces to ) (3.10) Now, We can find the effect of gas turbine efficiency on the overall efficiency of combined cycle by differencing eq. (3.10) w.r.t. gas turbine efficiency η gt (3.11) Increasing the gas turbine efficiency improves the overall efficiency, only if From eq. (3.11) (3.12) Improving the gas turbine efficiency is helpful only if it does not cause much a drop in the efficiency of steam process. Table 3.1 Allowable reduction in steam process efficiency as a function of gas turbine efficiency (steam process efficiency 0.25) η gt The table (3.1) shows that the higher the efficiency of the gas turbine, the greater may be the reduction in efficiency of steam process. The proportion of the overall output being provided by the gas turbine increases, reducing the effect of lower efficiency in the steam cycle. But a gas turbine with a maximum efficiency still does not provided an optimum combined cycle plant. (Rolf Kehlhofer; 1997) 25

4 3.3 SYSTEM LAYOUTS: - There are so many plant layout exist of combined cycle power plant. Few of them are listed below. A. SINGLE PRESSURE SYSTEM:- The simplest arrangement for a combined cycle plant is a single pressure system (Fig.3.1). This consists of one or more gas turbine with a single pressure HRSG, a condensing steam turbine, a water cooled condenser and single stage feed water pre heater in the deaerator. The steam for deaerator is tapped from the steam turbine. The HRSG consists of three parts. The feed water pre heater (economizer), which is heated by flue gases. The evaporator. The super heater. Fig. 3.1 Flow diagram of the single-pressure system 1 Compressor 6 Economizer 11 Feed water tank/deaerator 2 Gas turbine 7 Boiler drum 12 Feed water pump 3 Bypass stack 8 Steam turbine 13 Condensate pump 4 Super heater 9 Condenser 5 Evaporator 10 Steam bypass 26

5 B. Single pressure system with a pre heating loop in the HRSG C. Two pressure system fuel with sulpher D. Two pressure system fuel with no sulpher E. Limited a system with steam or water injection in to the gas turbine to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions (NO X ) F. A system using a single waste heat boiler for two gas turbine G. Combined cycle power plants with limited supplementary firing H. Combined cycle power plants with maximum supplementary firing (Rolf Kehlhofer; 1997) 3.4 CASE STUDY PROBLEM STATEMENT: The effect of operating variables on overall thermal efficiency of combined cycle power plant, variables are as follows Inlet condition of air to the compressor P 1 bar, T 1, k = 1 bar, 298 k Pressure ratio of the compressor r p = 8 Maximum gas temperature at inlet to the gas turbine T 3, k = 1173 k Pressure drop in the combustion chamber = 3 % Efficiency of the compressor = 0.88 Efficiency of gas turbine η gt = 0.88 Calorific value of fuel = Specific heat of air (C pa ) = Specific heat of gas (C pg ) = Specific heat ratio of gas = Specific heat ratio of air =

6 Condition of steam at inlet to steam turbine = P 7 bar, T 7, K (Corresponding Enthalpy h 7 ) 40 bar, 698 k Condenser pressure = P b bar, T 8, K (Corresponding Enthalpy h 8 ).04 bar Feed water temperature to the HRSG T 12 = 443 k Efficiency of steam turbine = 0.82 Pressure drop of gas in the HRSG = bar Steam Flow Rate m s = kg/s THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS: The temperature entropy diagram of combined cycle is shown in fig. 3.2 Considering gas turbine plant: PROCESS 1-2: Air is compressed from state 1 to 2 in compressor. The temperature of air after compression is given by (Nag, P.K; 2010) (3.13) 2 Fig. 3.2 Temperature-entropy diagram of combined cycle power plant 28

7 Putting the value of in eq. (3.13) (3.14) CONSIDERING COMBUSTOR PROCESS 2-3: Compressed air goes in to combustor where combustion takes place. Let Pressure drop in combustor = 3% therefore, p 3 = 0.97p 2 Let the flow rate of combustion gas be 1kg/s and that of fuel f kg/s so flow of air = (1-f) kg/s Therefore, by applying energy balance equation to combustor f CV = 1 C pg (T 3 -T 1 ) - (1-f)Cp a (T 2 -T 1 ) After solving it (3.15) Now Air fuel ratio (3.16) CONSIDERING PROCESS 3-4: In process 3-4, combustion gases expend in gas turbine (p 5 = p 1 = 1 bar) (3.17) 29

8 CONSIDERING HRSG (HEAT RECOVERY STEAM GENERATOR) Let the pinch point difference T 5 T 4, m g T 12, m s HRSG T 7 therefore, Now applying energy balance equation for HRSG (3.18) (3.19) Power output of steam turbine Now, Mass flow rate of Gas Turbine (3.20) Air flow rate entering the compressor Power output from the gas turbine Total Power Output (3.21) 30

9 Now, Overall efficiency (3.22) After putting the value of Where (3.23) (3.24) 3.5 EFFECT OF OPERATING VARIABLES ON OVERALL THERMAL EFFICIENCY OF COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT With the help of eq we can see the effect of variables like air inlet temperature in compressor, gas turbine inlet temperature, pinch point etc EFFECT OF AIR INLET TEMPERATURE OF COMPRESSOR: With the help of equation (3.24) we see the effect of different variables on the overall efficiency. 1. We considered the variable air inlet temperature in the compressor, by putting the given values of all variables in problem statement except air inlet temperature T 1 in eq we get the equation (3.25) We make the program of this equation in C++ and get the results 31

10 Fig.3.3. Effect of air inlet temperature of compressor on overall thermal efficiency EFFECT OF GAS TURBINE INLET TEMPERATURE: We considered the variable gas turbine inlet temperature T 3, by putting the given values of all variables in problem statement except gas turbine inlet temperature T 3 in eq we get the eq. (3.26) Fig.3.4. Effect of Gas turbine inlet temperature on overall thermal efficiency 32

