# ENGG1015 Tutorial. Electrical Safety. Electrical Symbols. Electrical Units

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1 ENGG1015 Tutorial Electrical Safety Pro-Project Laboratory and Project No class (Supplementary notes, may be obsolete, NOT for examination) Learning Objectives Give a draft plan for the project Identify components that can be used in the pre-project labs and project (i.e. Build a Rube Goldberg Machine) Identify electrical safety rules, electrical units, electrical symbols rules 5-10 ma can cause death Skin resistance can range from 1kΩ for wet skin to 500kΩ for dry skin. Death can result from as low as 50 volts Body can sense 9 volts under the right conditions Report TA or technician for any emergency case 1 Electrical Units Electrical Symbols Voltage (V): volts (µv kv) Current (I): amperes (amps), milliampere (ma 10-3 ) Resistance (R): ohms Ω, k-ohms (k 10 3 ), meg ohms (m 10 6 ) Capacitance (C): farad, microfarad (µf 10-6 ), nanofarad (nf 10-9 ), picofarad (pf ) Inductance (H): henry, millihenry, microhenry Frequency (freq.): mhz, ghz 10 9 speaker

2 Switches in the Pre-project Lab Switches in the Pre-project Lab Solid State Relay (SSR) Voltage controlled switch (V in+ - V in- ) Isolate the input stage (weak current) with the driving stage (strong current) V out+ V out- V in+ V out+ Magnetic reed switch Normal opened (NO) Normal closed (NC) Work with a magnet Small current QTI optical sensor Sensed by infrared (IR) Correct (small) current Need an external resistor (10K) V in- V in+ V in- V out- Input stage with sensor Driving stage with driver(s) Input stage Driving stage Switches in the Pre-Project Lab Knowledge for the Pre-Project Lab Relay switch logic NO: Input ON, Output ON NC: Input ON, Output OFF From circuit diagram to implementation

3 Knowledge for the Pre-Project Lab Knowledge for the Pre-Project Lab From circuit diagram to implementation Terminal Board Wire color scheme (red (DC), black (GND), yellow, blue, green) Wire to power supply Motor / Driver Sensor / Switch SS relay Resistor Resistor Color Code V = IR Resistor parameters: resistance, tolerance and power rating Resistors are color coded Standard Values: Common tolerance: ±5%, ±1% Variable resistors: pots Why is high voltage used in power lines?

4 Resistor Color Code Resistor Color Code To distinguish left from right there is a gap between the C and D bands. band A is first significant figure of component value (left side) band B is the second significant figure band C is the decimal multiplier band D if present, indicates tolerance of value in percent (no color means 20%) For example, a resistor with bands of yellow, violet, red, and gold First digit 4 (yellow), second digit 7 (violet), followed by 2 (red) zeros: 4,700 ohms. Gold signifies that the tolerance is ±5% The real resistance could lie anywhere between 4,465 and 4,935 ohms Digital Multi-meter (DMM) Power Requirements Important debugging tool Voltage DC: 2mv-1000v Voltage AC: 2vac-750vac Current: 2ua-10A Resistance: 2-2m BJT: beta test Diode test Power (voltage) supplies that used in analog and digital circuits +5v for digital circuits, +15v, -15v for analog, -5v, +12v, -12v also used +3.3v

5 Hints for the project Hints for the project 1. Be Safe! 2. Save your time and effort 3. Meet the requirement Five stages in series Limited stock, limited components Start: Press the button End: Pop up the balloon 4. Robust design 5. Try something crazy/creative Clear alignment Come up a project theme Christmas? Theme Park? Letter World? Set up a common goal You want a A/C/E? You want to have fund? Set up a group working session Make everyone will contribute Set up schedule and milestone Practical? Find out the allowed resources (Electrical) components, time, skills, number of stages Think and evaluate some actions/mechanisms Robust? Fancy? Difficult in implementation? Difficult to link to other mechanisms? Any (easier) alternatives if the mechanisms fail? Questions for inspirations (4W1H) Who/When/What/Why/How How to push/pull/move/rotate the object? How to trigger the switch/sensor? How to do counting? How to do switching? How to pop up the balloon? How to use the fan? Electrical switches On/Off switch Two terminals for lighting and two terminals for switching NO Reed switch Non-contact switch Operated by magnetic flux NC/NO Touch switch Contact switch Operated by pressing NC/NO 19 20

6 Electrical switches Electrical sensors Solid state relay switch Circuit isolation Controlled by input PE NO Double pole, double throw (DPDT) relay Timer: different time scale / different switching mode Relay: circuit isolation Controlled by input PE Need a socket NC/NO QTI sensor Blocking sensor Need a connection cable Rotation VR Rotation sensor Electrical drivers Jointing Speaker Sound/vibration generation Solenoid Magnetic controlled valve Switch off normally Cooling fan Wind movement Motor Rotation movement / moving Lamp / LED Lighting effect Connect LED with a resistor Board 12"x48 (Base), 2"x48, 1"x48" Bracket (Angle/Straight) Strong fix joint between boards Different size Hinge Movable joint between boards Cable tie and cable mount Weak fix joint between components 23 24

7 Miscellaneous Terminal board Connecting between wires and electrical components Metal ball Order purchasing Stages triggering Metal pulley, sloted wheel eye hook, Wheeled castor Fill in a order purchasing form Get the component from the technician after one week Limited stock, limited budget, limited parts Pulley, conveyor belt, sling 25 Projects from 2011 Class 26 Projects from 2011 Class 27 28

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