Chapter 23. World War I

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1 Chapter 23 World War I

2 Chapter 23 1 Troubles in Europe 1. Nations competed for colonies in Africa, Asia and other parts of the world. 2. These colonies not only provided new markets and raw materials they also boosted a nations status. 3. Great Britain had the world s largest and strongest navy.

3 Formation of Alliances 1. Alliance system when a country joined an alliance it agreed to defend all alliance countries if they were attacked. 2. By major alliances were established: Germany, Austria, Hungary, and Italy formed the Triple Alliance. Great Britian, France, and Russia formed the Triple Entente. 3. Entente understanding among countries.

4 Crisis in the Balkans 1. Gavrilo Princip assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinando.

5 A World War Begins 1. Great War had begun 2. Allied Powers Great Britain, France and Russia 3. Central Powers German, Austria Hungary and the Ottoman Empire 4. Japan joined the Allies in August Italy refused to honor its alliance with Germany & Austria instead it joined the allies in 1915

6 Fighting on the Western Front Dogfights the name given to duels in the skies between airplane pilots. The most dramatic new weapon the airplane added a new dimension to fighting in W.W. I

7 Chapter 23 section 2

8 American Neutrality 1. President Wilson had to make some difficult decisions. He declared that the U.S. would be neutral in the War in Europe. 2. Most Americans favored the Allies. 3. More than 1/3 of the nations population was either foreign born or the children of the start of W.W.I 4. Trade between the U.S. and the Allies helped build support for the allied cause. 5. Britain had a blockade of Germany s ports and seized the goods on American ships.

9 Submarine warfare 1. Lusitania On May 7, 1915 a German U-boat torpedoed the British passenger liner

10 End of Neutrality Congress doubled the size of the army and provided funding for the construction of new navy warships. Wilson still hoped to stay out of the war. 2. Most Americans were anti-war Democrat Slogan He kept us out of War 3. Charles Evans Hughes Republican candidate in 1916.

11 On the brink of war 1. Arthur Zimmermann an intercepted telegram from Arthur Zimmermann asking Mexicans to join the Central Powers if U.S. joined the Allies. 2. Autocracy government in which one person with unlimited power rules.

12 America enters the war 1. April 2, 1917 Wilson asked congress to declare war on Germany. Congress did not agree at once to a war resolution. On April 6 Congress passed a declaration of war. 2. Jeanette Rankin 1 st woman to serve in congress and voted against war.

13 Chapter 23 section 3

14 Supplying the Allies Allies needed the help of American soldiers. 2. American entry into the war made an immediate difference. To make sure the needed supplies reached Great Britain, the U.S. Navy helped British destroy German submarines then formed convoys of Navy destroyers escorting groups of merchant ships.

15 Russian withdrawal 1. November 1917, riots broke out over the government handling of the war and the lack of food and fuel. 2. Bolsheviks, group of communists overthrew the democratic Russian government and established a communist government led by Vladimir Lenin. 3. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Lenin took Russia out of the war agreement between Russia and Germany 4. John J. Pershing May 1917 Pershing was named supreme commander of the American Expeditionary Force (AEF)

16 Doughboys in Battle 1. American soldiers or doughboys saw their first serious fighting in early June The were nicknamed doughboys because of their brass uniform buttons resembled boiled dough dumplings.

17 End of the war 1. October , German government appealed to Pres. Wilson for an Armistice agreement to end the fighting. 2. Armistice began 11/11/1918 the 11 th hour on the 11 th day of the 11 th month.

18 Chapter 23 section 4

19 Mobilizing the Nation 1. After the U.S declared war on Germany in 1917, Americans began focusing their energies on getting ready to fight the war. 2. To pay for the war the U.S. government sold war bonds and increased taxes. 3. There was a labor shortage and this provided new job opportunities for women. 4. Great Migration ( ) a population movement due to the possibility that African Americans could find jobs in Northern cities.

20 Producing Supplies 1. Herbet Hoover headed the Food Administration this agency encouraged farmers to produce more and the public to eat less. 2. The Fuel Administration introduced daylight savings time to save energy. 3. The committee on public information was created because anti-war feelings remained strong even after the U.S. entered the war.

21 Public opinion and the war 1. Dissent disagreement or opposition 2. Sabotage an Sedition acts these laws made it a crime to say, print, or write anything negative about the government.

22 Chapter 23 section 5

23 Making Peace 1. Leaders from 27 nations gathered in Paris France on January 1919 Peace conference pts. Wilson s peace plan. These points were Wilson s beliefs in National Self- Determination the rights of people to decide how they should be governed. 3. Wilson s last point was the creation of the League of Nations this would help preserve peace and prevent future wars.

24 Allies Disagree 1. The Allies didn t invite Germany or Russia to peace talks. 2. The big four were invited President Wilson, Prime Minister David Lloyd George of Great Britain, France s premier Clemenceau, and Italian Prime minister Vittorio Orlando.

25 Treaty of Versailles 1. June 29, 1919 the Allies and Germany signed the Treaty of Versailles. 2. The treaty dealt harshly with Germans but since they lost they had no choice but to follow it. 3. Terms of the treaty: Germany accepted full responsibility for the conflict, had to pay off billions of dollars to the Allies, Germany had to disarm and give up overseas colonies and some territory in Europe.

26 Opposition at Home 1. The U.S. government opposed signing the treaty. 2. Henry Cabot Lodge of Massachusetts, was an opponent of the treaty the treaty was rejected by the Senate. 4. The U.S. never joined the League of Nations but did sign peace agreements with each of the Central Powers.

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