11 3.5.3 EFFECT OF PINCH POINT: By putting the value of all variables which is given in problem statement in eq except pinch point we get the following eq. (3.27) Fig.3.5. Effect of pinch point on overall thermal efficiency EFFECT OF INLET TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE OF STEAM TURBINE: By putting the value of all variables which is given in problem statement in eq except enthalpy of inlet steam in the turbine we get the following eq. (3.28) Fig.3.6. Effect of inlet temperature and pressure of steam turbine on overall thermal efficiency of combined cycle CONCLUSION: 33

12 1. From eq and graph we can conclude that if air temperature increases the overall efficiency of the combined cycle plant decreases. because Increasing the air temperature reduces the density of air, and there by reduces the air mass flow drawn in. The power consumed by the compressor increases in proportion to the inlet temperature without their being a corresponding increase in the output from the turbine. In combined cycle plant as a function of air temperature with ambient conditions remaining otherwise unchanged. As its shows, an increasing in air temperature even has a slightly positive effect on the efficiency of the combined cycle power plant, since the increase temperature in the gas turbine exhaust raises the efficiency of steam process enough to more than compensate for the reduce efficiency of the gas turbine unit. 2. As we increase the inlet temperature of the gas turbine the overall efficiency of combined cycle power plant increases. Because gas turbine efficiency and steam process efficiency increases. 3. It is clear from the graph as we decrease the pinch point the overall efficiency of combined cycle plant increases. This is an important parameter, by reducing the pinch point the rate of energy utilization in the HRSG can be influenced within certain limits. However the surface of the heat exchanger increases exponentially which quickly sets in limit for the utilization rate. 4. The graph shows, the steam temperature and pressure increases the efficiency will be increased. But in combined cycle plant, a high live steam pressure does not necessarily mean a high efficiency. A higher pressure does indeed bring an increase efficiency of the water steam cycle due to the greater enthalpy gradient in the turbine. The rate of waste heat energy utilization in the exhaust gases however drops off sharply. The overall efficiency of the steam process is the product of the rate of energy utilization and the efficiency of the water steam cycle. There is an optimum at approx. 30 bar. 34

13

Energy : ṁ (h i + ½V i 2 ) = ṁ(h e + ½V e 2 ) Due to high T take h from table A.7.1

Energy : ṁ (h i + ½V i 2 ) = ṁ(h e + ½V e 2 ) Due to high T take h from table A.7.1 6.33 In a jet engine a flow of air at 000 K, 00 kpa and 30 m/s enters a nozzle, as shown in Fig. P6.33, where the air exits at 850 K, 90 kpa. What is the exit velocity assuming no heat loss? C.V. nozzle.

More information

OUTCOME 2 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE PERFORMANCE. TUTORIAL No. 5 PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS

OUTCOME 2 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE PERFORMANCE. TUTORIAL No. 5 PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS UNIT 61: ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS Unit code: D/601/1410 QCF level: 5 Credit value: 15 OUTCOME 2 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE PERFORMANCE TUTORIAL No. 5 PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS 2 Be able to evaluate

More information

Training programme on Energy Efficient technologies for climate change mitigation in Southeast Asia. Cogeneration

Training programme on Energy Efficient technologies for climate change mitigation in Southeast Asia. Cogeneration Training programme on Energy Efficient technologies for climate change mitigation in Southeast Asia Cogeneration Session Agenda: Cogeneration Introduction Types of steam turbine cogeneration system Types

More information

APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS. TUTORIAL No.3 GAS TURBINE POWER CYCLES. Revise gas expansions in turbines. Study the Joule cycle with friction.

APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS. TUTORIAL No.3 GAS TURBINE POWER CYCLES. Revise gas expansions in turbines. Study the Joule cycle with friction. APPLIED HERMODYNAMICS UORIAL No. GAS URBINE POWER CYCLES In this tutorial you will do the following. Revise gas expansions in turbines. Revise the Joule cycle. Study the Joule cycle with friction. Extend

More information

There is no general classification of thermodynamic cycle. The following types will be discussed as those are included in the course curriculum

There is no general classification of thermodynamic cycle. The following types will be discussed as those are included in the course curriculum THERMODYNAMIC CYCLES There is no general classification of thermodynamic cycle. The following types will be discussed as those are included in the course curriculum 1. Gas power cycles a) Carnot cycle

More information

Drying of Woody Biomass. Process Engineering / GEA Barr-Rosin

Drying of Woody Biomass. Process Engineering / GEA Barr-Rosin Drying of Woody Biomass BioPro Expo & Marketplace / Atlanta, GA / March 14-16, 2011 Drying of Woody Biomass Conventional Direct Fired Dryer Technology Proprietary work of the Copyright Owner Issues with

More information

APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS TUTORIAL 1 REVISION OF ISENTROPIC EFFICIENCY ADVANCED STEAM CYCLES

APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS TUTORIAL 1 REVISION OF ISENTROPIC EFFICIENCY ADVANCED STEAM CYCLES APPLIED THERMODYNAMICS TUTORIAL 1 REVISION OF ISENTROPIC EFFICIENCY ADVANCED STEAM CYCLES INTRODUCTION This tutorial is designed for students wishing to extend their knowledge of thermodynamics to a more

More information

Thermodynamical aspects of the passage to hybrid nuclear power plants

Thermodynamical aspects of the passage to hybrid nuclear power plants Energy Production and Management in the 21st Century, Vol. 1 273 Thermodynamical aspects of the passage to hybrid nuclear power plants A. Zaryankin, A. Rogalev & I. Komarov Moscow Power Engineering Institute,

More information

Engineering Software P.O. Box 2134, Kensington, MD 20891 Phone: (301) 919-9670 Web Site:

