Entered War: 1 August 1914 (declaration of war by Germany).

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1 US HISTORY Topic 8 The Great War Profiles of Major Combatant Nations in World War I *Directions As we work through the notes about the start of World War I in Europe, consider the following important background issues from each nation s perspective in ALLIED POWERS RUSSIA: Political System: Tsarist autocracy and empire to Leaders: Nicholas II: Tsar, Population: 166 million (1910). Army: 1.4 million men (1914). Russia's army was the largest in the world and, by December 1914, had grown to 6.5 million men. Navy: 9 battleships, 12 cruisers (different classes), 29 destroyers, 67 torpedo boats, 15 submarines, 8 minelayers, 7 coastal gunboats in the Baltic and Black Sea Fleets (1914). Air Force: 360 aircraft, 16 airships (1914). History: Russia had been humiliated by Japan in the war, and this had triggered a period of reform, unrest and modernization. The Duma (Russia s new representative assembly) was established following the revolution, and the armed forces were modernized. Russia regarded Germany as its main threat, and signed an Entente with Britain in In 1914, the country was still racked by political dissent, which, three years later, would explode into major revolution to create the world s first Marxist Socialist state. Background Information: Russia s greatest strength is in its massive population. Russia's army was huge but poorly equipped: in December 1914, 6.5 million soldiers shared 4.6 million rifles. The country's primitive transport infrastructure made it difficult to deploy this huge force. Goals in World War I: Russia will enter the war under the goal of protecting its ally Serbia from Austria- Hungary. Primarily, however, the war will be to expand the Russian empire and use a victorious war effort to strengthen Mother Russia politically and economically. Entered War: 1 August 1914 (declaration of war by Germany). FRANCE: Political System: Republic. Leaders: Raymond Poincaré: President, Population: 40 million (1911). Army: 770,000 French troops, 46,000 colonial troops (summer 1914). An additional 2.9 million men were mobilized by mid- August. A total of 8.32 million Frenchmen and 475,000 colonial troops served in France's army during the war. Navy: 19 battleships, 32 cruisers, 86 destroyers, 34 submarines and 115 torpedo boats (1914). Air Force: 132 aircraft (1914).

2 History: France had been humiliated by Prussia during the Franco- Prussian war of (losing Alsace- Lorraine) and regarded Germany as her main enemy. France and Russia concluded an alliance between (which would enable them to squeeze Germany in any future two- front war), and in 1904 France and Britain concluded the Entente Cordiale (which resolved outstanding disputes in North Africa). Russia and Britain concluded an Entente in 1907, and the Triple Entente was generally seen as a counter- balance to the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria- Hungary and Italy. Background Information: France had extensive Imperial interests and could count on the support of these colonies in time of war. Germany s past aggression and its militarism make the French government and its people fearful of another attack, so military preparedness is absolutely necessary. Patriotism and feelings of revenge make France a nation that is convinced a war with Germany is inevitable. Goals in World War I: Humiliate Germany and re- take the lands lost in previous wars, such as Alsace- Lorraine, and to protect its empire around the globe. Entered War: 3 August 1914 (declaration of war by Germany). GREAT BRITIAN (UNITED KINGDOM) Political System: Constitutional Monarchy and Empire. Leaders: George V: sovereign, H H Asquith: Prime Minister, David Lloyd George: Prime Minister, Population: 45.2 million (Britain and Ireland). Army: 250,000 regular troops (1914). Half of these were stationed abroad; half were in the British Expeditionary Force. Britain was forced to introduce conscription in Navy: 24 dreadnoughts, 29 pre- dreadnought battleships, 200 cruisers (different classes), 200 destroyers (1914). Britain's navy was the largest in the world. Air Force: 63 aircraft (1914). History: Britain joined France in the Entente Cordiale ('friendly understanding') in This was expanded into the Triple Entente when Britain signed an entente with Russia in However, neither of these committed Britain to military action. On the whole, it wanted to stay out of European wars (as long as no single power dominated the continent) and concentrate its energies on its empire. Background Information: Britain's was the largest empire in the world in 1914, covering 11.5 million square miles and comprising 365 million people. There were British colonies and dominions in Africa, the Caribbean, North America, the Pacific and Australasia, and Britain could count on support from these territories in time of war. By the start of the 20th century, Britain's economic pre- eminence was under threat from both Germany and the United States. Goals in World War I: Britain must ensure that it maintains the largest navy in the world and protect its Empire. Germany militarism, their expanding navy and their economy all threaten British Imperial interests. Germany must be subdued and prevented from disrupting the balance of power in Europe and around the globe. Entered War: 4 August 1914 (declared war on Germany following its invasion of Belgium).

