PULP AND PAPER MAKING WASTES, TREATMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS

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1 PULP AND PAPER MAKING WASTES, TREATMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS BIOPROA Departamento de Ingeniería de Reactores Liliana Borzacconi María Noel Cabrera Facultad de Ingeniería Universidad de la República

2 In Pulp & Paper making industry large amounts of water are used (it is ranked in the first positions in the world regarding water use) Wastewater may contain: Cellulose fibers, carbohydrates, lignin, Nitrogen, Phosphorus and other materials added along the industrial process

3 Due to the large amount of water used in the industrial processes, recycling is mandatory and recirculation of the process waters is nowadays a common practice However, water reuse may lead to organic and inorganic concentration and this can affect the production process

4

5

6 EFFLUENT GENERATION PER ADT Flow discharge (m 3 /ADt) 3,5 3,0 2,5 2,0 1,5 1,0 0,5 0,0 BOD 5 (kg/adt)

7 EFFLUENT GENERATION PER ADT 0,14 0,12 0,10 0,08 0,06 0,04 0,02 0,00 Total Phosphorous (kg P/ADt) 0,40 0,35 0,30 0,25 0,20 0,15 0,10 0,05 0,00 AOX (kg/adt)

8 EFFLUENT GENERATION AT DIFFERENT STAGES Department Flow TSS BOD AOX COD P N Unit m 3 /ADt Kg / ADt Kg / ADt Kg / ADt Kg / ADt g / ADt Kg / ADt Debarking Washing and screening Bleaching Condensates Others Total (Dahl,2008)

9 Pulping is the initial stage of the paper making industry and is the largest source of pollution The characteristics of the wastewater generated depends on the type of process, type of wood, process technology, management practices, internal recirculation and the amount of water used As a consequence treatment methods vary

10 EFFLUENT MEAN VALUES COD BOD TSS N tot P tot AOX Kg/ADt mg/l Achieved annual average emission levels after secondary treatment from Bleach Kraft Pulp mills employing ECF bleaching. (EIPPCB, 2001)

11 SEWAGE MEAN VALUES COD BOD TSS N tot P tot P& P (mg/l) Raw Sewage (mg/l)

12 A FEW REMARKS ABOUT P CONTENT Eutrophication in water sources was observed in Uruguay and in the present year due to high concentrations of nutrients (Nitrogen and Phosphorous) important growing of algae's were detected As a consequence, reduction of amounts of these nutrients in effluents discharge, has been a big concern to the environmental authorities Even in absence of Nitrogen, if Phosphorous is present, algae growth occurs because Nitrogen can be obtained from the atmosphere, then Phosphorous concentration in discharges must be minimized

13 In addition it is known that P content in eucalyptus is higher than in other woods, and in Uruguay this is the wood used Because of that, no addition of P is allowed at the activated sludge treatment systems even the addition could improve the system efficiency

14 PHOSPHOROUS CONTENT PRESENT IN EFFLUENTS sewage: 6 20 mg/l Slaughterhouses: mg/l P & P: 0.9 mg/l Decreto 253/79: Desagües a cursos de agua Total Phosphorous: max. 5 mg /L

15 DO THE EXISTING TREATMENT SYSTEMS WORK OK? P&P treated effluents normally accomplish concentration limits specified in environmental regulations for BOD, COD, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, adsorbable organic halogens (AOX), ph, ammonia, nitrate, sulphide, oil and grease, and dioxin and furan. Nevertheless, it must be taken into account that due to the large amounts of effluent discharged, the impact on environment could be important (comparable with sewage discharges)

16 Impacts should be measure taking into account the basin involved. In Uruguay basins were P& P plants are located receive sewage, industrial effluents, diffuse contamination (e.g. agroindustrial residues) some of them without treatment

17 TREATMENT SYSTEMS

18 BEST AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGIES

19 BEST AVAILABLE TECHNIQUES NOT ENTAILING EXCESSIVE COST Treatment of pulp and paper mill effluent 1. Primary clarification 2. Secondary treatment (aerobic, anaerobic) 3. Tertiary treatment

20 WASTEWATER TREATMENT Physicochemical Sedimentation/Flotation Coagulation and precipitation (tertiary treatment) Adsorption (color removal) Membrane filtration (removal of AOX, COD and color) Biological Aerobic Anaerobic Anaerobic+aerobic