Engineering Software P.O. Box 2134, Kensington, MD 20891 Phone: (301) 919-9670   Web Site: Engineering Software P.O. Box 2134, Kensington, MD 20891 Phone: (301) 919-9670 E-Mail: info@engineering-4e.com Web Site: http://www.engineering-4e.com Brayton Cycle (Gas Turbine) for Propulsion Application

More information

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Gas Turbine Hybrid Power Plant. M. Henke, C. Willich, M. Steilen, J. Kallo, K. A. Friedrich

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Gas Turbine Hybrid Power Plant. M. Henke, C. Willich, M. Steilen, J. Kallo, K. A. Friedrich www.dlr.de Chart 1 > SOFC XIII > Moritz Henke > October 7, 2013 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Gas Turbine Hybrid Power Plant M. Henke, C. Willich, M. Steilen, J. Kallo, K. A. Friedrich www.dlr.de Chart 2 > SOFC

More information

Thermodynamics - Example Problems Problems and Solutions

Thermodynamics - Example Problems Problems and Solutions Thermodynamics - Example Problems Problems and Solutions 1 Examining a Power Plant Consider a power plant. At point 1 the working gas has a temperature of T = 25 C. The pressure is 1bar and the mass flow

More information

COGENERATION. This section briefly describes the main features of the cogeneration system or a Combined Heat & Power (CHP) system. 36 Units.

COGENERATION. This section briefly describes the main features of the cogeneration system or a Combined Heat & Power (CHP) system. 36 Units. COGENERATION 1. INTRODUCTION... 1 2. TYPES OF COGENERATION SYSTEMS... 2 3. ASSESSMENT OF COGENERATION SYSTEMS... 10 4. ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES... 14 5. OPTION CHECKLIST... 16 6. WORKSHEETS... 17

More information

HYBRID COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT

HYBRID COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT International Conference Nuclear Energy for New Europe 2002 Kranjska Gora, Slovenia, September 9-12, 2002 www.drustvo-js.si/gora2002 HYBRID COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT KÁROLY VESZELY Szmolnyica sétány 14/5,

More information

5. State the function of pulveriser. The pulverisers are the equipments which are used to powdered coal.

5. State the function of pulveriser. The pulverisers are the equipments which are used to powdered coal. 413 POWER PLANT ENGINEERING PART-A 1. Define Power. Power is the rate at which energy is used (or) Energy/time. 2. What are the types of fuels? Solid fuel Liquid fuel Gaseous fuel (Any one among the above

More information

Torino Nord. Cogeneration Plant. The gas turbine. The steam generator. The Torino Nord cogeneration plant produces electricity and heat for district

Torino Nord. Cogeneration Plant. The gas turbine. The steam generator. The Torino Nord cogeneration plant produces electricity and heat for district PLANT TORINO NORD Iren Energia is the company in the Iren Group whose core businesses are the production and distribution of electricity, the production and distribution of thermal energy for district

More information

Applied Thermodynamics for Marine Systems Prof. P. K. Das Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Applied Thermodynamics for Marine Systems Prof. P. K. Das Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Applied Thermodynamics for Marine Systems Prof. P. K. Das Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture - 1 Introduction & Some Definitions Good afternoon everybody.

More information

Steam turbine power generation is a Rankine Cycle, best plotted on a temperature/entropy [T/s] diagram : Critical Point

Steam turbine power generation is a Rankine Cycle, best plotted on a temperature/entropy [T/s] diagram : Critical Point Cogeneration Thermodynamics Revisited Dr Mike Inkson and Ben Misplon Thermal Energy Systems Abstract Whilst most engineers understand that higher HP steam conditions result in a more efficient power station,

More information

Esystem = 0 = Ein Eout

Esystem = 0 = Ein Eout AGENDA: I. Introduction to Thermodynamics II. First Law Efficiency III. Second Law Efficiency IV. Property Diagrams and Power Cycles V. Additional Material, Terms, and Variables VI. Practice Problems I.

More information

Webpage: www.ijaret.org Volume 3, Issue IV, April 2015 ISSN 2320-6802

Webpage: www.ijaret.org Volume 3, Issue IV, April 2015 ISSN 2320-6802 Efficiency Assessment and Improvement of at Super Thermal Power Station Vikram Singh Meena 1, Dr. M.P Singh 2 1 M.Tech in Production Engineering, Jagannath University, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India Vikrammeena134@gmail.com

More information

Module 5: Combustion Technology. Lecture 34: Calculation of calorific value of fuels

Module 5: Combustion Technology. Lecture 34: Calculation of calorific value of fuels 1 P age Module 5: Combustion Technology Lecture 34: Calculation of calorific value of fuels 2 P age Keywords : Gross calorific value, Net calorific value, enthalpy change, bomb calorimeter 5.3 Calculation

More information

Novel Application of Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Technology for Waste Heat Recovery from Reheat Furnace Evaporative Cooling System

Novel Application of Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Technology for Waste Heat Recovery from Reheat Furnace Evaporative Cooling System Novel Application of Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Technology for Waste Heat Recovery from Reheat Furnace Evaporative Cooling System Ahmet DURMAZ TMEIC 2060 Cook Drive Salem, VA 24153, USA Tel: 540-283-2000

More information

Proe Power Systems, LLC

Proe Power Systems, LLC Afterburning Cycle for 21st Century Stirling Engine Cycle Comparison Leakage Makeup Gas Supply EXTERNAL HEAT SOURCE (IE SOLAR) COMPRESSOR HEAT REGENERATOR EXPANDER Stirling Engine Diagram Page 1 Engines

More information

Boiler Calculations. Helsinki University of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering. Sebastian Teir, Antto Kulla

Boiler Calculations. Helsinki University of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering. Sebastian Teir, Antto Kulla Helsinki University of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering Energy Engineering and Environmental Protection Publications Steam Boiler Technology ebook Espoo 2002 Boiler Calculations Sebastian

More information

Esystem = 0 = Ein Eout

Esystem = 0 = Ein Eout AGENDA: I. Introduction to Thermodynamics II. First Law Efficiency III. Second Law Efficiency IV. Property Diagrams and Power Cycles V. Additional Material, Terms, and Variables VI. Practice Problems I.