3 ITALY Political System: Constitutional monarchy since emerging as an independent unified kingdom in the 1860s. Leaders: Victor Emmanuel III: Sovereign, Antonio Salandra: Prime Minister, Population: 34.7 million (1911). Army: 300,000 men (1912). In 1915, the Italian army consisted of 875,000 men in 25 infantry divisions and four cavalry divisions. A total of 5.2 million Italians were mobilized for army service during the war. Navy: 5 dreadnoughts, 8 pre- dreadnought battleships, 21 cruisers, 49 destroyers, 85 torpedo boats, 25 submarines (1915). History: Italy joined Germany and Austria- Hungary in the Triple Alliance in Under the terms of this agreement, each country was supposed to support the others if attacked by Russia or France; the alliance was renewed every five years. However, Italy concluded a secret agreement with France in When Germany and Austria- Hungary went to war in 1914, Italy went back on its Triple Alliance commitments, claiming that the other two had behaved aggressively and that the terms of the Triple Alliance did not apply. Goals in World War I: With Prime Minister Salandra claiming Italy's Sacro Egoismo (sacred self- interest), the country joined the war in 1915 on the side of the Allies. It hoped to gain territory at Austria- Hungary's expense. Entered War: 23 May 1915 (declared war on Austria- Hungary). UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Political System: Republic. Leader: Woodrow Wilson : president Population: 100 million (1914). Army: 98,000 men plus 27,000 in the National Guard (1914). The army expanded to 140,000 men when the war started, and more than one million American soldiers were stationed in France by July Two hundred thousand African- Americans served in the US army, but only 42,000 were classified as combat troops. These fought with the French army due to racism in the US army. Navy: 17 pre- dreadnought battleships, 10 modern battleships, 32 cruisers, 56 destroyers, 51 submarines, 21 torpedo boats (1914). The US navy was the third largest in the world in Air Force: 260 aircraft (1917). History: Before 1914, the US was strongly isolationist as regards Europe and focused its attention on the Pacific, the Caribbean and Latin America. Many US citizens originated from First World War combatant states, and favoring one side over the other could have created political unrest. President Wilson therefore reaffirmed the US's policy of neutrality in August The US was slowly sucked into the war as a consequence of Germany's submarine campaign, its orchestration of sabotage and subversion within the United States and its attempts to foment war between Mexico and the US. In 1915 and 1916, President Wilson believed that he would be in a strong position to arbitrate between the warring powers if the United States remained neutral. However, by 1917, he believed that the United States would have to fight in order to have a voice in the creation of a New World order. Background Information: The US had the world's largest economy in 1917, and US bankers played a crucial role in funding the Allied war effort throughout