21 BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS Aerobic Systems Organic matter + O 2 (energy) CO 2 + new cells Examples Activated Sludge (liquid waste) Composting (solid waste) Anaerobic Systems Organic matter CH 4 + CO 2 + new cells Examples UASB (liquid waste) Anaerobic Digester (solid waste)

22 ENERGY AND C BALANCES

23 ENERGY AND C BALANCES

24 BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS Anaerobic Digestion: No energy consumption and biogas The generated solids are stabilized and can be used in land application Green house gases can be recovered avoiding uncontrolled emissions Nutrients requirements are lower (N y P) Accepted technology all over the world Combined with aerobic systems can achieve regulations parameters regarding organic matter and N

25 SUSTAINABILITY CRITERION FOR CHOOSING EFFLUENTS TREATMENT SYSTEMS High removal efficiencies on COD/BOD, suspended solids, N, P, etc. Stable Technology : adequate response to energy cuts, overloads, toxics, etc. Flexible factory enlargement Simple: maintenance, operation and control Few stages of treatment

26 SUSTAINABILITY CRITERION FOR CHOOSING EFFLUENTS TREATMENT SYSTEMS No disposal problems No odors generation Applicable at different sizes Local experience required Adequate capital and operational costs Byproducts recovery

27 P & P TREATMENT SYSTEMS

28 P&P AEROBIC OR ANAEROBIC, A+A? 30 years ago only aerobic systems were applied to pulp and paper industries Since earliest 1980s anaerobic treatment systems has become a well established technology and nowadays there are over 200 anaerobic treatment plants has been constructed to treat pulp an paper mill effluents

29 AEROBIC ACTIVATED SLUDGE

30 AEROBIC ACTIVATED SLUDGE Process conditions Hydraulic Retention Time : 4 8 hours (for conventional systems) Sludge age: 5 25 days Dissolved oxygen concentration: ppm BOD:N:P : 100 : : Temperature : ºC Load ( F/M ) (kg BOD/kg sludge) Normal loads Extended aeration Low load process

31 Failure of treatment systems: Poor settlement properties of the sludge (filamentous microorganisms) Produces release of suspended solids, nitrogen and phosphorous (eutrophication of water bodies)

32 ANAEROBIC SYSTEMS First anaerobic treatment plants installed were CSTR UASB (granular biomass) with loading rates 2-5 times than CSTR process EGSB and IC (granular biomass) in last years application of fluidized bed has been increased and now is a consolidated technology With the development of EGSB and IC reactors treatment of diluted effluents has become economically feasible

33 CSTR AND UASB Mass balance of the anaerobic contact process Up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor

34 ANAEROBIC GRANULES

35 EGSB AND IC EGSB Expanded Granular Sludge Bed IC Internal Circulation

36 DESIGN PARAMETERS Reactor Organic loading rate (KgCOD/m 3 d) CSTR 1 5 UASB 5 15 EGSB IC 20 30

37 ANAEROBIC + AEROBIC Many anaerobic reactors are installed as pretreatment of an aerobic activated sludge one Using a combination: anaerobic+aerobic treatment: biogas production, reduction of bio-sludge generated, small footprint, low emission of greenhouse gases and the aerobic post-treatment allow to reach the regulation parameters

38 Most of the anaerobic reactors for P&P were built in Europe The first anaerobic reactors were constructed to treat paper mill effluents. Now there are successful applications mechanical and to semi-chemical and chemical pulp mill

39 TYPICAL ENERGY BALANCE AT RECYCLE PAPER MILL Complete aerobic treatment (MJ/ADt) Combined anaerobic/aerobic (MJ/ADt) Energy savins difference (MJ/ADt) Energy production Energy consumption Total balance (Habets and Driessen, 2007)

40 TYPICAL SLUDGE PRODUCTION PER ADT PRODUCED (RECYCLE PAPER MILL) Solids production Complete aerobic treatment (kgts/adt) Combined anaerobic/aerobic ( kgts(adt) Sludge savings (kgts/adt) Biosolids (aerobic) Inert solids (fibres) Total sludge (Habets and Driessen 2007)

41 TERTIARY TREATMENT Even when emission levels after secondary treatment meet the established standards, Phosphorous release is relevant because of eutrophication Because of that, no P addition is allowed in the A S system and tertiary treatment should be considered as an option Nevertheless, values of the baseline must be taken into account. Also tertiary treatment should be discussed because of chemicals addition

42 Year 2013 Over 40 papers on international journals

43 THANKS!!! MUCHAS GRACIAS!!!

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