More information

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING QUESTION BANK. Sub Code/Name: ME 1353 / Power Plant Engineering

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING QUESTION BANK. Sub Code/Name: ME 1353 / Power Plant Engineering KINGS COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING QUESTION BANK Sub Code/Name: ME 1353 / Power Plant Engineering UNIT-I INTRODUCTION TO POWER PLANTS AND BOILERS 1. What is the purpose of

More information

FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS

FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS System: Quantity of matter (constant mass) or region in space (constant volume) chosen for study. Closed system: Can exchange energy but not mass; mass is constant

More information

Marek Dzida Gdansk University of Technology Poland. 1. Introduction

Marek Dzida Gdansk University of Technology Poland. 1. Introduction Possible Efficiency Increasing of Ship Propulsion and Marine Power Plant with the System Combined of Marine Diesel Engine, Gas Turbine and Steam Turbine 3 Marek Dzida Gdansk University of Technology Poland

More information

Performance of the Boiler and To Improving the Boiler Efficiency Using Cfd Modeling

Performance of the Boiler and To Improving the Boiler Efficiency Using Cfd Modeling IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE) e-issn: 2278-1684,p-ISSN: 2320-334X, Volume 8, Issue 6 (Sep. - Oct. 2013), PP 25-29 Performance of the Boiler and To Improving the Boiler Efficiency

More information

SOLUTION MANUAL SI UNIT PROBLEMS CHAPTER 9 SONNTAG BORGNAKKE VAN WYLEN. FUNDAMENTALS of. Thermodynamics. Sixth Edition

SOLUTION MANUAL SI UNIT PROBLEMS CHAPTER 9 SONNTAG BORGNAKKE VAN WYLEN. FUNDAMENTALS of. Thermodynamics. Sixth Edition SOLUTION MANUAL SI UNIT PROBLEMS CHAPTER 9 SONNTAG BORGNAKKE VAN WYLEN FUNDAMENTALS of Thermodynamics Sixth Edition CONTENT SUBSECTION PROB NO. Correspondence table Concept-Study Guide Problems -20 Steady

More information

Ideal Jet Propulsion Cycle

Ideal Jet Propulsion Cycle Ideal Jet ropulsion Cycle Gas-turbine engines are widely used to power aircrafts because of their light-weight, compactness, and high power-to-weight ratio. Aircraft gas turbines operate on an open cycle

More information

Condensing Economizers Workshop Enbridge Gas, Toronto. MENEX Boiler Plant Heat Recovery Technologies. Prepared by: Jozo Martinovic, M A Sc, P Eng

Condensing Economizers Workshop Enbridge Gas, Toronto. MENEX Boiler Plant Heat Recovery Technologies. Prepared by: Jozo Martinovic, M A Sc, P Eng Condensing Economizers Workshop Enbridge Gas, Toronto MENEX Boiler Plant Heat Recovery Technologies Prepared by: Jozo Martinovic, M A Sc, P Eng MENEX Innovative Solutions May 15, 2008 MENEX INC. 683 Louis

More information

Efficiency Metrics for CHP Systems: Total System and Effective Electric Efficiencies

Efficiency Metrics for CHP Systems: Total System and Effective Electric Efficiencies Efficiency Metrics for CHP Systems: Total System and Effective Electric Efficiencies Combined heat and power (CHP) is an efficient and clean approach to generating power and thermal energy from a single

More information

Application in coal fired power stations

Application in coal fired power stations Application in coal fired power stations Application in coal fired power stations Australian coal fired power station Integration into coal fired power plants Energy penalty of PCC Cost electricity and

More information

ANCILLARY SERVICES SUPPLIED TO THE GRID: THE CASE OF THISVI CCGT POWER PLANT (GREECE)

ANCILLARY SERVICES SUPPLIED TO THE GRID: THE CASE OF THISVI CCGT POWER PLANT (GREECE) Claudio Cavandoli, Alessandro Crippa EDISON S.p.A., Engineering Department ANCILLARY SERVICES SUPPLIED TO THE GRID: THE CASE OF THISVI CCGT POWER PLANT (GREECE) 1 ANCILLARY SERVICES SUPPLIED TO THE GRID:

More information

HYBRID WAY EAF OFF GAS HEAT RECOVERY -ECORECS- MASANARI YAMAZAKI*1, YASUHIRO SATO*2, RYUTARO SEKI*3

HYBRID WAY EAF OFF GAS HEAT RECOVERY -ECORECS- MASANARI YAMAZAKI*1, YASUHIRO SATO*2, RYUTARO SEKI*3 HYBRID WAY EAF OFF GAS HEAT RECOVERY -ECORECS- BY MASANARI YAMAZAKI*1, YASUHIRO SATO*2, RYUTARO SEKI*3 SYNOPSIS JP Steel Plantech Co. has developed Hybrid system for EAF off-gas heat recovery, with EAF

More information

GE Energy Oil & Gas. Small Power. Generation. for Industrial Applications

GE Energy Oil & Gas. Small Power. Generation. for Industrial Applications GE Energy Oil & Gas Small Power Generation for Industrial Applications 2 Small Power Generation Small Power Generation continues to be an important segment of Electrical Energy production. The increasing

More information

Thermal Coupling Of Cooling and Heating Systems

Thermal Coupling Of Cooling and Heating Systems This article was published in ASHRAE Journal, February 2011. Copyright 2011 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. Posted at www.ashrae.org. This article may not

