The Road to the Great War WWI

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1 The Road to the Great War WWI

2 Causes of the War nationalism feeling that a specific nation, language, or culture is superior to all others imperialism creating an empire by taking over other nations (Britain, France, Germany, Italy, U.S.) militarism aggressive military preparedness; ex. European nations built larger militaries than ever before Too much testosterone! War was inevitable

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4 The Spark Austria-Hungary heir, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, killed by Serbian radicals Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia Russia was allies with Serbia Germany allies with Austria-Hungary so Germany declares war on Russia Central Powers Austria-Hungary, Germany, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire (Turkey) Allied Powers Britain, France, Italy, & Russia

5 ALLIES 1. Great Britain 2. France 3. Russia (until 1917) 4. Serbia 5. Italy 6. Japan 7. United States CENTRAL 1. Germany 2. Austria-Hungary 3. Ottoman Empire 4. Bulgaria

6 Leader Country Role Power Woodrow Wilson United States President Allied Wilhelm II Germany Kaiser Central Georges Clemenceau France President Allied David Lloyd George Britain Prime Minister Allied Nicholas II Russia Czar Allied

7 War in Europe trench warfare strategy of defending a position by fighting from the protection of deep ditches (i.e. bunkers) technology machine guns, poison gas (mustard, chlorine), tanks, airplanes, & submarines U-boats or submarines (Germans)

8 America Enters the War German U-boat sank the Lusitania, a British passenger ship, holding 128 Americans; Germans broke international law The President, Woodrow Wilson, prolonged U.S. neutrality and wanted world peace Zimmerman telegram German foreign minister wrote a confiscated note to Mexico which proposed an alliance between the two against U.S. outraged Americans from isolationism to saving the day!

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11 The Big 4 (leaders) were: Vittorio Orlando Italy George Clemencea France David Lloyd George Great Britain Woodrow Wilson U.S.

12 WWI & the U.S.

13 Mobilizing for War The Draft 3 million men & Selective Service Act Black soldiers segregated & filled non-combat roles Women volunteer nurses, typists, & interpreters, or the Red Cross Liberty Bonds loans to the govt. to help pay for the war

14 Americans Arrive Russia leaves (Civil War breaking out at home; govt. overthrown by communists) Battles fought on fronts (ex. western & eastern) Germans losing too many men & supplies = defeat!

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16 Armistice truce Germany becomes a republic Germany leaves all foreign occupied territories German war resources were destroyed (including U-boats)

17 Wilson s 14 Points system to avoid future wars one point called for selfdetermination the right of people to decide their own political status most important point called for League of Nations an international congress of nations designed to settle disputes & protect democracy

18 Paris Peace Talks Who were the BIG FOUR? Country U.S. Great Britain France Italy Leader Wilson George Clemenceau Orlando What they wanted Selfdeterminati on; league of nations Germany s colonies in Africa Germany to pay for war; Germany to reduce military Territorial Rewards

19 Treaty of Versailles The Big 4 decided: Germany would have to pay reparations payments for damages during the war the Allies would gain control over parts of Germany League of Nations would control Central Powers land countries would practice self-determination U.S. Senate rejected the treaty because it would involve the U.S. in European affairs; the U.S. never joined the League of Nations

20 Treaty of Versailles: Points of Treaty 1. Territorial Changes 2. Germany demilitarized: reduce army 100k and eliminate navy 3. Germany lost colonies 4. Germany responsible for War 5. Germany pay reparations ($33 billion) 6. Create the League of Nations

21 Outcomes of WWI War = Total Cost = $280 billion Casualties: Allies = 5.1 million Central = 3.5 million Americans = 116,000 Wounded = 20 million Civilians = thousands (unclear)

22 New Nations Formed Germany: Revolution other threw the gov t Austria-Hungary: becomes Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia Ottoman Empire: Syria, Turkey, Jordan, Iran, Palestine Russia: Poland, Finland, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, Russia

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