PROCEDURE. Analysis of Sulfonamides in Chicken Muscle and Porcine Kidney Using HPLC UV-VIS SULPHONAMIDES METHOD OF DETERMINATION

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1 SULPHONAMIDES METHOD OF DETERMINATION 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 The sulphonamides are an important class of antibacterial drugs that are widely used in animal production as therapeutic agents and as growth promoters. Sulphonamides are included in Annex 1 of European Economic Community Council Regulation (EEC) 2377/90, with a maximum residue limit (MRL) of 100 µg/kg for the combined total residues of all substances within the group. The method described in this protocol can be used to analyse tissue samples for residues of seven of the sulphonamide drugs that are licensed for use in food producing animals. The sulphonamides covered are listed below: Sulphadiazine Sulphathiazole Sulphapyridine Sulphamerazine Sulphamethazine Sulphamethizole Sulphamethoxypyridazine 1.2 PRINCIPLE Mince tissue is extracted with ethyl acetate. A portion of the extract is evaporated to dryness, the residue dissolved in methanol/acetic acid/water and washed with hexane. The extract is analysed, without further clean-up, by reversed-phase HPLC. The sulphonamides are subjected to post-column derivatisation by reaction with p-dimethyl-aminobenzaldehyde and detected by UV at 450 nm. Page 1 of 6

2 1.3 STRUCTURES Sulfadiazine Sulfathiazole Sulfapyridine Sulfamerazine Sulfamethazine Sulfamethizole Sulfamethoxypyridazine Page 2 of 6

3 2.0 MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT (Equipment of similar specification may be substituted for specific ítems listed below) 2.1 GLASSWARE Centrifuge tubes, 50 ml Cylinders, 10, 100, 1000 ml Volumetric flasks, 5, 10, 25 ml Volumetric pipettes, 10, 20 ml Glass bottles (coloured), 500, 1000 ml Pasteur pipettes HPLC vials 2.2 APPARATUS High-speed Ultra-Turrax Refrigerated centrifuge machine Dispenser (positive)/syringe of 25, 50 and 100 μl Pipettors, 100, 500 μl Top load balance, 0.01 g 2.3 HPLC SYSTEM P680 (Pump A, for mobile phase) P680 (Pump B, for derivatising agent) ASI-100 (Autosampler) PDA-100 (UV-Vis Photodiode array detector) TCC-100 Column thermostat Chromatography column: Luna 5µm C18 (2), 25 cm x 4.6 mm, 100 A 0 (Phenomenex) Reaction coil: 5 m length of PTFE tubing (0.5 mm i.d.) 3.0 REAGENTS AND SOLUTIONS 3.1 CHEMICALS Sulphadiazine Sulphathiazole Sulphapyridine Sulphamerazine Sulphamethazine Sulphamethizole Sulphamethoxypyridazine p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde Acetic acid, glacial Acetonitrile Ethyl acetate Hexane Hydrochloric acid, 0.1 M Methanol Sodium sulphate, anhydrous Page 3 of 6

4 3.2.6 Tetrahydrofuran 3.2 MOBILE PHASE Methanol/acetonitrile/acetic acid/water (10:6.5:1.5:82.0, v/v/v/v). Using 100 ml graduated cylinders, measure methanol (100 ml) and acetonitrile (65 ml) and transfer to a 1000 ml graduated cylinder. Add 820 ml milliq water and finally with 15 ml glacial acetic acid using a 10 ml graduated pipette. Cover the graduated cylinder, shake to mix the solution and filter under vacuum through a 0.45 µm filter (HVLP). Transfer to 1L bottle and sonicate for 20 minutes. 3.3 DERIVATIZING AGENT Dissolve 3.0 g p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde in 200 ml of solvent mixture: methanol/water/glacial acetic acid (60:40:100, v/v/v). Filter under vacuum through a 0.45 µm filter (HVLP). Sonicate for 5 min. and store in a amber bottle at room temperature. Discard every 2 days. 4.0 STANDARD SOLUTIONS 4.1 DRUG STANDARDS Sulphadiazine Sigma Aldrich CAS No Sulphathiazole Sigma Aldrich CAS No Sulphapyridine Sigma Aldrich CAS No Sulphamerazine Sigma Aldrich CAS No Sulphamethazine Sigma Aldrich CAS No Sulphamethizole Sigma Aldrich CAS No Sulphamethoxypyridazine Sigma Aldrich CAS No STOCK STANDARDS (1 mg/ml) Dissolve 25 ± 1 mg of sulphonamide standard in methanol (or tetrahydrofuran for sulphadiazine) and make up to 25 ml in a volumetric flask. Store at 0-5 C in amber coloured vials. Prepare every six months. 4.3 MIXED INTERMEDIATE STANDARD (10 µg/ml) Pipette aliquots (1 ml) of stock sulphonamide solutions (4.2) into a 100 ml volumetric flask and dilute to the mark with methanol. Store at 0-5 C in an amber coloured vial. Prepare every three months. 4.4 WORKING STANDARDS (0, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 ng/ml) Measure the volumes of 10 µg/ml mixed standard specified in the table below into 10 ml volumetric flasks. Make up to 10 ml with mobile phase (5.2.1) and mix. Prepare fresh weekly. Store in amber coloured vials in a refrigerator. Standard concentration (ng/ml) Volume of 10 µg/ml standard (to 10 ml final volume) Standard equivalent (µg/kg) µl 50 Page 4 of 6