More information

steam centre of excellence Steam Boiler System Optimization

steam centre of excellence Steam Boiler System Optimization Steam Boiler System Optimization Introduction Gas Cost Metering Fluids Fuel, Water, Steam Steam Costs Boiler House Stack Losses Boiler Waterside Surfaces Blowdown Current Natural Gas Cost Projected Cost

More information

THM Gas Turbines Heavy duty gas turbines for industrial applications

THM Gas Turbines Heavy duty gas turbines for industrial applications THM Gas Turbines THM Gas Turbines Heavy duty gas turbines for industrial applications Combined advantages The THM 1304 heavy duty gas turbine family consists of two members with ISO power outputs of 10,500

More information

fluidized bed coal fired thermal oil heater VTF

fluidized bed coal fired thermal oil heater VTF fluidized bed coal fired thermal oil heater VTF 1 clean coal technology basuki heater Coal is widely available and cheap fuel for industries. We offer highly efficient Thermal Oil Heater using bituminous

More information

Committed to make a better world

Committed to make a better world Committed to make a better world 1. Higher Availability & Reliability 2. Highest Plant efficiency 3. Lower Heat Rate 4. Minimum Auxiliary Power Consumption 5. Minimum Emission of Pollutants Committed to

More information

COMPARISON CONCERNING TO THE COGENERATION SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT

COMPARISON CONCERNING TO THE COGENERATION SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT COMPARISON CONCERNING TO THE COGENERATION SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT Radu-Cristian DINU, Ion MIRCEA, Emilia-Marinela DINU University of Craiova, Faculty of Electrotechnique, Electroputere S.A., Craiova rcdinu@elth.ucv.ro,

More information

JASE-world Waste to Energy Sub WG Masanori Tsukahara Hitachi Zosen Corporation 2012.11.14

JASE-world Waste to Energy Sub WG Masanori Tsukahara Hitachi Zosen Corporation 2012.11.14 Presentation of Japanese technology of waste to energy JASE-world Waste to Energy Sub WG Masanori Tsukahara Hitachi Zosen Corporation 2012.11.14 1 JASE-W established in Oct 2008 Introduction of JASE-world

More information

Study of a Supercritical CO2 Power Cycle Application in a Cogeneration Power Plant

Study of a Supercritical CO2 Power Cycle Application in a Cogeneration Power Plant Supercritical CO2 Power Cycle Symposium September 9-10, 2014 Pittsburg, Pennsylvania USA Study of a Supercritical CO2 Power Cycle Application in a Cogeneration Power Plant Dr. Leonid Moroz, Dr. Maksym

More information

Enhanced power and heat generation from biomass and municipal waste. Torsten Strand. Siemens Power Generation Industrial Applications

Enhanced power and heat generation from biomass and municipal waste. Torsten Strand. Siemens Power Generation Industrial Applications Enhanced power and heat generation from biomass and municipal waste Torsten Strand Siemens Power Generation Industrial Applications Enhanced power and heat generation from biomass and municipal waste Torsten

More information

ME 6404 THERMAL ENGINEERING. Part-B (16Marks questions)

ME 6404 THERMAL ENGINEERING. Part-B (16Marks questions) ME 6404 THERMAL ENGINEERING Part-B (16Marks questions) 1. Drive and expression for the air standard efficiency of Otto cycle in terms of volume ratio. (16) 2. Drive an expression for the air standard efficiency

More information

OFFERED FOR IMMEDIATE SALE Complete 215MW CCGT Power Station For Relocation

OFFERED FOR IMMEDIATE SALE Complete 215MW CCGT Power Station For Relocation Tel: + 44 20 3206 1207 Email: info@indassol.com Longcroft House, 2-8 Victoria Avenue Bishopsgate, London EC2M 4NS OFFERED FOR IMMEDIATE SALE Complete 215MW CCGT Power Station For Relocation 2 x ~72MW GE

More information

Coal Gasification Development for IGFC (EAGLE Project)

Coal Gasification Development for IGFC (EAGLE Project) Coal Gasification Development for IGFC (EAGLE Project) Sadao Wasaka Energy and Environment Technology Development Department New Energy And Industrial Technology Development Organization Tokyo, Japan Masao

More information

CONTENTS. ZVU Engineering a.s., Member of ZVU Group, WASTE HEAT BOILERS Page 2

CONTENTS. ZVU Engineering a.s., Member of ZVU Group, WASTE HEAT BOILERS Page 2 WASTE HEAT BOILERS CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION... 3 2 CONCEPTION OF WASTE HEAT BOILERS... 4 2.1 Complex Solution...4 2.2 Kind of Heat Exchange...5 2.3 Heat Recovery Units and Their Usage...5 2.4 Materials

More information

Boiler efficiency measurement. Department of Energy Engineering

Boiler efficiency measurement. Department of Energy Engineering Boiler efficiency measurement Department of Energy Engineering Contents Heat balance on boilers Efficiency determination Loss categories Fluegas condensation principals Seasonal efficiency Emission evaluation

More information

20 m neon m propane 20

20 m neon m propane 20 Problems with solutions:. A -m 3 tank is filled with a gas at room temperature 0 C and pressure 00 Kpa. How much mass is there if the gas is a) Air b) Neon, or c) Propane? Given: T73K; P00KPa; M air 9;

More information

GE LM6000 PA Package for Sale. Business Unit Industrial Gas Turbines - Packaging

GE LM6000 PA Package for Sale. Business Unit Industrial Gas Turbines - Packaging GE LM6000 PA Package for Sale Business Unit Industrial Gas Turbines - Packaging 50 Hz LM6000 PA Package Key Data Technical Characteristics Gas Turbine Technical Characteristics El. Generator Brand: GE

More information

Dharam V. Punwani President, Avalon Consulting, Inc. Presented at Turbine Inlet Cooling Association Webinar April 9, 2014

Dharam V. Punwani President, Avalon Consulting, Inc. Presented at Turbine Inlet Cooling Association Webinar April 9, 2014 Dharam V. Punwani President, Avalon Consulting, Inc. Presented at Turbine Inlet Cooling Association Webinar April 9, 2014 Background: What is the problem that needs a solution? What is Turbine Inlet Cooling

More information

THERMODYNAMICS TUTORIAL 5 HEAT PUMPS AND REFRIGERATION. On completion of this tutorial you should be able to do the following.

