Glossary of Internet Terms

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1 Glossary of Internet Terms block A setting in Instant Messengers that prevents those you have blocked from seeing when you are online, and keeps them from being able to message you. browser cache chat cookie Software that will load and display a web page. The principle browsers are Netscape, Microsoft Internet Explorer, Opera, and Mosaic. Browsers such as Netscape and Microsoft Internet Explorer hold copies of recently visited web files, in disk memory. A form of real-time electronic communications where participants type what they want to say, and it is repeated on the screens of all other participants in the same chat. Internet Relay Chat or IRC is an Internet protocol for chat, and there are many other chat systems in services like Delphi, Yahoo and AOL. Other commonly used programs are MSN, AIM and ICQ. A cookie is a short file put on your computer by a web page which includes information about your usage and facilitates the current interaction. For example, it may include the information that you have logged into a passworded area already in the current session and don't need a second password check. There are many uses for cookies. They may be erased at the end of a session or retained until the next session, and they may be encrypted or in plain text. domain name Domain name addresses, together with IP addresses, are the two forms of Internet addresses in common use. Domain name addresses all end with a correct top-level domain. The top-level domains may be any of com, edu, gov, int, ca, net, org, and many more. download To transfer a file from another computer to your own computer system via a network. 20

2 Electronic mail. One of the earliest standard Internet protocols which enables people with different computers and operating systems to communicate with each other. allows one-to-one or one-to-many mailings. Mail is received and held by a mail server within an organization or by an Internet service provider until the addressee logs on to collect the mail. firewall Firewall refers to the concept of a security interface or gateway between a closed network and the outside Internet that blocks or manages communications in and out of the network. The security may be provided by passwords, authentication techniques, software, and hardware. flaming FTP GIF hacker history hit Writing angry or insulting words about a person. It is most often applied to newsgroups and threads, but it can apply to mailing lists and other forms of public messaging. File Transfer Protocol. The Internet protocol that permits you to transfer files between your computer and another computer. Graphical Interchange Format. A bitmap graphical format originally developed for CompuServe that is widely used in WWW pages. It is particularly good for text art, cartoon art, poster art, and line drawings- -all types with solid colors and distinct lines or borders between different colors. GIF files use a.gif extension. Originally, a hacker was a term of respect among computer designers, programmers, and engineers for those among them who created truly original and ingenious programs, devices, or sometimes very clever practical jokes. Unfortunately, the current popular meaning of the term is to describe those who break into systems, destroy data, steal copyrighted software, and perform other destructive or illegal acts with computers and networks.. List of sites recently visited, saved in the browser. In search terminology, every listing a search engine returns from a search is called a hit. home page HTML A home page is a web page. In most familiar terms, it is a personal page for an individual. It can also be the basic main page for a more complex web site for individuals, organizations, or web communities. It also refers to the first page loaded when a browser opens. HyperText Markup Language. A coding system used to create WWW pages. 21

3 http hub HyperText Transfer Protocol. It is the main protocol used on the World Wide Web that enables linking to other web sites. Addressing to other web pages begins with " and is followed by the domain name or IP address. A device that connects the cables from computers and other devices such as printers in an ethernet local area network. hypertext A form of text which includes visible links to other pages of text or media, accessible by clicking or selecting the links. Instant Messaging IP Real-time conversation, similar to chat, but usually person-to-person, rather than in public groups. You must be invited into the conversation, you cannot just join without permission. Examples are MSN Messenger, ICQ, AIM as well as features within online games. Internet Protocol. See TCP/IP IP address IRC ISDN ISP JPEG link IP addresses, together with domain addresses are the two forms of Internet addresses in common use. IP addresses consist of four numbers between 0 and 255, separated by periods. For example, Internet Relay Chat. An Internet protocol that allows people all over the world to meet in conference groups (called channels) and chat with each other by keying. Integrated Services Digital Network. A technology that carries data over phone. Internet Service Provider. Those companies that provide access to the Internet. Joint Photographic Experts Group, a graphical format that is widely used in WWW pages. These files end with.jpg. An active connection to another web page, location in a web page, file, or other Internet resource. Selecting the link takes you to the new location or resource. mailbomb Flood a single address with a high volume of mail. Used to retaliate against an individual or organization that has bothered the sender(s) in some way. Please note that the practice violates all Internet Service Provider user agreements and wastes bandwidth and resources. Its effects go far beyond the annoyance to the addressee. 22

4 netiquette Short for net etiquette. The basic principles of courtesy and consideration for others that can keep communication on the Internet a pleasure for all. newbie or newby A newcomer to the nets, who reveals his or her inexperience by lack of knowledge of net conventions, netiquette, vocabulary, and know-how. newsgroup POP pop-up See Usenet Newsgroups Post Office Protocol. A protocol for client-server A window that appears without being requested, when you load a particular site. Often they are used for advertising, and can become an irritant. portal A gateway or entrance to the web. In common usage it has come to describe a starting point page with a hierarchical, topical directory, a search window, and added features like news headlines and stock quotes. protocol A standard for the exchange of information. Different computers and operating systems and software are able to communicate with each other on the Internet, because of the adoption of protocols. proxy server router A proxy server is a process that acts like a switchboard through a firewall to manage the various types of permitted communications with the outside world. A router connects networks together, controlling the routing of packets from source to destination and providing alternate paths when necessary. search engine site SMTP A utility that will search the Internet, a site, or a database for terms that you select. A host on the Internet which allows remote access by such protocols as http, ftp, telnet or gopher. A site may consist of a single page or many pages under a common site name. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. The protocol used to send mail between servers and to send mail from your client to a mail server. 23

5 social engineering spam surf A cracker term for tricking users of a system to reveal passwords so that the cracker can gain entry to the system. A common technique is to contact users in chat or on a system, pretend that they are employees of the system performing security checks, and insist that the users give their password to prove who they are or their account will be closed. Such requests are never legitimate! Social engineering schemes can be quite ingenious and convincing and more subtle than the simple technique above. Never reveal a password or even give hints what it may be. Flooding many inappropriate newsgroups or mailing lists or your mailbox with off- topic articles--usually ads or promotions. It is a major violation of netiquette, and if you try it, it violates your member agreement in most places and can lead to account cancellation. TCP/IP To explore the Internet without any more specific a purpose than to see what is out there. Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. The protocols that are the basis for transmitting and routing data packets on the Internet. The Internet Protocol is the one thing that all current Internet sites have in common temp files These files are all the pages and pictures from all the sites you ever visit, which remain on your computers until you delete your temporary files in you browser. upload To transfer a file from your computer system to another system via a network. urban legend URL An oft-told tale on the Internet that is untrue, but refuses to die. They keep reappearing in newsgroups, discussion lists, and message bases. Uniform Resource Locator. URLs specify the location of a resource in the Internet. Usenet Newsgroups virus Usenet Newsgroups are discussion groups about a topic that is reflected in their titles, such as comp.sys.ibm.pc.games.adventure or sci.astro.hubble. There are eight major primary series of newsgroups: comp, humanities, misc, news, rec, sci, soc, and talk. Newsgroups in the eight primary series are only created after a formal approval process, which includes formal discussion and voting. A destructive program that has the ability to reproduce itself and infect other programs or disks. Typically a virus will not show itself immediately, but will add itself to programs and disks to spread itself widely on many computers before it is triggered into its destructive phase. The best defense is to run anti-virus software and use it on a regular basis. Anti-virus software should be updated monthly. World Wide Web (WWW) The World Wide Web is an Internet protocol that makes use of the HTML, hypertext and hypermedia to create pages with links to other pages. WWW pages can include graphics, audio, and video as well as text. 24

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