# 5. Suppose you had to test how well two types of soap work. Describe your experiment using the terms control and variable.

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1 Page # 31: 1. What is the scientific method? A logical approach to solving problems by observing and collecting data, formulating hypotheses, testing hypotheses, and formulating theories supported by data. 2. Which of the following are quantitative? a. The liquid floats on water qualitative b. The metal is malleable qualitative c. The liquid has a temperature of 55.6 C quantitative 3. How do hypotheses and theories differ? A hypothesis is a testable statement that serves as a basis for making predictions and for carrying out further experiments. A theory is a broad generalization that explains a body of facts of phenomena. 4. How are models related to theories and hypotheses? A useful model is usually proposed after a hypothesis is shown to be correct. A model that successfully explains many phenomena may become part of a theory. 5. Suppose you had to test how well two types of soap work. Describe your experiment using the terms control and variable. Answers can vary. Each trial in the experiment should involve using the two types of soap under the same set of conditions. Controlled variables might include water temperature or type of soil or grease to be cleaned. Page # 40: 1. What is the density of a block of marble that occupies 310. cm 3 and has a mass of 853 g? 2.75 g/cm 3 2. Diamond has a density of 3.26 g/cm 3. What is the mass of a diamond that has a volume of cm 3? 1.14 g 3. What is the volume of a sample of liquid mercury that has a mass of 76.2 g, given that the density of mercury is 13.6 g/ml? 5.60 ml

2 Page # 42 - Practice: 1. Express a length of m in centimeters and kilometers cm & km 2. Express a mass of mg in grams g Page # 42 Section Review: 1. Why are standards needed for measured quantities? There must be agreement on meaning and size of units. Standards for units must be unchanging to avoid confusion and ambiguity. 2. Label each of the following measurement buy the quantity each represents. For instance, a measurement of 10.6 kg/m 3 represents density. a. 5.0 g/ml density e cm 3 volume h ml volume b. 37 s time f. 325 ms time i. 2.7 mg mass c. 47 J energy g. 500 m 2 area j L volume d g mass 3. Complete the following conversions a g = kg e. 1.2 L = 1200 ml b km = 1570 m f. 358 cm 3 = m 3 c µg = g g ml = cm 3 d. 3.5 mol = 3,500,000 µmol 4. Write conversion factors for each equality. Set the two sides of the equality on top of each other and you have a conversion factor 5. a. What is the density of an 84.7 g sample of an unknown substance if the sample occupies 49.6 cm 3? 1.71 g/cm 3 b. What volume would be occupied by 7.75 g of this same substance? 4.53 cm 3

3 6. A student converts grams to milligrams by multiplying by the conversion factor student performing this calculation correctly?!!!!"""!!". Is the The method the student is using is incoreect. it gives the nonsense units!!. A correct!" method would be to multiply by!"""!!".!!! Page # 45: 1. What is the percentage error for a mass measurement of 17.7 g, given that the correct value is 21.2 g? -17 % 2. A volume is measured experimentally as 4.26 ml. What is the percentage error, given that the correct value is 4.15 ml? 2.6 % Page # 48: 1. Determine the number of significant figures in each of the following: a g 5 d. 400 ml 1 b km 6 e. 30,000. cm 5 c m 4 f kg 6 2. Suppose the value seven thousand centimeters is reported to you. How should the number be expressed if it is intended to contain the following? a. 1 significant figure 7000 cm b. 4 significant figures cm c. 6 significant figures cm Pg. # 50: 1. What is the sum of g and g? g 2. Calculate the quantity 87.3 cm cm 85.6 cm

4 3. Calculate the area of a rectangular crystal surface that measures 1.34 µm by µm µm 2 4. Polycarbonate plastic has a density of 1.2 g/cm 3. A photo frame is constructed from two 3.0 mm sheets of polycarbonate. Each sheet measures 28 cm by 22 cm. What is the mass of the photo frame? 440 g Pg. # 54: 1. What is the volume, in ml, of a sample of helium that has a mass of 1.73 x 10-3 g, given that the density is g/l? 9.69 ml 2. What is the density of a piece of metal that has a mass of 6.25 x 10 5 g and is 92.5 cm x 47.3 cm x 85.4 cm? 1.67 g/cm 3 3. How many mm are there in 5.12 x 10 5 km? 5.12 x mm 4. A clock gains seconds per minute. How many seconds will the clock gain in exactly six months, assuming that each month has exactly 30 days? 5.2 x 10 3 s Pg. # 57: 1. The density of copper is listed as 8.94 g/cm 3. Two students each make three density determinations of samples of the substance. Student A s results are 7.3 g/ml, 9.4 g/ml, and 8.3 g/ml. Student B s results are 8.4 g/cm 3, 8.8 g/cm 3, and 8.0 g/cm 3. Compare the two sets of results in terms of precision and accuracy. B s results are both more precise and more accurate. 2. Determine the number of significant figures. a cm 4 d kg 1 b m 2 e kg 4 c g 6