THERMODYNAMICS TUTORIAL 5 HEAT PUMPS AND REFRIGERATION. On completion of this tutorial you should be able to do the following. THERMODYNAMICS TUTORIAL 5 HEAT PUMPS AND REFRIGERATION On completion of this tutorial you should be able to do the following. Discuss the merits of different refrigerants. Use thermodynamic tables for

More information

1. A belt pulley is 3 ft. in diameter and rotates at 250 rpm. The belt which is 5 ins. wide makes an angle of contact of 190 over the pulley.

1. A belt pulley is 3 ft. in diameter and rotates at 250 rpm. The belt which is 5 ins. wide makes an angle of contact of 190 over the pulley. Sample Questions REVISED FIRST CLASS PARTS A1, A2, AND A3 (NOTE: these questions are intended as representations of the style of questions that may appear on examinations. They are not intended as study

More information

FOSSIL FUEL FIRED BOILER PLANT CONFIGURATION R.A.

FOSSIL FUEL FIRED BOILER PLANT CONFIGURATION R.A. FOSSIL FUEL FIRED BOILER PLANT CONFIGURATION R.A. Chaplin Department of Chemical Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Canada Keywords: Steam, Boiler, Arrangement Contents 1. Introduction 1.1 Terminology

More information

A CASE STUDY: PERFORMANCE AND ACCEPTANCE TEST OF A POWER AND DESALINATION PLANT. Keywords : Power Plant, Boiler Capacity, Electrical Power

A CASE STUDY: PERFORMANCE AND ACCEPTANCE TEST OF A POWER AND DESALINATION PLANT. Keywords : Power Plant, Boiler Capacity, Electrical Power A CASE STUDY: PERFORMANCE AND ACCEPTANCE TEST OF A POWER AND DESALINATION PLANT Atef M Al Baghdadi Water and Electricity Authority Abu Dhabi, U.A.E Keywords : Power Plant, Boiler Capacity, Electrical Power

More information

POSSIBILITY FOR MECHANICAL VAPOR RE-COMPRESSRION FOR STEAM BASED DRYING PROCESSES

POSSIBILITY FOR MECHANICAL VAPOR RE-COMPRESSRION FOR STEAM BASED DRYING PROCESSES POSSIBILITY FOR MECHANICAL VAPOR RE-COMPRESSRION FOR STEAM BASED DRYING PROCESSES M. Bantle 1, I. Tolstorebrov, T. M. Eikevik 2 1 Department of Energy Efficiency, SINTEF Energy Research, Trondheim, Norway,

More information

Steam Generation Efficiency Module Blowdown Losses Section

Steam Generation Efficiency Module Blowdown Losses Section Steam End User Training Steam Generation Efficiency Module Blowdown Losses Section Slide 1 Blowdown Losses Module This section will discuss blowdown loss and its affect on boiler efficiency. [Slide Visual

More information

CHAPTER 7 THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS. Blank

CHAPTER 7 THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS. Blank CHAPTER 7 THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS Blank SONNTAG/BORGNAKKE STUDY PROBLEM 7-1 7.1 A car engine and its fuel consumption A car engine produces 136 hp on the output shaft with a thermal efficiency

More information

GLOBACON 05 HVAC Systems for Cogen

GLOBACON 05 HVAC Systems for Cogen GLOBACON 05 HVAC Systems for Cogen Track 2, Session 2B Advanced HVAC and Building Systems Date: March 24th, 2005 Gearoid Foley President Integrated CHP Systems Corp. Integrated CHP Systems Corp. Electricity

More information

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF NGCC AND COAL-FIRED STEAM POWER PLANTS WITH INTEGRATED CCS AND ORC SYSTEMS

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF NGCC AND COAL-FIRED STEAM POWER PLANTS WITH INTEGRATED CCS AND ORC SYSTEMS ASME ORC 2015 3rd International Seminar on ORC Power Systems 12-14 October 2015, Brussels, Belgium PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF NGCC AND COAL-FIRED STEAM POWER PLANTS WITH INTEGRATED CCS AND ORC SYSTEMS Vittorio

More information

Advanced Coal Gasification Technology based on Exergy Recuperation

Advanced Coal Gasification Technology based on Exergy Recuperation Advanced Coal Gasification Technology based on Exergy Recuperation The University of Tokyo Institute of Industrial and Science Collaborative Research Center for Energy Engineering Atsushi Tsutsumi Japan

More information

Development of a model for the simulation of Organic Rankine Cycles based on group contribution techniques

Development of a model for the simulation of Organic Rankine Cycles based on group contribution techniques ASME Turbo Expo Vancouver, June 6 10 2011 Development of a model for the simulation of Organic Rankine ycles based on group contribution techniques Enrico Saverio Barbieri Engineering Department University

More information

Building Energy Systems. - HVAC: Heating, Distribution -

Building Energy Systems. - HVAC: Heating, Distribution - * Some of the images used in these slides are taken from the internet for instructional purposes only Building Energy Systems - HVAC: Heating, Distribution - Bryan Eisenhower Associate Director Center

More information

DE-TOP User s Manual. Version 2.0 Beta

DE-TOP User s Manual. Version 2.0 Beta DE-TOP User s Manual Version 2.0 Beta CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION... 1 1.1. DE-TOP Overview... 1 1.2. Background information... 2 2. DE-TOP OPERATION... 3 2.1. Graphical interface... 3 2.2. Power plant model...