4 Goals in World War I: To promote freedom of the seas, free trade, and to make the world safe for democracy. Entered War: 6 April 1917 (declared war on Germany). THE CENTRAL POWERS AUSTRIA- HUNGARY Political System: Dual monarchy and empire. The kingdoms of Austria and Hungary were united in Leaders: Franz Josef I: Emperor, , Karl I: Emperor, Population: 51 million (1910). Army: 325,000 men in the Imperial and Royal Army (drawn from all parts of the empire), 40,000 men in the Austrian Territorial Army and 30,000 in the Hungarian Territorial Army (1914). When the war started, Austria- Hungary mobilized 2.25 million men. A total of 7.8 million were mobilized for army service during the war. Navy: 15 battleships, 7 cruisers, 18 destroyers, 5 submarines, 90 torpedo boats (1914). Air Force: 250 aircraft (1916). History: With Germany and Italy, Austria- Hungary was a member of the Triple Alliance, formed in 1882, which was meant to protect its member countries against attack by Russia or France. It was renewed every five years. There was, however, underlying tension with Italy - a number of ethnic Italians lived within the empire. Austria- Hungary's annexation of Bosnia in 1908 drew it into conflict with Serbia. The Serbs wished to see Austria- Hungary expelled from the Balkans. Background Information: Austria- Hungary was a multi- national, multi- lingual and multi- ethnic empire. The Austrians and the Hungarians constituted the largest groups, but it also included Poles, Croats, Bosnians, Serbs, Italians, Czechs and numerous others. This ethnic and linguistic diversity weakened the power of the Austro- Hungarian military - 80% of all officers spoke German, but only 30% of other ranks. Goals in World War I: If nationalist uprising is allowed and Austria- Hungary does not demonstrate international strength, then the fragile Austro- Hungarian Empire could crumble. War must be used to crush the rogues who hope to free themselves from the Empire and force Russia s meddlesome presence out of Eastern Europe, and hopefully gain new territories in Eastern Europe as a result. Entered War: 28 July 1914 (declared war on Serbia). GERMANY Political System: Federal Empire in which Prussia's monarch was also Kaiser (Emperor) of Germany. Although elected on the basis of universal male suffrage, Germany's parliament (Reichstag) was primarily a deliberative chamber. The Kaiser controlled foreign policy, the armed forces and all ministerial appointments. Leaders: Wilhelm II: emperor, , Theobald von Bethmann- Hollweg: Chancellor, , Population: 65 million (1914). Army: 700,000 men (summer 1914). Within a week of war being declared, the German army had expanded to 3.8 million men, and by August 1916, 4.5 million German soldiers were fighting on the Western and Eastern Fronts.

5 Navy: 17 dreadnoughts, 20 pre- dreadnought battleships, 5 battle- cruisers, 25 other cruisers (various classes), 28 submarines and a further 17 under construction (1914). Germany's navy was the second largest in the world. Air Force: 260 aircraft, 11 airships (1914). History: Germany had been created as a unified nation in 1871 through warfare. Germany s unification upset the European Balance of Power because it became a major industrial and military powerhouse almost overnight. Germany, Austria- Hungary and Italy were all members of the Triple Alliance (1882), a diplomatic arrangement that was designed to protect its members from attack by Russia or France. Background Information: Germany emerged as a major industrial, military and political power in the late 19th century and began to acquire imperial possessions in Africa, the Pacific and the Far East. The older imperial powers regarded this as a threat to their own status. Germany recognizes that renewed war with France is inevitable, and therefore military preparedness is crucial. Since France is allied with Russia, Germany must have plans prepared to fight against both powers on its borders. Goals in World War I: Germany hopes to humiliate France again and assert it dominance in Europe. This will come at the cost of the Russian Empire, since Germany hopes to defeat France s ally Russia through a war that will cost them vast swaths of territory in Eastern Europe. Entered War: 1 August 1914 (declared war on Russia). 3 August 1914 (declared war on France). TURKEY (OTTOMAN EMPIRE) Political System: Empire. Leader: Mehmed V was Sultan between 1909 and 1918, but real power lay with the 'Young Turks', a secular, modernising group that had seized power in 1909 and installed Mehmed as Sultan. The leading 'Young Turks' were Enver Pasha, Talaat Pasha and Cemal Pasha. Population: 25 million (1914). 14 million were Turks and the rest consisted of Greeks, Arabs, Armenians, Kurds and other nationalities. Army: 36 divisions (1914). Total fighting strength rose to approximately 1.25 million men by Navy: 2 pre- dreadnought battleships, 4 destroyers (1910). More ships were ordered after 1910 but not all were delivered by the start of hostilities. Germany gave Turkey two cruisers (Goeben and Breslau) at the start of the war. Air Force: 20 aircraft (1914). History: By the early 20th century, Turkey had been largely expelled from its European territories, and a number of 'successor states' (Bulgaria, Rumania, Serbia and Greece) had arisen to replace it. Turkey was regarded as the 'sick man of Europe' and desperately sought an alliance with a major European power to improve its political position. However, because of its declining status and its ambiguous position (a predominantly Islamic state straddling both east and west), most European powers were reluctant to form an alliance with Turkey until Germany befriended it. At the outbreak of World War I, Turkey had already been humiliated in the First Balkan War ( ) and had lost territory. Goals in World War I: To demonstrate to Europe that the Ottoman Empire is not a crumbling Empire that is retreating from European affairs, but is a modern state that is prepared to be engaged in the European diplomatic and military Balance of Power. Entered War: 29 October 1914 (attacked Russia's ports in the Black Sea).

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