WWI/Inter-war/WWII review

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1 WWI/Inter-war/WWII review Various notes taken in-class throughout the day 5/20/14 How did imperialism set the stage for both wars? WWI competition between EUR nations for colonies, countries want as many colonies as possible in AF and ASIA, A-H wanting the Balkans WWII JAP invading Northern China to expand its empire; GER taking land in the Rhineland, Sudetenland, and later other surrounding countries; IT takes Albania and Ethiopia 1

2 Imperialism 2 WWI EUR countries fighting for colonies in AFRICA and ASIA; this raises tensions WWII IT and GER invading other EUR countries like Albania, Czech, Austria. Also in N. Africa. JAP invading China and other Pacific Islands Imperialism 6 WWI EUR countries battle for colonies in Africa and Asia WWII Mussolini (IT) invades Albania and Ethiopia; Hitler (GER) invades CZ, POL, FR, AUS; JAP invades northern China to gain power and land (prestige) 2

3 Military alliances WWI Central Powers (GER, A-H, Ottoman Empire), Allies (BR, RUSSIA, France, USA) Triple Entente and the Triple Alliance exist before the war begins. They are the sets of friendships that force the conflict to escelate WWII Axis Powers (GER, IT, JAP); Allies (BR, FR, Poland, USSR, USA) Military Alliances 2 WWI Serbia + Russia, Central Powers (GER, A-H, Ottoman Empire), Allies (BR, FR, Russia, USA) WWII Non-Aggression Pact (GER and USSR), Axis Powers (GER, IT, JAP), Allies (BR, USA, USSR, FR) 3

4 Military alliances 6 WWI Triple Entente (BR, FR, RUSSIA) Allied Powers (w/usa). Triple Alliance (GER, A-H, IT) Central Powers (GER, A-H, Ottoman Emp). Serbia + Russia WWII Axis Powers (GER, IT, JAP). Allied Powers (BR, USSR, USA, FR). Non-aggression pact between USSR and GER Two-Front War WWI trench warfare, GER using subs, GER marching to gain territory on both sides, Schleiffen Plan dominate W front, then focus on E front WWII Take W first (blitzkrieg), especially FR, Belgium, Lux, and then turn to the east for USSR 4

5 Two-Front War 2 WWI Trench Warfare, GER used subs, Schlieffen Plan said GER would attack the W first and then focus on the E WWII GER would take the W first (FR, Bel, Lux), then focus on USSR in the E Two-Front War 6 WWI trench warfare, Schleiffen Plan said GER would attack the W first, and then focus on the E WWII BLITZKRIEG, attack the W first (successful in taking FR, BEL, LUX), and then focus on the E (USSR) 5

6 Science and Technology WWI poision gas, machine guns, planes, tanks, subs, radar WWII atomic bomb, jet fighters, semi-auto rifles, bomber planes, aircraft carriers, decoders, Higgins boats (flat boats for deployment of soldiers at shallow water), duck boats, radar Sci and Tech 2 WWI planes, poison gas, tanks, machine guns, subs WWII atomic bombs, bomber planes, jet engines, tanks are stronger, radar, decoders, aircraft carriers 6

7 Science and Tech 6 WWI poison gas, machine guns, tanks, airplanes, submarines WWII atomic bomb, more accurate artillery, bomber planes, radar, decoders, aircraft carriers Suppressing Anti-War activity WWI propaganda to promote citizens contributing to the war effort WWII propaganda getting women to work, rationing, censorship, Japanese Internment camps 7

8 Suppressing anti-war activity 2 WWI propaganda and censorship: posters to encourage citizens to participate on the home front WWII propaganda and censorship: GER use it for anti-semitism (discrimination against Jews), Allies use it for citizen participation Supressing anti-war activity 6 WWI propaganda and censorship. Promoting involvement in the war. Censoring any anti-war feelings. WWII propaganda encourages citizen involvement. Anti-Semetic propaganda in GER. Powerful leaders give encouraging speeches 8

9 Two additional similarities High war debt for countries involved Allied victory Fought for Nationalism and preservation of your country s name (fighting for a greater cause) Germany seen as main instigator Countries gaining too much land and power too quickly USA enters late in both wars (had to be pushed into it) Similarities Genocide Allies win. Germany loses. USA stays out for a while Concentrated fighting in EUR GER is blamed Both total wars 9

10 Racism WWI European powers are in Africa and India. They are not treating the natives well, though the natives are still expected to fight in WWI. Inter-War Indians are treated poorly by British because the BR promise for IND to become independent is ignored. Hitler believes Jews are inferior and begins special rules for them. WWII Holocaust. Jews and others sent to Concentration camps. Japanese Internment camps in USA. Blacks fighting separately from whites. Isolationism WWI US stays out until Zimmerman Note and sinking of Lusitania. GER sought to eliminate the threat of AM Involvement Inter-war most countries stick to themselves. World trade declines. WWII US stays out until Pearl Harbor. Japan sought to eliminate the threat of American Involvement. 10

