Europe Erupts in War 23-2

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1 Europe Erupts in War 23-2 The Main Idea Far from being satisfied by the actions of France and Great Britain, Germany turned to force and triggered the start of World War II. Content Statement/Learning Goal Analyze the reasons for American isolationist sentiment in interwar period. Identify and explain changes American society experienced with the mobilization of its economic and military resources during WWII.

2 9 th Grade:Ch 13-4 Learning Goal/Content Statement Explain how the consequences of World War I and the worldwide depression set the stage for the rise of totalitarianism, aggressive Axis expansion and the policy of appeasement which in turn led to World War II.

3 Ch 23-2 vocabulary Appeasement: giving into demands of uncompromising powers to avoid war. Munich Agreement Hitler s last territorial demand. Why not stand up to Hitler? WWI?? Winston Churchill: British Prime Minister; opposed appeasement. Condemned Chamberlain and appeasement. Leads Britain through WWII. Blitzkrieg: German word for lightning war. The Allies: alliance of Britain, France, and Russia in WWII. Vichy France: Unoccupied part of France. Charles de Gaulle: French military and political leader; led free French government and army into WWII. Luftwaffe: German air force. Axis Powers: alliance of Germany, Italy, and Japan in WWII. Hideki Tojo: Japanese nationalist and general. He took control of japan during WWII. Later tried and executed for war crimes.

4 The Start of World War II (1) Neville Chamberlain believed that his policy of appeasement or giving in to aggressive demands to maintain peace had prevented the outbreak of war. p. 747 Chamberlain, how horrible, fantastic, incredible it is, that we would be digging trenches and trying on gas masks here because of a quarrel in a faraway country. After peace made in Munich. Munich Agreement: Hitler promises he would make no more territorial demands!! He gets Sudetenland: German speaking section of Czechoslovakia. Rival British politician Winston Churchill condemned Chamberlain s policy of appeasement and said it would lead to war. Churchill was correct; Hitler was not appeased by gaining the Sudentenland. In 1939 Hitler gained more land by force, made alliances that he hoped would help him in the future, and attacked Poland.

5 2. Hitler s Early Moves 2.Czechoslovakia In March Hitler sent troops into what remained of Czechoslovakia. Czechoslovakia fell without putting up a fight. Chamberlain finally realized that Hitler could not be trusted. He resigns as PM in May 1940 after Allies are forced from Norway Appeasement had failed. 2. Alliances Established a pact with Italy, Japan. Axis Powers Established a nonaggression pact with Stalin s Soviet Union Stalin agreed not to stop Hitler s expansion and Hitler agreed not to attack Stalin. Secret agreement: Russia would get Eastern half of Poland and Baltic States. This pact shocked many in Europe. Hitler, I have the world in my pocket. 3. Poland On September 1, 1939, Hitler invaded Poland. The German military used the blitzkrieg, or lightning war. Poland fought back to no avail. By the end of the month, Poland was in German hands.

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8 German Expansion

9 German Expansion

10 German Expansion

11 German Expansion

12 German Expansion

13 German Expansion

14 Causes of WWI and WWII 1) Militarism: building up of military weapons 2) Imperialism: expanding territorial claims 3) Alliances: WWI: Triple Alliance (Central Powers) Triple Entente (The Allies) WWII: Axis Powers (Japan, Germany, Italy) Allied Powers. Cold War: NATO (U.S), Warsaw Pact (U.S.S.R) 4) Nationalism: putting your nation s interests above interests of all others.

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16 Blitzkrieg

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18 WWI Tanks

19 WWI Tanks

20 4.German Forces Turn to the West On September 3, 1939, Great Britain and France declared war on Germany. They became known as the Allies. The Allies did not attack Germany. Instead, they decided to wait for Germany to make its next move. They believed that Germany s army would grow weak trying to invade France. Time known as sitzkrieg: or phony war Germany made plans to invade France through the Ardennes Forest. This was rugged terrain and the French army concentrated their defenses elsewhere. For example, the famed Maginot Line( string of bunkers and fortresses along border of France and Germany) was to the south of the Ardennes.

21 Maginot Line

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24 German Forces Turn to the West April 1940 May 1940 June Hitler invaded Denmark and Norway. This improved Germany s access to the Atlantic. Both countries fell with little resistance. 6.Germans invaded France. Germans conquered the Netherlands and stormed into Belgium. Belgian, British, and French troops tried to stop the Germans in Belgium. By early June the Germans had trapped hundreds of thousands of Allied soldiers at the French port of Dunkirk. Meanwhile, German forces attacked France through the Ardennes. The Maginot Line had been bypassed. France surrendered to Germany and Italy. The unoccupied part of France was known as Vichy France. Many French leaders, including Charles de Gaulle, fled to Great Britain to organize resistance to German and Vichy control of France.

25 7. Battle of Britain *Battle of Britain: Hitler attempts to invade Britain. Uses Luftwaffe to bomb London. Churchill to house of Commons, June 4, 1940 We shall defend our island whatever the cost may be; we shall fight on beaches, landing grounds, in fields, in streets and on the hills. We shall never surrender... Invasion of Britain is unsuccessful and called off by late Hitler upset with failure turns his attention east to Russia.

26 8.Increasing Tensions in East Asia 1931 Invaded Manchuria 1934 Japan began expanding its naval forces despite promises made at the Washington Navel Conference Japan signed an anticommunism pact with Germany Japan began a war against China. Massacred 200, ,000 in Chinese capital of Nanjing 1940 Japan formed a military alliance with Germany and Italy. These nations were known as the Axis Powers Japan moved to take control of French Indochina, which threatened American interests. (Hawaii) President Roosevelt tried to reason with General Hideki Tojo, the minister of war who took control of the country in October of But the time for compromise was over. U.S. used economic sanctions against Japan. Cut off key oil supplies.

27 EUROPE UNDER AXIS CONTROL

28 Causes of WWI and WWII 1) Militarism: building up of military weapons 2) Imperialism: expanding territorial claims 3) Alliances: WWI: Triple Alliance (Central Powers) Triple Entente (The Allies) WWII: Axis Powers (Japan, Germany, Italy) Allied Powers. Cold War: NATO (U.S), Warsaw Pact (U.S.S.R) 4) Nationalism: putting your nation s interests above interests of all others.

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