5 µl µl µl µl PROCEDURES 5.1 CONTROL SAMPLES Weigh out 4 portions (3.00 ± 0.01 g) of minced negative tissue into 50 ml centrifuge tubes To 3 of the tubes, add 30 µl of the mixed intermediate standard (10 µg/ml, 4.3). This is equivalent to 100 µg/kg tissue Take the un-spiked portion of negative tissue through the procedure as blank Allow the spiked tissue samples to stand for 10 minutes before extracting. 5.2 EXTRACTION Weigh aliquots (3.00 ± 0.01 g) of mince tissue into 50 ml centrifuge tubes Add 0.5 ml HCl (0.1M) using and vortex for about 20 seconds Add 2 ± 0.01 grams Na 2 SO 4 and vortex for another 10 seconds. (Note: for chicken muscle: instead of sodium sulphate add 3 ml Milli-Q water and vortex at a low speed for 10 seconds) Add ethyl acetate (9 ml) and homogenize using Ultra-Turrax for 45 seconds. Cap the tube to prevent evaporation of ethyl acetate Centrifuge for 10 minutes at 4 o C at 2200 rpm Transfer aliquots (6 ml) of supernatant into 20 ml centrifuge tubes Evaporate to dryness under nitrogen stream with a pressure of about 2 psi and water bath temperature of 55 o C (TurboVap Zymark) Dissolve in methanol (100 µl) and vortex vigorously Add glacial acetic acid (40 µl) and vortex mix Add water (360 µl) and vortex mix Add hexane (2ml) and mix gently Centrifuge (2000 rpm, 4 C, 10 min) Aspirate about 200 µl of the aqueous (bottom) layer into micro-vials and inject into the HPLC/UV-Vis 6. HPLC ANALYSIS 6.1 ACQUISITION PARAMETERS LC flow rate : 1.2 ml/min Post-column pump flow rate : 0.5 ml/min Injection volume : 50 µl Run time : 21 min Page 5 of 6

6 6.1.5 Column temperature : 26 C Wavelength : 450 nm 6.2 Equilibrate the HPLC column by pumping mobile phase for 10 min prior to analysis. 6.3 Inject a 50 µl aliquot of 800 ng/ml working standard (6.3) to check peak retention times and resolution. 6.4 Run a standard curve (6.3) before and after the batch of samples. 6.5 The sulphonamides elute in the order shown below: Elution order Approximate retention time (min) Sulphadiazine 7.0 Sulphathiazole 7.8 Sulphapyridine 8.7 Sulphamerazine 9.9 Sulphamethazine 13.9 Sulphamethizole 14.6 Sulphamethoxypyridazine After analysis, flush the system with acetonitrile/water [1:1] (6.2.2) for at least 15 min. 7. CALCULATIONS 7.1 Results can be calculated using the linear regression function on a calculator. Calculate recoveries using the formula: % Recovery = [S] - [N] x 100 where [S] = the concentration found in the spiked negative [A] [N] = the concentration found in the negative [A] = the concentration added 8. ACCEPTABILITY OF TEST RESULTS 8.1 For duplicate samples, each replicate should be within ± 10% of the mean value. However, if the replicates are outside this range and the recoverycorrected results for both replicates are either above the MRL or below the MRL, the analyst/supervisor may exercise their professional judgement on whether to accept or reject the result. 8.2 Recovery values should all fall within ± 20% of the mean overall recovery value for that tissue, spiked at the MRL, calculated in the validation process. Page 6 of 6

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