5 3. Round to two significant digits Carry out the following calculations. a g g = g b. 12 m x 6.41 m = 77 m 2 c g / ml = g/ml 5. Perform the following operations. Express each answer in scientific notation. a. (1.54 x 10-2 g) + (2.86 x 10-1 g) = 3.01 x 10-1 g b. (7.023 x 10 9 g) - (6.62 x 10 7 g) = x 10 9 g c. (8.99 x 10-4 m) x (3.57 x 10 4 m) = 3.21 x 10 1 m 2 d. (2.17 x 10-3 g) / (5.022 x 10 4 ml) = 4.32 x 10-8 g/ml 6. Write the following numbers in scientific notation. a. 560,000 = 5.6 x 10 5 b. 33,400 = 3.34 x 10 4 c = x A student measures the mass of a beaker filled with corn oil. The mass reading averages g. The mass of the beaker is g. a. What is the mass of the corn oil? g b. What is the density of the corn oil if its volume is 114 cm 3? g/cm 3 8. Calculate the mass of gold that occupies 5.0 x 10-3 cm 3. The density of gold is 19.3 g/cm x 10-2 g

6 9. What is the difference between a graph representing data that are directly proportional and a graph of data that are inversely proportional? Directly proportional: straight line that passes through the origin w/ positive slope Inversely proportional: hyperbola (half of a parabola) 10. The mass of a liquid is g and its volume is 9.03 ml. How many significant figures should its density value have? Explain the reason for your answer. The density value should have 3 significant figures, because 9.03 only has 3 significant figures. Pg. # How does quantitative information differ from qualitative information? Quantitative information is numerical; qualitative information is non-numerical 2. What is a hypothesis? A testable statement that serves as a basis for making predictions and carrying out further experiments 3. a. What is a model in the scientific sense? A visual, verbal, or mathematical explanation of how phenomena occur and data are related b. How does a model differ from a theory? A model, if it is successful, may become part of a theory. A theory is much broader than a model. 4. Why is it important for a measurement system to have an international standard? To have universal agreement and avoid confusion 5. How does a quantity differ from a unit? Use two examples to explain the difference. A quantity, such as volume and mass, is something that has magnitude, size, or amount. A unit, such as liter and gram, compares what is to be measured with a previously defined size. 6. List the seven SI base unites and the quantities they represent. Meter, length; kilogram, mass; second, time; Kelvin, temperature; mole, amount of substance; ampere, electric current; candela, luminous intensity

7 7. What is the numerical equivalent of each of the following SI prefixes? a. kilo or 10 3 b. centi- 1/100 or 10-2 c. mega or 10 6 d. micro- 1/ or 10-6 e. milli- 1/1000 or Identify the SI unit that would be most appropriate for expressing the length of the following. a. width of a gymnasium meter b. length of a finger millimeter or centimeter c. distance between your town and the closest border of the next state kilometer d. length of a bacterial cell micrometer 9. Identify the SI unit that would be most appropriate for measuring the mass of each of the following objects. a. table kilogram b. coin gram c. a 250 ml beaker gram 10. Explain why the second is not defined by the length of the day. Fundamental unites must be unvarying, but day length depends on earth s rotation rate, which is not constant. 11. a. What is a derived unit? A unit that can be obtained from combinations of fundamental units b. What is the SI-derived unites for area? The square meter (m 2 ) 12. a. List two SI-derived unites for volume. Cubic meter, cubic centimeter b. List two non-si unties for volume, and explain who they relate to the cubic centimeter. liter = 1000 cm 3, milliliter is equal to 1 cm a. Why are the unites used to express the densities of gasses different from those used to express the densities of solids or liquids? Smaller unites are used because gases are less dense b. Name two unites for density. g/cm 3, g/l

8 c. Why is the temperature at which density is measured usually specified? Temperature affects volume 14. a. Which of the solids listed in Table 4 will float on water? cork, butter, ice b. Which of the liquids will sink in milk? mercury 15. a. Define conversion factor A ration that is derived from the equality between different unites that can be used to convert from one unit to another unit b. Explain how conversion factors are used. The unit to be changes is multiplies by a conversion factor that has the desired unit in the numerator and the unit to be canceled in the denominator 16. What is the volume, in m 3, of a rectangular solid that is 0.25 m long, 6.1 m wide, and 4.9 m wide? 7.5 m Find the density of material, given that a 5.03 g sample occupies 3.24 ml g/ml 18. What is the mass of a sample of material that has a volume of 55.1 cm 3 and a density of 6.72 g/cm 3? 3.70 x 10 2 g 19. A sample of a substance that has a density of g/ml has a mass of g. Calculate the volume of the sample ml 20. How many grams are in 882 µg? 8.82 x 10-4 g 21. Calculate the number of ml in L x 10 2 ml

