Pulp and Paper Testing

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1 Papermaking Science and Technology a series of 19 books covering the latest technology and future trends Book 17 Pulp and Paper Testing Series editors Johan Gullichsen, Helsinki University of Technology Hannu Paulapuro, Helsinki University of Technology Book editors Jan-Erik Levlin Liva Söderhjelm Series reviewer Brian Attwood, St. Anne s Paper and Paperboard Developments, Ltd. Book reviewer James C. Abbott Published in cooperation with the Finnish Paper Engineers' Association and TAPPI

2 Table of Contents 1. Aim of pulp and paper testing Single fiber properties Papermaking properties of pulp Properties of recycled pulps Fluff pulps Chemical analysis of pulps General physical properties of paper and board Optical properties of paper End-use properties of printing papers End-use properties of packaging papers and boards Hygiene papers Permanent papers Reliability of results in physical testing of pulp and paper Standardization in pulp and paper testing APPENDIX Conversion factors Index

3 CHAPTER 1 Aim of pulp and paper testing 1 Why test pulp and paper products? Selecting proper tests and analyses Process analysis Product analysis Examples of selecting tests Defining tests for use in a process control system Defining tests for use in process and equipment development Defining tests to be used for describing paper products Testing vs. characterization References

4 CHAPTER 2 Single fiber properties 1 Introduction Identification of pulp fibers Identification of wood species Identification of different types of pulp Fiber dimensions and their variations Variations in wood fiber dimensions Variations in pulp fiber dimensions Measurement of fiber dimensions Fiber length Fiber width and fiber wall thickness Fiber properties Stiffness Fiber surface fibrillation Fiber wall porosity Single fiber strength Evaluation of single fiber strength from zero-span tensile strength measurement Quantification of fiber deformations Reasons for single fiber measurements References

5 CHAPTER 3 Papermaking properties of pulp 1 Traditional laboratory testing procedure Handling pulp before the experiments Dry matter content of pulp Stock consistency Disintegration of pulp Laboratory beating of chemical pulp Classical laboratory beaters Laboratory refiners Dewatering properties of pulps Analysis of fiber length, coarseness, and strength Preparation of laboratory sheets Laboratory wet pressing Drying of laboratory sheets Calendering of laboratory sheets Conditioning and testing of laboratory sheets Evaluating the papermaking potential of pulps Traditional pulp evaluation Problems of the traditional pulp evaluation method Use of property pairs for pulp comparison Quality potential of chemical pulps Mechanical pulps Furnish optimization Optimization problems using single pulp testing Testing strategy for ranking pulps Product analysis Process analysis Furnish optimization procedure Evaluation of furnish optimization method References

6 CHAPTER 4 Properties of recycled pulps 1 Introduction Quality aspects of recovered paper Sample preparation and testing of recovered paper Stock characteristics Ash Stickies Beating behavior Strength properties Optical properties Cleanliness of pulp and filtrates Dirt specks and residual ink Filtrate properties Testing of paper products Ink detachment Deinking Flotation Washing References

7 CHAPTER 5 Fluff pulps 1 Introduction Testing of basic pulp properties Pulp properties measured from the original pulp sheet in the dry state Brightness Moisture content Basis weight, thickness, and sheet density Bursting strength Extractives Pulp properties measured in wet state Freeness and ph Fiber morphology (Fiber length, amount of fines, coarseness, and fiber curl) Testing of fluff properties Specific shredding energy Dry and wet network strength Knot content Absorption tests developed by SCAN-test: absorption capacity, absorption time, and specific volume Other test methods Demand wettability Absorption and retention Vertical wicking Rewetting tests Liquid acquisition MTS acquisition test Testing of acquisition and rewetting by Kanga testing apparatus Consumer tests compared with laboratory tests References

8 CHAPTER 6 Chemical analysis of pulps 1 Introduction Dry matter content Carbohydrates Carbohydrate composition Pentosans Division of carbohydrates according to alkali solubility Determination of carbohydrate molecular mass and degree of polymerization Different molecular masses, polydispersity Viscosity measurements Gel permeation chromatography Functional groups present in carbohydrates Carbonyl groups Carboxyl groups Uronic acids Carbohydrate studies using FTIR spectroscopy Lignin Quantitative determination of lignin Degree of delignification Characterization of lignin Methoxyl groups Sulfonic acid groups Phenolic hydroxyl groups Molecular mass distribution Spectroscopic methods Pyrolysis Organic extractives Total extractives Analysis of extractives Fiber surface composition Dirt and shives in pulp Color reversion Inorganic matter Ash and its components Chlorine compounds Other elements

9 CHAPTER Properties and components of water extracts ph and conductivity of water extracts of pulp Water soluble sulfates and chlorides Estimation of washing efficiency Analysis of dissolving pulps Future of chemical analyses References

10 CHAPTER 7 General physical properties of paper and board 1 Preparations for testing Sampling Conditioning Basic properties Strength properties Tensile strength Bursting strength Internal tearing resistance, tearing strength Folding endurance Zero-span tensile strength Surface strength Z-directional strength of paper Stiffness properties Tensile stiffness Bending stiffness Stiffness by the resonance method Determination of stiffness properties by sonic testing Structural properties Surface properties Absorption properties References

11 CHAPTER 8 Optical properties of paper 1 Interactions of light and paper Gloss Reflectance measurements Basic concepts Numerical description of lightness and color ISO brightness, R Y value Whiteness Opacity Light scattering and light absorption coefficient Measuring the reflectance of fluorescent materials Equipment Methods of measurement Instrumental factors influencing test results References

12 CHAPTER 9 End-use properties of printing papers 1 Runnability Runnability in web printing Paper strength and strain profiles Cracking Blistering Runnability in sheet fed printing Curl Static electricity Bending stiffness Dimensional stability Heat induced curl Drying of paper Cockling Testing of time dependent runnability problems Linting (or dusting) and picking Piling (carry-over piling) Printability and print quality General paper quality Roughness Gloss variation Absorption properties Surface chemistry of paper Testing of printability and print quality on a laboratory scale Some examples of laboratory scale printability and print quality tests Full-scale printing trials References

13 CHAPTER 10 End-use properties of packaging papers and boards 1 Introduction Strength and stiffness properties Strength properties Bending stiffness Compression resistance tests Creasability Tests for corrugated fiberboard Effect of humidity and viscoelastic behavior of paper and board Protection and barrier properties Paper and board as food packaging materials Sensory analysis Migration tests Analyses of extracts Microbiological properties Future demands References

14 CHAPTER 11 Hygiene papers 1 Sampling and conditioning Curing Grammage (Basis weight) Thickness Absorbency properties Tensile strength and stretch Wet tensile strength Softness Other properties of tissue References

15 CHAPTER 12 Permanent papers 1 Historical aspects Requirements and tests for permanence Composition and properties Accelerated aging Categories of permanent papers References

16 CHAPTER 13 Reliability of results in physical testing of pulp and paper 1 Introduction Importance of knowing the uncertainty of measurement Uncertainty, repeatability, and reproducibility Procedure for evaluating and expressing the uncertainty of measurement Basic procedure Practical application for pulp and paper testing Main components of uncertainty in pulp and paper testing Material and sampling Test method used Equipment Test environment Personnel Size of the uncertainty, repeatability, and reproducibility in different measurements Summary References

17 CHAPTER 14 Standardization in pulp and paper testing 1 Introduction Standardization bodies ISO General aspects Development of a standard ISO work related to pulp, paper, and board CEN General aspects Development of standards CEN work related to pulp, paper, and board Industrial branch standards SCAN-test TAPPI Benefit of standards References

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