More information

Pressure Enthalpy Explained

Pressure Enthalpy Explained Pressure Enthalpy Explained Within the new F Gas course the requirement for an understanding of Pressure Enthalpy (Ph) graphs is proving to be a large learning curve for those who have not come across

More information

Hybrid Modeling and Control of a Power Plant using State Flow Technique with Application

Hybrid Modeling and Control of a Power Plant using State Flow Technique with Application Hybrid Modeling and Control of a Power Plant using State Flow Technique with Application Marwa M. Abdulmoneim 1, Magdy A. S. Aboelela 2, Hassen T. Dorrah 3 1 Master Degree Student, Cairo University, Faculty

More information

Basics of Steam Generation

Basics of Steam Generation Helsinki University of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering Energy Engineering and Environmental Protection Publications Steam Boiler Technology ebook Espoo 2002 Basics of Steam Generation Sebastian

More information

Continuous flow direct water heating for potable hot water

Continuous flow direct water heating for potable hot water Continuous flow direct water heating for potable hot water An independently produced White Paper for Rinnai UK 2013 www.rinnaiuk.com In the 35 years since direct hot water systems entered the UK commercial

More information

Ambient Temperature Operation and Matching MAN B&W Two-stroke Engines

Ambient Temperature Operation and Matching MAN B&W Two-stroke Engines Ambient Temperature Operation and Matching MAN B&W Two-stroke Engines Content Introduction...5 Standard ambient matched engine...5 Operating at high seawater with standard matched engine...6 Non-standard

More information

Deaerator White Paper for use with Industrial/Commercial and Institutional Boilers ABMA. representing the best of the boiler industry

Deaerator White Paper for use with Industrial/Commercial and Institutional Boilers ABMA. representing the best of the boiler industry Deaerator White Paper for use with Industrial/Commercial and Institutional Boilers ABMA. representing the best of the boiler industry Page 1 of 7 Deaerator White Paper for use with Industrial/Commercial

More information

MICRO-COGENERATION AND DESALINATION USING ROTARY STEAM ENGINE (RSE) TECHNOLOGY

MICRO-COGENERATION AND DESALINATION USING ROTARY STEAM ENGINE (RSE) TECHNOLOGY MICRO-COGENERATION AND DESALINATION USING ROTARY STEAM ENGINE (RSE) TECHNOLOGY Kari Alanne, Kari Saari, Maunu Kuosa, Md. Mizanur Rahman* Andrew Martin** Heikki Pohjola*** *Aalto University, Espoo, Finland

More information

Performance Monitoring For Gas Turbines

Performance Monitoring For Gas Turbines Performance Monitoring For Gas Turbines Introduction Managing an asset requires numerous technologies designed to assess health. While most gas turbines in the field are fitted with some type of mechanical

More information

Forgotten savings: Heat recovery from surface blowdown

Forgotten savings: Heat recovery from surface blowdown Forgotten savings: Heat recovery from surface blowdown 1. Introduction The purpose of this article is to inform thermal plant operators of the interesting fuel savings that can be obtained by recovering

More information

Fluid Mechanics Prof. S. K. Som Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Fluid Mechanics Prof. S. K. Som Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Fluid Mechanics Prof. S. K. Som Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture - 20 Conservation Equations in Fluid Flow Part VIII Good morning. I welcome you all

More information

Active Stirling Engine

Active Stirling Engine Active Stirling Engine Vinod Kumar Gopal Dept. of Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand. Email: ammasvinod@gmail.com Dr. Richard Duke, Dept. of Electrical

More information

COMPARISON OF PROCESS FLOWS: FLUID BED COMBUSTOR AND GLASSPACK

COMPARISON OF PROCESS FLOWS: FLUID BED COMBUSTOR AND GLASSPACK COMPARISON OF PROCESS FLOWS: FLUID BED COMBUSTOR AND GLASSPACK PURPOSE The purpose of this document is to present the assumptions and calculations used to prepare Minergy Drawing 100-0204-PP00 (attached).

More information

Author's personal copy

Author's personal copy Energy Conversion and Management 50 (2009) 2768 2781 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Energy Conversion and Management journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/enconman Thermoeconomic analysis

More information

HRSG - Heat Recovery Steam Generators

HRSG - Heat Recovery Steam Generators HRSG - Heat Recovery Steam Generators Excellence in the making From the beginning, the goals of Victory Energy Operations, LLC have been to be a single-source solutions provider backed by worldclass service.

More information

Testing methods applicable to refrigeration components and systems

Testing methods applicable to refrigeration components and systems Testing methods applicable to refrigeration components and systems Sylvain Quoilin (1)*, Cristian Cuevas (2), Vladut Teodorese (1), Vincent Lemort (1), Jules Hannay (1) and Jean Lebrun (1) (1) University

More information

CHP PLANTS FOR CITIES AND INDUSTRIES BENEFICIAL FOR THE ECONOMY AND THE ENVIRONMENT

CHP PLANTS FOR CITIES AND INDUSTRIES BENEFICIAL FOR THE ECONOMY AND THE ENVIRONMENT CHP PLANTS FOR CITIES AND INDUSTRIES BENEFICIAL FOR THE ECONOMY AND THE ENVIRONMENT Introduction: Harald Dichtl, Business Development Manager, Siemens Power Generation China faces a great challenge to

More information

Mass and Energy Analysis of Control Volumes

Mass and Energy Analysis of Control Volumes MAE 320-Chapter 5 Mass and Energy Analysis of Control Volumes Objectives Develop the conservation of mass principle. Apply the conservation of mass principle to various systems including steady- and unsteady-flow

More information

How Thermal Oxidation Can Increase the Sustainability of a Chemical Plant

How Thermal Oxidation Can Increase the Sustainability of a Chemical Plant How Thermal Oxidation Can Increase the Sustainability of a Chemical Plant Jon Hommes, Engineer, Durr Systems, Inc. Installing new production processes, or upgrading and expanding existing lines today requires