9 22. The density of gold in 19.3 g/cm 3 a. What is the volume, in cm 3, of a sample of gold that has a mass of kg? 37.0 cm 3 b. If this sample of gold is a cube, what is the length of each edge in cm? 3.33 cm 23. a. Find the number of km in m x 10-2 km b. Convert the answer in km to cm x 10 3 cm 24. Compare accuracy and precision. Accuracy refers to the closeness of measurement to the correct or accepted value. Precision refers to the closeness of a set of measurements to one another. 25. a. Write the equation that is used to calculate percent error. % error =!"#\$%!"#!\$%&!'()*!!!"#\$%!"#\$!%!"#\$%!"#\$!%!!!!"" b. Under what condition will percentage error be negative? If the experimental value is lower than the accepted value Page # How is the average for a set of values calculated? By adding the values and dividing by the numbers of the values 27. What is meant by a mass measurement expressed in this form: 4.6 g +/- 0.2 g? Between 4.4 and 4.8 g 28.Suppose a graduated cylinder were not correctly calibrated. How would this affect the results of a measurement? How would it affect the results of a calculation using this measurement? It would introduce error in the measurement and any subsequent calculations

10 29. Found each of the following measurements to the number of significant figures indicated. a g to three significant figures 67.0 g b L to one significant figures 0.2 L c mg to fie significant figures mg d mol to three significant figures 3.17 mol 30. State the rules governing the number of significant figures that result from each of the following operations. a. addition and subtraction The answer must have the same number of digits to the right of the decimal point as there are in the measurement that has the fewest digits to the right of the decimal point. b. multiplication and division The answer can have no more significant figures than are in the measurement that has the fewest number of significant figures 31. What is the general form for writing numbers in scientific notation? M x 10 n, where M is greater than or equal to 1 but less than 10 and n is a whole number 32. a. By using x and y, state the general equation for quantities that are directly proportional. y/x=k or y=kx b. For two directly proportional quantities, what happens to one variable when the other variable increases? It increases by the same factor 33. a. State the general equation for quantities, x and y, that are inversely proportional. xy=k b. For two inversely proportional quantities, what happens to one variable when the other increases? It decreases by the same factor 34. Arrange in the correct order the following four basic steps for finding the solution to a problem: compute, plan, evaluate, and analyze. analyze, plan, compute, evaluate 35. A student measure the mass of a sample as 9.67 g. Calculated the percentage error, given that the correct mass is 9.82 g. -1.5%

11 36. A handbook gives the density of calcium as 1.54 g/cm 3. Based on lab measurements, what is the percentage error of a density calculation of 1.25 g/cm % 37. What is the percentage error of a length measurement of cm if the correct value is cm? 2% 38. How many significant figures are in each of the following measurements? a ml four b g one c km six d mm three 39. Calculated the sum of g and g g 40. Subtract 7.11 cm from 8.2 cm 1.1 cm 41. What is the product of m and 3.44 m? 2.79 m Divide g by ml g/ml 43. Write the following numbers in scientific notation. a x 10-4 b x 10 4 c x The following numbers are in scientific notation. Write them in ordinary notation a x 10 3 g g b x 10 7 mg mg c x 10 4 ml ml 45. Perform the following operation. Express the answer in scientific notation and with the correct number of significant figures m x m 8.57 x 10-8 m A sample of a certain material has a mass of 2.03 x 10-3 g. Calculate the volume of the sample, given that the density is x 10-1 g/cm 3. Use the four step method to solve the problem x 10-3 m 3

12 47. A man finds that he has a mass of kg. He goes on a diet and several months later he finds that he has a mass of 96.4 kg. Express each number in scientific notation and calculate the number of kilograms the man has lost by dieting. rewritten numbers: x 10 2 kg, 9.64 x 10 1 kg; final answers: 4.2 kg 48. A large office building is 1.07 x 10 2 m long, 31 m wide and 4.25 x 10 2 m high. What is its volume? 1.4 x 10 6 m 3 Pg. # An object has a mass of 57.6 g. Find the object s density, given that its volume is cm g/cm A lab worker measures the mass of some sucrose as mg. Convert that quantity to grams and to kilograms x 10-4 g; 9.47 x 10-7 kg 51. A student calculates the density of iron as 6.80 g/cm 3 by using lab data for mass and volume. A handbook reveals that the correct value is 7.86 g/cm 3. What is the percentage error? -13.5%

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