11 WWI- Blank Capitalism Inter-war could be blamed for the Great Depression and inflation in Germany. Debt in GER because of Treaty of Versaille WWII War effort and military boost helps the economies recover in USA, BR, GER Alliances Inter-war: lack of formal alliances in EUR, especially amongst the newest, small countries, leads to actions of aggression (GER, USSR) and appeasement (BR, FR) 11

12 WWI blank Capitalism Inter-war could be blamed for the Great Depression and for the inflation in Germany (also Treaty of Versailles and War Guilt). High unemployment and declining world trade. WWII military build-up leads to growing economies for the Allies and for GER Communism WWI- Revolutions of 1917 pull Russia out of the War. Bolshevik Revolution unites the working class with Lenin. Inter-war Communism splits China into a civil war. Communists are weak. Stalin s USSR uses totalitarianism to dominate the people. WWII Hitler sees Communists as an enemy. Stalin s Communisms keeps him separated from the other Allies 12

13 Militarism WWI- HUGE build up of GER military and others in Europe. New tech: tanks, poison gas, machine guns, subs, planes. Trench Warfare. Very high casualties. Inter-War Hitler ignoring the Treaty of Versailles and building GER military WWII Competition for better weapons: aircraft carriers, atomic bomb, jets, bomber planes Isolationism WWI AM waits to get involved. The sinking of the Lusitania and the Zimmerman Note push them in. GER sought to eliminate the AM threat. Inter-war: most of the world is isolated. World trade drops significantly WWII AM waits to get involved. The attack on Pearl Harbor pushes them in. JAP sought to eliminate the AM threat. 13

14 WWI blank Fascism Inter-war Hitler and Mussolini bring Fascism to GER and IT. No democracy. No freedoms. WWII Fascism creates an alliance called the Axis Powers. Propaganda WWI Allies use propaganda to encourage citizens to support the war. Inter-war GER uses propaganda to promote anti-semitism. Children were brainwashed at a young age in GER and USSR 14

15 Propaganda WWI Countries used posters to encourage citizens to help with the war Inter-war GER uses propaganda to promote Anti-Semitism. Children were brainwashed in GER and USSR. WWII Countries use propaganda to support the war. GER keeps propaganda to support the Holocaust and Hitler Fascism-a system of government with one ruler who controls everything WWI blank Inter-war Mussolini (IT) and Hitler (GER) push the Fascist Party to power. Society is totally controlled by the leader. WWII Fascist dictators form an alliance (Axis Powers) 15

16 Fascism gov t with ONE dominating leader who controls all aspects of life WWI blank Inter-war rise of Fascism as a form of gov t: Mussolini (IT) and Hitler (GER). WWII Fascism leads countries deep into war. Axis Powers form. Life is tightly controlled by government. Capitalism economic system where things are privately owned WWI blank Inter-war could be blamed for Great Depression and inflation in GER (also Treaty of Versailles). High unemployment rate. World trade declines. WWII Military build-up boosts economy and provides jobs (Axis and Allies) 16

17 Communism economic system where all goods are publically owned/controlled and there is ONE political party WWI Russia leaves the war because of revolution. The Bolshevik Revolution unites workers under Lenin Inter-War USSR is controlled by Stalin, who uses totalitarianism to have complete power. COMM divides China into a civil war. COMM s are the weaker side WWII COMM is see as evil by Hitler. GER invades USSR. Stalin is always an outsider to FDR and Churchill Propaganda WWI citizens are also persuaded that the enemy is evil Inter-war Anti-semitism (Anti-Jewish). Children were brainwashed at a young age in GER and USSR WWII Countries use posters to encourage citizens to support the war. Cartoons and films are used for the first time 17

18 Capitalism economic system where goods are privately owned. It is what we have. WWI blank Inter-war capitalism could be blamed for the Great Depression. Unemployment goes up. Inflation goes up. WWII Military build-up gives people jobs and grows the economy Communism economic and government system where goods are publically owned and there is ONE political party. No Democracy. North Korea today. WWI Russia leaves the war because of their revolutions. Bolshevik Revolution unites the workers under V. Lenin. Inter-war Stalin leads the USSR to be fully Communist. Uses totalitarianism to squash his opponents. China has a civil war with the Nationalists fighting the Communists. WWII Hitler does not like Communism. He invades the USSR and persecutes communists in GER. 18

19 Imperialism WWI-Europeans compete for colonies in Africa and Asia. This competition creates tension. Inter-war Those promised independence were IGNORED. Japan invades NE China. Germany invades Rhineland and Sudetenland. WWII GER invades CZECH, Austria, and many others. USSR takes Estonia, Latvia, Lith. Jap takes Pacific region Isolationism when countries keep to themselves and avoid involvement elsewhere WWI America keeps out of the war until Lusitania is sunk and Zimmerman Note is sent. GER wanted to eliminate the threat of American involvement. Inter-War AM returns to isolationism. Other EUR countries do too because of the Depression WWII America keeps out of the war until Pearl Harbor. JAP wanted to eliminate the threat of American involvement. 19

20 Capitalism economic system where goods are privately owned. This is what we have in AM WWI blank Inter-war Capitalism could be blamed for the Great Depression. High unemployment and inflation. WWII Military build-up creates jobs for workers and boosts the economy 20

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