Militarism and Alliances Leading to WWI. Road to WWI

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1 Militarism and Alliances Leading to WWI Road to WWI

2 Militarism Long term military buildup European countries wanted to be stronger than each other Germany had become the strongest in mainland Europe

3 Militarism Results France, Italy, Japan, and the United States started to develop more advanced weapons

4 Arms Race and the First World War: Essen5al Background - 1 e.g. the Daily Mail ran MANY stories (such as this one by William Le Queux) imagining German invasions. c.f. also John Buchan, The Thirty-Nine Steps (about German spies). The Arms Race was as much about na:ons INSECURITY as about their NATIONALISM and EXPANSIONISM.

5 Arms Race and the First World War: Increase in Spending Defence Spending, m There was a four- fold increase in defense spending of the great powers,

6 Arms Race and the First World War: AItude towards war But note that militarism is also a government's aitude of mind, seeing war as a valid means of foreign policy. (GERMANY was especially militaris:c.)

7 Arms Race and the First World War: Armies - 1 GERMANY, worried because it was in- between France and Russia, built up the largest land army. The German army was accepted as being the biggest and the best in the world.

8 Arms Race and the First World War: Armies - 2 This Russian postcard of 1914 shows Russia (symbolised by a woman) nailing the German eagle to a pillory after a war. But other countries built up their land armies too in 1914, the fastest growing army was that of RUSSIA. This worried GERMANY a lot.

9 Arms Race and the First World War: Armies - 3 As well as their STANDING ARMIES, the na:ons introduced CONSCRIPTION, so they also had large numbers of trained RESERVES. All the na:ons except Britain had HUGE armies.

10 Arms Race and the First World War: Essen5al Background - 2 This British postcard interprets Kaiser Wilhelm s statement about wanting a place in the sun it shows him making everybody in the world bow down to him. IMPERIALISM led to an arms race in 1900, Kaiser Wilhelm said that GERMANY wanted a place in the sun i.e., that Germany wanted an empire as big as Britain s. This TERRIFIED the Bri:sh.

11 Arms Race and the First World War: Navies - 1 If GERMANY was to have an empire, it needed a navy, so in 1900 Admiral Tirpitz introduced the German Navy Law, which announced a huge programme of building warships.

12 Arms Race and the First World War: Navies - 2 Both BRITAIN and GERMANY started building Dreadnoughts the most advanced class of warship in the world. The Dreadnought essen:ally reduced everybody else s number of warships to zero.

13 Arms Race and the First World War: Navies - 3 Building Dreadnoughts, Germany Great Britain There was a race between Germany and Britain to build the most Dreadnoughts. The graph shows the number built each year.

14 Arms Race and the First World War: Navies - 4 Reginald McKenna, First Lord of the Admiralty In 1909 he told Parliament that the German navy was just about to become more powerful than the Royal Navy, and he instigated the press scarecampaign that forced Parliament to build more Dreadnoughts. The Bri:sh government planned to build four Dreadnoughts in 1909, but the Bri:sh public panicked, demanding: 'We want eight and we won't wait'.

15 Arms Race and the First World War: Navies - 5 Total Dreadnoughts Germany Britain In the end, Britain s built many more Dreadnoughts than Germany.

16 Arms Race and the First World War: Effects The arms race was :ed in to both NATIONALISM and IMPERIALISM. It increased SUSPICION and HATRED of other na:ons - and it gave the na:ons the WHEREWITHAL to wage war.

17 Militarism- Italy The army was a symbol of Italy s unity and status as a Great Power Italy engaged in a military and naval arms race, primarily against Austria- Hungary and France They were to have a superiority of 2:1.6 dreadnoughts over Austria Throughout the 1890s, Italian generals had planned for war with France, but also with Austria- Hungary. Annual maneuvers began to be held in the Alps

18 Militarism- Russia Knew that if they had war, they would have to face war against Germany and Austria- Hungary Believed they were the overseer of the Slavs in the Balkans Approved huge army and naval increases in 1913

19 Militarism- Russia Plan 19 The plan for a war against Germany and Austria- Hungary. If Germany aaacked France, Russia would send 9 army corps against Germany and 16 army corps to aaack Austria- Hungary. It was based on the assump:on that Germany would be too busy in the west to intervene effec:vely on the eastern front

20 Militarism- France Wanted to regain Alsace- Lorraine and have colonies in Africa Extended compulsory military service from 2-3 years Increased naval expenditures Plan XVII Developed by Ferdinand Foch following the Franco- Prussian War and con:nued by Joseph Joffre. Hoped that once a German invasion through Alsace occurred, an all- out aaack on the diverted German forces (because they would be engaged in the East by Russia) would achieve a quick win

21 Alliances Support other countries if they are attacked Examples: Triple Alliance: Central Powers (Austria Hungary, Italy, Germany) Triple Entente: Allies (France, Russia, Great Britain) -Japan and Britain signed alliance in 1902

22 Alliances and the First World War: Essen5al Background - Fact 1 World War I was all about the place of Germany in Europe

23 Alliances and the First World War: Essen5al Background - Fact 2 France and Germany hated each other! When Germany became united country in , France went to war to try to stop it but got WHOPPED!

24 Alliances and the First World War: Essen5al Background Fact 2 (cont.) France also lost Alsace- Lorraine in The French never forgave the Germans. They wanted REVENGE.

25 Alliances and the First World War: Germany in the Middle Germany s BIG problem was that it was IN THE MIDDLE. That made it VULNERABLE if it came to a war.

26 Alliances and the First World War: Three Emperors League, 1873 In the 19 th century, Germany s brilliant Chancellor, Bismarck, solved this problem by keeping friends with RUSSIA and AUSTRIA- HUNGARY (the Dreikaiserbund).

27 Alliances and the First World War: Germany encircled But when Kaiser Wilhelm became Emperor, he dumped the Russian alliance. He kept the Triple Alliance, but this did NOT solve the problem of Germany s encirclement.

28 Alliances and the First World War: Franco- Russian Alliance, 1892 Instead, in 1892, Russia made an alliance with FRANCE. Although it was only a DEFENSIVE alliance, it was Germany s worst nightmare!

29 Alliances and the First World War: Webs of Alliances There were many more alliances.

30 Alliances and the First World War: Anglo- Japanese Naval Agreement, 1902 A very important one was the 1902 Anglo- Japanese naval alliance, which freed up Great Britain from protec:ng its Empire in the far east

31 Alliances and the First World War: Entente Cordiale, 1904 which allowed Britain to make the Entente Cordiale ( friendly rela:onship ) with France in 1904.

32 Alliances and the First World War: Triple Entente, 1907 In 1907 Russia joined Britain and France to make the Triple Entente. So by 1914 Europe had divided into two massive superpower blocs. People thought this BALANCE OF POWER would keep the peace.

33 Alliances and the First World War: The Balkans But Russia was also allied to Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria. When trouble erupted in the Balkans in 1914, the na:ons found their alliances dragged them into war

34 Alliances and the First World War: How the Alliances caused war like mountain climbers :ed to the same rope. (i.e. it is arguable that THE SYSTEM OF ALLIANCES CAUSED WORLD WAR ONE.)

35

36 Timeline of Alliances The Dual Alliance b/w Germany and Austria Hungary The Triple Alliance between Germany and Austria- Hungary and Italy Reinsurance Treaty b/w Germany and Russia The Franco- Russian Alliance The Entente Cordiale b/w Britain and France recognizing each others colonial possessions Triple Entente- France Britain and Russia

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