More information

Dipl.-Ing. Andreas Leutze, Siemens AG Power Generation, Erlangen. 1. Summary

Dipl.-Ing. Andreas Leutze, Siemens AG Power Generation, Erlangen. 1. Summary Design Specifics of High Efficiency Biomass Power Plants for fresh wood from forestry exemplified at the 23 MWe Biomass Power Plant Simmering / Vienna Austria Dipl.-Ing. Andreas Leutze, Siemens AG Power

More information

Recover Heat from Boiler Blowdown Water

Recover Heat from Boiler Blowdown Water Prepared for California Energy Commission (CEC) Prepared By: Southern California Gas Company (A Sempra Energy Utility) E3M Inc. May 2012 i Disclaimer The CEC and its contractor, Southern California Gas

More information

Engineering design experience of an undergraduate thermodynamics course

Engineering design experience of an undergraduate thermodynamics course World Transactions on Engineering and Technology Education Vol.10, No.1, 2012 2012 WIETE Engineering design experience of an undergraduate thermodynamics course Hosni I. Abu-Mulaweh & Abdulaziz A. Al-Arfaj

More information

Vogt Power Emission Control Solutions

Vogt Power Emission Control Solutions ONE SOURCE ONE PURPOSE MANY SOLUTIONS Vogt Power Emission Control Solutions Kelly Flannery Kristen Cooper Andrew Heid Chief Thermal Engineer Simple Cycle Design Lead Emission Catalyst Design Lead Presented

More information

Objective - Determining characteristic curve of a four-stroke Diesel engine - Calculating thermal efficiency of the engine

Objective - Determining characteristic curve of a four-stroke Diesel engine - Calculating thermal efficiency of the engine Objective - Determining characteristic curve of a four-stroke Diesel engine - Calculating thermal efficiency of the engine Apparatus The experimental setup, shown in Fig. 1, has three main parts: engine,

More information

Printing and Publishing Energy Savings Guide

Printing and Publishing Energy Savings Guide Printing and Publishing Energy Savings Guide Oregon printing and publishing plants face challenges of rising operating costs, environmental and other regulations, outdated equipment and customer demand

More information

T@W Good Practice Form

T@W Good Practice Form T@W Good Practice Form Setting Title: Public-private Partnership Leading to a New CHP Plant Utilising Fibre Sludge and Biomass Country: Location: Sweden Mariestad in West Sweden Region Start date: 1999

More information

HEAT RECOVERY OPTIONS FOR DRYERS AND OXIDIZERS

HEAT RECOVERY OPTIONS FOR DRYERS AND OXIDIZERS HEAT RECOVERY OPTIONS FOR DRYERS AND OXIDIZERS William K. Scullion, Application Engineering Leader, MEGTEC Systems, De Pere, WI Introduction Competitive pressures continuously motivate us to examine our

More information

NAWTEC18-3541 CONCEPTS AND EXPERIENCES FOR HIGHER PLANT EFFICIENCY WITH MODERN ADVANCED BOILER AND INCINERATION TECHNOLOGY

NAWTEC18-3541 CONCEPTS AND EXPERIENCES FOR HIGHER PLANT EFFICIENCY WITH MODERN ADVANCED BOILER AND INCINERATION TECHNOLOGY Proceedings of the 18th Annual North American Waste-to-Energy Conference NAWTEC18 May 11-13, 2010, Orlando, Florida, USA NAWTEC18-3541 CONCEPTS AND EXPERIENCES FOR HIGHER PLANT EFFICIENCY WITH MODERN ADVANCED

More information

University of Iowa Power Plant

University of Iowa Power Plant University of Iowa Power Plant Contents Purpose... 2 History... 3 Cogeneration... 6 Boilers... 7 Environmental Impact... 10 Steam Turbine Generators... 12 Modernization... 14 Biomass Fuel Initiative...

More information

COMBUSTION. In order to operate a heat engine we need a hot source together with a cold sink

COMBUSTION. In order to operate a heat engine we need a hot source together with a cold sink COMBUSTION In order to operate a heat engine we need a hot source together with a cold sink Occasionally these occur together in nature eg:- geothermal sites or solar powered engines, but usually the heat

More information

Second Law of Thermodynamics Alternative Statements

Second Law of Thermodynamics Alternative Statements Second Law of Thermodynamics Alternative Statements There is no simple statement that captures all aspects of the second law. Several alternative formulations of the second law are found in the technical

More information

UNIVERSITY ESSAY QUESTIONS:

UNIVERSITY ESSAY QUESTIONS: UNIT I 1. What is a thermodynamic cycle? 2. What is meant by air standard cycle? 3. Name the various gas power cycles". 4. What are the assumptions made for air standard cycle analysis 5. Mention the various

More information

Figure 1: Hot condensate discharged into the drainage system at 98 C

Figure 1: Hot condensate discharged into the drainage system at 98 C 4 Examples 4-1 Condensate return Figure 1: Hot condensate discharged into the drainage system at 98 C Example: Producing 1 t of saturated steam at a pressure of 1 bar (boiling point 100 C) requires the

More information

INTEC Engineering GmbH Heating Solutions for the Marine Industry

INTEC Engineering GmbH Heating Solutions for the Marine Industry INTEC Engineering GmbH Heating Solutions for the Marine Industry Thermal Oil Heaters Heating Solutions for the Marine Industry Compared to conventional plants using hot water or steam, thermal oil as a

More information

Current state of plant Functioning as a peak and emergency centre. Statistics Accumulated operating hours:

Current state of plant Functioning as a peak and emergency centre. Statistics Accumulated operating hours: Current state of plant Functioning as a peak and emergency centre Statistics Accumulated operating hours: D1-2-3-6-7: 43000 to 48000 hrs D4-5: 53000 to 57000 hrs D8: 33000 hrs Layout of the plant Index:

More information